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ORIGINAL QUESTION:

Developmental Research Methods

There are a number of research designs that are used in developmental research. As discussed in your textbook, longitudinal and cross-sectional research is used to assess developmental change and to explore developmental topics and changes over time.

Go to the KU Online Library and select either a longitudinal or cross-sectional research article. What is the research question, and how did the researcher(s) attempt to answer this research question? Prior to discussing the steps involved, be sure to name the research method, which should be eitherlongitudinal or cross sectional. Finally, use caution when directly quoting from the article, ensure that you are summarizing using your own words.

Based on the information in your text, what ethical issues should you consider when conducting a research study with children? Identify at least two ethical issues described in your text.

Think about what you would like to learn about developmental change; then create your own research question that would require using either a longitudinal or cross-sectional methodology.

STUDENT 1 Response:

What is the research question, and how did the researcher(s) attempt to answer this research question?

The question that was asked by the researchers was:

  ”Addresses the gap between coping strategies in relation to critical adolescent characteristics.”

The study: cross-sectional and longitudinal.

   92 mothers and their children who have developmental disabilities.

  The study overall was designed to look at how the emotions and mood of the mother affected the child with DD. An while most of the information that was gather did indeed support the hypothesis when you read the article you can help but feel like more really does need to be done. By this I mean that mothers are projecting their depression, anxiety symptoms off onto their children, which we already know can happen even when the child doesn’t have DD issues. However the added complications of DD only increases the maternal feelings of failure, and when a parent feels as though they have failed as a parent that emotion is projected to the child. The article suggest the following; “Active Coping/Planning and Positive Reinterpretation/Growth as coping strategies among mothers of adolescents with higher levels of behavior problems.” (Woodman, 2013) Now for us we would think of this as more of a fairly obvious concept, however when you really start to think about parenting and how different parenting style has changed from when we were children to how it is now we see how the concept of positive parenting has come about.

Based on the information in your text, what ethical issues should you consider when conducting a research study with children? Identify at least two ethical issues described in your text.

  According to the text there are 7 ethical guidelines that need to be followed when working with children. The two that I find to be the most important are; nonharmful procedures, and deception (Bukatko, 2008).

  Nonharmful procedures is the concept that we as investigators cannot cause any physical or psychological harm. If the child is going to be exposed to some sort of stressful event then there needs to be a diagnostic or therapeutic reason for the stress to be imposed.

  Deception is when we as the investigator has to keep information from the child, however we do need to make very clear to the child at the end of the study why we had to keep the information from them.

Think about what you would like to learn about developmental change; then create your own research question that would require using either a longitudinal or cross-sectional methodology.

  Something that I would like to research:

  How a child is affect by repeated parental military deployments, consisting of 4 or more deployments with less than 2 years home time in between deployments.

  The reason that I would like to learn more about this and why I think that this would make a good longitudinal study is because there are so many military men who are being deployed every other year, who do have children. We do not really know what the long term effect of these multiple deployments are going to have on these children, like we do on the multitude of moves that a military family has to go through.

References

Bukatko, D. (2008). Child and adolescent development: A chronological approach. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Woodman, A. C.-C. (2013, June). The role of coping strategies in predicting change in parenting efficacy and depressive symptoms among mothers of adolescents with developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(6), 513-530.

STUDENT 2 RESPONSE

The study was researching sex differences in personality. The study focused on two possible sources that may or may not be an inconsistency for sex differences in personality.  Those sources were culture and age.  The researchers attempted to answer the question by doing a cross sectional study.  They used adolescents age twelve to seventeen and twenty-three different cultures.  The testing they used was the NEO-PI-3.  This is a personality test that measures the five major domains of personality and six facets within each domain.  It is considered a gold standard in personality testing.  The researchers used mostly undergraduate college students in each country to collect data from children within the age group that the informant knew and only one test was given to each informant.  The adolescents that participated in the study remained anonymous and the study was voluntary.  

Ethical issues to consider when conducting research on children would be several, but two that stand out are informed consent and non-harmful procedures.  Informed consent is making sure the child is told of all the features of the research that may affect the child being willing to participate.  The child has the right to stop the participation at any time during the study.  (Bukatko, 2008, p.64).  Non-harmful procedures is making sure the researcher cannot use any procedure that could cause physical, emotional harm to the child.  The least stressful research option available whenever possible.

I would like to see a longitudinal study on children with mental health diagnosis such as bi-polar disorder will need to continue with medications and therapy through their adolescences.  The reason I am interested in this information is that I have seen a few children in our area that have been on medication that “outgrew” their disorder.

De Bolle, M., De Fruyt, F., McCrae, R. R., Löckenhoff, C. E., Costa, P. J., Aguilar-Vafaie, M. E., & ... Terracciano, A. (2015). The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 108(1), 171-185. doi:10.1037/a0038497

Bukatko, D. (2008). Child and adolescent development. A chronological approach. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin


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