Use either a G-test or a chi-square test

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Category:
Statistics
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Question description

Many animals respond to fire by seeking cover, and most of the time they are likely responding to either visual cues (sight of flames), thermal cues (heat), or chemical cues (smoke). Grafe et al. (2002) wanted to see if auditory cues (the sound of the fire) might also lead to a change in behavior. They studied juvenile reed frogs (Hyperolius nitidulus) in specialized arenas, and recorded their response to one of three sounds: (1) a recording of a fire moving through the forest floor (Fire); (2) this same sound, but played backward (Reverse Fire); (3) white noise (a constant hum), which served as a control (White Noise). For each frog, they recorded whether it moved away from the sound or not; the latter category included no movement or movement toward the sound. The data for each frog is given below:

Type of Sound

Direction

Type of Sound

Direction

Type of Sound

Direction

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

not away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

Fire

not away

Reverse Fire

not away

White Noise

not away

A)  Use these data to set up a contingency table. Then use either a G-test or a chi-square test of independence to analyze this contingency table. You must provide your row and column totals and the expected values for each cell in the table.

B)  From these data, does it look like either one or both of the factors (type of sound or frog response) was fixed by the researchers? Be sure to explain your reasoning

Tutor Answer

(Top Tutor) Daniel C.
(997)
School: Rice University
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