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Question description

each argumentative passage will be relevant to five questions.

There are four passages and twenty questions total.


QUESTION 1

  1. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more.  It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge.  And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges—that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible.  Well, now, think of that.

    No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves.  But in the end human nature must reassert itself.  The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Jane Addams, 1915, “The Revolt Against War,” The Survey, 34 (July 17), p. 359).

    The conclusion of the above argument appears to be implied.  It is best reconstructed by which of the following statements?

     a.

     b.

    Using human understanding and human kindliness, we need to speak out against the craze of militarism and nationalism leading to war, which is a horrible thing.

     c.

    The best method to launch a successful bayonet charge is to provide the soldiers with stimulants before the charge.

     d.

    Neutrality in war is a fanatical loss of one’s national sense.

     e.

    Militarism and national feeling are ideals worth fighting for using bayonet charges.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 2

  1. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more.  It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge.  And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges—that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible.  Well, now, think of that.

    No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves.  But in the end human nature must reassert itself.  The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Jane Addams, 1915, “The Revolt Against War,” The Survey, 34 (July 17), p. 359).


    Which of the following statements weakens the argument as it is presented?

     a.

     b.

    All warring nations are equally responsible for the war.

     c.

    A neutral nation during a war does not necessarily fail to speak out against war.

     d.

    Jane Addams was a woman and could not fight in the war in 1915.

     e.

    The use of stimulants by soldiers before bayonet charges was voluntary.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 3

  1. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more.  It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge.  And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges—that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible.  Well, now, think of that.

    No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves.  But in the end human nature must reassert itself.  The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Jane Addams, 1915, “The Revolt Against War,” The Survey, 34 (July 17), p. 359).


    Jane Addams says, “Now think of that.”  What is the most plausible meaning of this rhetorical charge?

     a.

     b.

    “Think of the fact that no one knows who is responsible for the current war.”

     c.

    “Think of how foolish militarism is as an ideal.”

     d.

    “Think of the ideal of peace.”

     e.

    “Think of how fanatical nationalism really is.”

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 4

  1. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more.  It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge.  And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges—that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible.  Well, now, think of that.

    No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves.  But in the end human nature must reassert itself.  The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Jane Addams, 1915, “The Revolt Against War,” The Survey, 34 (July 17), p. 359).


    What is the most plausible assessment of Jane Addams’s opinion of “fanaticism” and “national feeling?”

     a.

     b.

    Fanaticism and national feelings are neither good nor bad.  It depends on whether you are French, English, or German.

     c.

    Losing one’s sense in fanaticism and national feeling is the only way to end the war.

     d.

    Losing one’s sense in fanaticism and national feeling perpetuates war.

     e.

    Neutral nations are fanatical and lost in their national feelings.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 5

  1. “The old notion that you can drive a belief into a man at the point of a bayonet is in force once more.  It is quite as foolish to think that if militarism is an idea and an ideal, it can be changed and crushed by counter-militarism or by a bayonet charge.  And the young men in these various countries say of the bayonet charges: ‘That is what we cannot not think of.’ We heard in all countries similar statements in regard to the necessity of the use of stimulants before men would engage in bayonet charges—that they have a regular formula in Germany, that they give them rum in England and absinthe in France; that they all have to give them ‘dope’ before the bayonet charge is possible.  Well, now, think of that.

    No one knows who is responsible for the war; all the warring nations are responsible, and they indict themselves.  But in the end human nature must reassert itself.  The old elements of human understanding and human kindliness among them must come to the fore, and then it may well be that they will reproach the neutral nations and will say: ‘What was the matter with the rest of the world that you kept quiet while this horrible thing was happening, and our men for a moment had lost their senses in this fanaticism of national feeling all over Europe?’” (Jane Addams, 1915, “The Revolt Against War,” The Survey, 34 (July 17), p. 359).

    What is the most plausible assessment of Jane Addams’s opinion of “human nature,” “human understanding,” and “human kindliness?”

     a.

     b.

    It is human nature is to fight wars.  Human understanding is the way we figure this out.  Human kindliness is best suppressed by the use of stimulants.

     c.

    Human understanding has reached the point that we know that human kindliness must come to the fore against human nature.

     d.

    Human nature includes both masculine understanding and feminine kindliness.

     e.

    Human nature includes human understanding and human kindliness and, by coming to the fore, will offer a better counter to militarism than counter-militarism.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 6

  1. “Historicism asserts that all human thoughts or beliefs are historical, and hence deservedly destined to perish; but historicism itself is a human thought; hence historicism can be of only temporary validity, or it cannot be simply true.  To assert the historicist thesis means to doubt it and thus to transcend [go beyond] it” (Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History, p. 25).

    An accurate reconstruction of a premise in the argument is that:

     a.

     b.

    Historicism is a doubtful position.

     c.

    Historicism is subject to the same limitations it asserts of other human thoughts.

     d.

    All humans will eventually perish.

     e.

    True human thought perished at some point in history.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 7

  1. “Historicism asserts that all human thoughts or beliefs are historical, and hence deservedly destined to perish; but historicism itself is a human thought; hence historicism can be of only temporary validity, or it cannot be simply true.  To assert the historicist thesis means to doubt it and thus to transcend [go beyond] it” (Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History, p. 25).


    An accurate reconstruction of the conclusion is:

     a.

     b.

    If historicism is true, it is false.

     c.

    Historicism is the only universal truth.

     d.

    Historicism proves that there is no universal truth.

     e.

    All human thought is historical.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 8

  1. “Historicism asserts that all human thoughts or beliefs are historical, and hence deservedly destined to perish; but historicism itself is a human thought; hence historicism can be of only temporary validity, or it cannot be simply true.  To assert the historicist thesis means to doubt it and thus to transcend [go beyond] it” (Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History, p. 25).

    An assumption of the argument is that:

     a.

     b.

    Temporary validity is good enough for human history.

     c.

    All humans have thoughts and most are about history.

     d.

    Doubting something proves that it is false.

     e.

    A thesis is just someone’s opinion.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 9

  1. “Historicism asserts that all human thoughts or beliefs are historical, and hence deservedly destined to perish; but historicism itself is a human thought; hence historicism can be of only temporary validity, or it cannot be simply true.  To assert the historicist thesis means to doubt it and thus to transcend [go beyond] it” (Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History, p. 25).

    The argument would be weakened if:

     a.

     b.

    There is no such thing as destiny.

     c.

    Some theses can simply be true.

     d.

    All human thoughts are historical but not necessarily destined to perish.

     e.

    Some thoughts are not human at all.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 10

  1. “Historicism asserts that all human thoughts or beliefs are historical, and hence deservedly destined to perish; but historicism itself is a human thought; hence historicism can be of only temporary validity, or it cannot be simply true.  To assert the historicist thesis means to doubt it and thus to transcend [go beyond] it” (Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History, p. 25).


    What follows from the argument?

     a.

     b.

    Some theses are simply true.

     c.

    Some theses are not about history.

     d.

    Some theses should not be doubted.

     e.

    Some theses transcend common sense.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 11

  1. Rice Nirvana, a dessert restaurant in lower Manhattan, has recently suffered a serious downturn in its business.  This unique establishment, the only one whose menu consists only of rice pudding (but in 32 different flavors), has been very successful ever since it opened a decade ago.  But a recent health scare has cut its business in half.  For many years, an increasingly larger percentage of young Americans have suffered from strokes, and a recent major study has correlated this increase with the consumption of genetically modified rice.  Immediately after that report came out, Rice Nirvana’s patrons stopped showing up.

    Denard Denton, the owner of Rice Nirvana, could replace his unique menu with a conventional one, offering ice cream, cake and the like.  If he did so, however, his restaurant would soon go out of business, for it is the quirkiness of his food offerings that attracts his customers.  He could also switch to heritage rice (that is, rice that has been certified as not having been genetically modified).  That sort of rice, however, costs four times as much.  In order to stay in business, however, he must do just that, and he must let his customers know that Rice Nirvana now offers desserts prepared from safe ingredients.

    What is the main conclusion?

     a.

     b.

    People should stop eating rice just to be safe.

     c.

    Denard Denton needs to replace genetically modified rice with heritage rice.

     d.

    Eating genetically modified rice helps cause strokes.

     e.

    Running a business in lower Manhattan is highly stressful.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 12

  1. Rice Nirvana, a dessert restaurant in lower Manhattan, has recently suffered a serious downturn in its business.  This unique establishment, the only one whose menu consists only of rice pudding (but in 32 different flavors), has been very successful ever since it opened a decade ago.  But a recent health scare has cut its business in half.  For many years, an increasingly larger percentage of young Americans have suffered from strokes, and a recent major study has correlated this increase with the consumption of genetically modified rice.  Immediately after that report came out, Rice Nirvana’s patrons stopped showing up.

    Denard Denton, the owner of Rice Nirvana, could replace his unique menu with a conventional one, offering ice cream, cake and the like.  If he did so, however, his restaurant would soon go out of business, for it is the quirkiness of his food offerings that attracts his customers.  He could also switch to heritage rice (that is, rice that has been certified as not having been genetically modified).  That sort of rice, however, costs four times as much.  In order to stay in business, however, he must do just that, and he must let his customers know that Rice Nirvana now offers desserts prepared from safe ingredients.

    What would undermine the argument?

     a.

     b.

    If it were shown that eating genetically modified rice is also correlated with the early onset of Alzheimers.

     c.

    If it were shown that New Yorkers are health-conscious.

     d.

    If it were shown that the study correlating the consumption of genetically modified rice with strokes was seriously flawed.

     e.

    If it were shown that some of the flavors at Rice Nirvana were already unpopular.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 13

  1. Rice Nirvana, a dessert restaurant in lower Manhattan, has recently suffered a serious downturn in its business.  This unique establishment, the only one whose menu consists only of rice pudding (but in 32 different flavors), has been very successful ever since it opened a decade ago.  But a recent health scare has cut its business in half.  For many years, an increasingly larger percentage of young Americans have suffered from strokes, and a recent major study has correlated this increase with the consumption of genetically modified rice.  Immediately after that report came out, Rice Nirvana’s patrons stopped showing up.

    Denard Denton, the owner of Rice Nirvana, could replace his unique menu with a conventional one, offering ice cream, cake and the like.  If he did so, however, his restaurant would soon go out of business, for it is the quirkiness of his food offerings that attracts his customers.  He could also switch to heritage rice (that is, rice that has been certified as not having been genetically modified).  That sort of rice, however, costs four times as much.  In order to stay in business, however, he must do just that, and he must let his customers know that Rice Nirvana now offers desserts prepared from safe ingredients.

    The argument assumes without stating one of the following:

     a.

     b.

    That the increased cost of heritage rice will not make the dessert too expensive for Rice Nirvana’s customers.

     c.

    That all other restaurants have already switched to heritage rice.

     d.

    That New Yorkers avoid restaurants with quirky menu offerings.

     e.

    That Denard Denton does not own any other restaurants.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 14

  1. Rice Nirvana, a dessert restaurant in lower Manhattan, has recently suffered a serious downturn in its business.  This unique establishment, the only one whose menu consists only of rice pudding (but in 32 different flavors), has been very successful ever since it opened a decade ago.  But a recent health scare has cut its business in half.  For many years, an increasingly larger percentage of young Americans have suffered from strokes, and a recent major study has correlated this increase with the consumption of genetically modified rice.  Immediately after that report came out, Rice Nirvana’s patrons stopped showing up.

    Denard Denton, the owner of Rice Nirvana, could replace his unique menu with a conventional one, offering ice cream, cake and the like.  If he did so, however, his restaurant would soon go out of business, for it is the quirkiness of his food offerings that attracts his customers.  He could also switch to heritage rice (that is, rice that has been certified as not having been genetically modified).  That sort of rice, however, costs four times as much.  In order to stay in business, however, he must do just that, and he must let his customers know that Rice Nirvana now offers desserts prepared from safe ingredients.

    The argument would be strengthened if one of the following happened:

     a.

     b.

    It were pointed out that genetically modified rice has been available for the last century.

     c.

    It were pointed out that Denard Denton also owns a Chinese food restaurant that faces similar difficulties.

     d.

    It were pointed out that the original study was conducted across the United States.

     e.

    It were pointed out that restaurant owners must try, on average, three times before finding a business model that works.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 15

  1. Rice Nirvana, a dessert restaurant in lower Manhattan, has recently suffered a serious downturn in its business.  This unique establishment, the only one whose menu consists only of rice pudding (but in 32 different flavors), has been very successful ever since it opened a decade ago.  But a recent health scare has cut its business in half.  For many years, an increasingly larger percentage of young Americans have suffered from strokes, and a recent major study has correlated this increase with the consumption of genetically modified rice.  Immediately after that report came out, Rice Nirvana’s patrons stopped showing up.

    Denard Denton, the owner of Rice Nirvana, could replace his unique menu with a conventional one, offering ice cream, cake and the like.  If he did so, however, his restaurant would soon go out of business, for it is the quirkiness of his food offerings that attracts his customers.  He could also switch to heritage rice (that is, rice that has been certified as not having been genetically modified).  That sort of rice, however, costs four times as much.  In order to stay in business, however, he must do just that, and he must let his customers know that Rice Nirvana now offers desserts prepared from safe ingredients.

    The argument implies one of the following:

     a.

     b.

    Denard Denton should change his present business into a pub.

     c.

    Those who eat out in New York City generally prefer to dine in lower Manhattan.

     d.

    All desserts involve some risk to health.

     e.

    Even a restaurant that has been successful for a decade may still have to deal with customers’ concerns about health risks.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 16

  1. Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it. But in society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded that ability. For if someone exercises such an ability, it would impede the ability of others to do the same. So we cannot all exercise that ability. Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability. If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do. Therefore, none of us can have the ability to do whatever we want to do whenever we want to do it. And therefore, none of us is free.

    What is the final conclusion of the argument?

     a.

     b.

    None of us is free.

     c.

    Freedom is possible but not actual.

     d.

    We must choose between freedom and equality in our society.

     e.

    We cannot afford the costs of freedom.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 17

  1. Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it. But in society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded that ability. For if someone exercises such an ability, it would impede the ability of others to do the same. So we cannot all exercise that ability. Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability. If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do. Therefore, none of us can have the ability to do whatever we want to do whenever we want to do it. And therefore, none of us is free.

    Which if the following is a stated premise which is not itself a conclusion?

     a.

     b.

    None of us have the ability to do whatever we want to whenever we want to.

     c.

    It is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised.

     d.

    In society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded the ability to do whatever you want to whenever you want to.

     e.

    None of the above: every premise in the argument is also a conclusion.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 18

  1. Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it. But in society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded that ability. For if someone exercises such an ability, it would impede the ability of others to do the same. So we cannot all exercise that ability. Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability. If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do. Therefore, none of us can have the ability to do whatever we want to do whenever we want to do it. And therefore, none of us is free.

    Which of the following is most damaging to the overall soundness of the argument?

     a.

     b.

    We do not live on an equal footing with others.

     c.

    We all want to be free.

     d.

    Everyone is free.

     e.

    No one is free.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 19

  1. Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it. But in society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded that ability. For if someone exercises such an ability, it would impede the ability of others to do the same. So we cannot all exercise that ability. Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability. If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do. Therefore, none of us can have the ability to do whatever we want to do whenever we want to do it. And therefore, none of us is free.

    The last sentence is inferred from the second to last sentence and what other premise?

     a.

     b.

    Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability.

     c.

    We cannot all exercise that ability.

     d.

    If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do.

     e.

    Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it.

0 points (Extra Credit)  

QUESTION 20

  1. Freedom is the ability to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it. But in society, when living on an equal footing with others, nobody can be afforded that ability. For if someone exercises such an ability, it would impede the ability of others to do the same. So we cannot all exercise that ability. Since it is impossible to have an ability that cannot be exercised, we cannot all have that ability. If we live on equal footing, however, then either we all have the ability or else none of us do. Therefore, none of us can have the ability to do whatever we want to do whenever we want to do it. And therefore, none of us is free.

    Which of the following follows from the argument?

     a.

     b.

    Freedom is necessary to a free society where people are on equal footing.

     c.

    To be on equal footing is to be free.

     d.

    If I do whatever I want to whenever I want to, everyone else cannot.

     e.

    Exercising freedom is necessary in a society where people are on equal footing.



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