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GED212

Introduction to Philosophy

Discovering Philosophy, Portfolio Edition

Text:

Final 

2nd Edition , 2008

ISBN: 3: 978-0-13-209071-1; 10: 0-13-209071-6

Authors:

Thomas I. White

Publisher:

Prentice Hall

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777

03/09

Introduction to Philosophy

Final Examination

1

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Metaphysics is the study of right and wrong.

A. True

B. False

2. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.

A. True

B. False

3. Philosophy studies lifes most basic questions.

A. True

B. False

4. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.

A. True

B. False

5. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities

 and your capacity for abstract thought.

A. True

B. False 

6. _______________ is the study of how we live together in communities, and

 deals with problems of harmonizing freedom and obligation. 

A. Social philosophy

B. Social interaction

C. Political philosophy

D. None of the above

7. ________________is what Aristotle referred to as the first philosophy, and

 studies the most basic issues.

A. Ethics

B. Logic

C. Metaphysics

D. Social philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy

Final Examination

2

8. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which

 means love, and sophia, which means wisdom.

A. True

B. False

9. A(n)______ fallacy involves an arguments logical structure.

A. Informal

B. Formal

C. Premise

D. conclusion

 

10. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an arguments subject matter.

A. Informal

B. Formal

C. Premise

D. conclusion

11. The two parts of an argument are _____.

A. Introduction and conclusion

B. Premises and conclusion

C. Pros and cons

D. Truths and conclusion

12. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to

 an arguments claim is premises.

A. True

B. False

13. If its sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore,

 it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affirming the

 consequent, a formal fallacy.

A. True

B. False

14. A square has four sides is a necessary and sufficient condition for defining 

 a square.

A. True

B. False

15. The potions riddle in Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone is an excellent 

 example of logical thinking.

A. True

B. False

16. If someone is a student at Hogwarts, then he or she is studying witchcraft 

 and wizardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwarts. Therefore, Nev-

 ille Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent ex-

 ample of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule.

A. True

B. False 

17. The _____is the main conscious element of the personality and tries to 

 mediate between the unrestrained desires of the superego and the punishing 

 demands of the id for moral perfection.

A. Ego

B. Soul

C. Logic

D. None of the above

18. The inner feeling of freedom that we all have supports the theory of _____.

A. Fatalism

B. Determinism

C. Free will

D. None of the above

19. The ancient Greek story of Oedipus, who, no matter how hard he tries, cannot

 avoid his tragic destiny, is an example of the theory of _____.

A. Fatalism

B. Determinism

C. Free will

D. None of the above

20. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your

 destiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.

A. Fatalism

B. Determinism

C. Free will

D. None of the above

21. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifically 

 identifiable natural forces is an example of _____.

A. Fatalism

B. Determinism

C. Free will

D. None of the above

22. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible.

A. True

B. False

23. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious nor

 unconscious dimensions.

A. True

B. False

24. A Freudian slip is an example of how the unconscious can determine what

 we say.

A. True

B. False

25. Ellis believes that irrational beliefs are the greatest threat to our freedom.

A. True

B. False

26. _____is the position that holds that in any circumstance, we genuinely have

 more than one option from which to choose.

A. Indeterminism

B. Existentialism

C. Pragmatism

D. Free will

27. ______ claims that freedom is so inescapable that it is sometimes uncomfort-

 able, which is why Sartre wrote that we are condemned to be free.

A. Indeterminism

B. Existentialism

C. Pragmatism

D. Free will

28. William James is the most important representative of _____, the school of

 thought that claims that what is true is what works.

A. Indeterminism

B. Existentialism

C. Pragmatism

D. Free will

29. Sartre accepts the idea that existence precedes essence, that is, the theory

 that our choices determine our nature. 

A. True

B. False

30. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actions

 result from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them.

A. True

B. False

31. Aristotle would agree most strongly with which of the following statement:

 The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibility 

 they have for their actions.

A. True

B. False

32. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct.

A. True

B. False

33. Which of the following comes closest to the main ideas underlying a deonto-

 logical approach to ethics?

A. do your duty

B. survival of the fittest

C. no harm, no foul

D. there is virtue in suffering

34. Utilitarianism _____.

A. is a deontological ethical theory that uses a scientific, empirical basis for 

 ethics

B. is a teleological ethical theory that bases ethics on private philosophical

 insight

C. is a deontological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like the 

 greatest good of the greatest number as standards for judging the morality 

 of actions

D. is a teleological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like the great-

 est good of the greatest number as standards for judging the morality of 

 actions

35. The strengths of Benthams Hedonistic Calculus are it effectively measures 

 many of the consequences of an action and it does not prejudge the question

 of the morality of an action.

A. True

B. False

36. _____ revised Benthams ideas by arguing for the importance of differences 

 in the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.

A. Kant

B. Mill

C. Plato

D. Scorates

37. The most basic concept of Kants ethics is_____.

A. Truth

B. Virtue

C. Spirituality

D. Duty

38. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical truth.

A. True

B. False

39. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allows 

 for the idea that the ends justify the means.

A. True

B. False

40. In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts have

 the final word.

A. True

B. False

41. A healthy soul is characterized generally by _____.

A. the ability to distinguish right from wrong without being blinded by fear,

 greed, or the like; strength of will, freedom, self-control

B. divine grace and the guarantee of eternal life

C. a belief in the importance of suffering and the sense of moral superiority that

 goes along with that

D. a belief in the teachings of Gyges and the ethical insights that flow from that

42. Socrates was unusual as a philosopher because _____.

A. he spent his life getting rich

B. no other philosopher has ever challenged his ideas

C. he dictated all of his ideas to another philosopher, Plato

D. he never wrote anything about his teachings

43. In the story of Gyges ring, a shepherd finds a ring that can make him 

 invisible.

A. True

B. False

44. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, emotional, and

 intellectual.

A. True

B. False

45. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber 

 escapes punishment. Socrates would say the robber has been most hurt by 

 this crime. 

A. True

B. False

46. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with 

 the image of two wine jars.

A. True

B. False

47. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgiras, the character Callicles argues

 that best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of 

 pleasure.

A. True

B. False

48. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance 

 among the three parts.

A. True 

B. False 

49. Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of reality,

 is ________.

A. Time

B. Our sense of self

C. Our bodies

D. Water

50. Anaximanders first principle of reality is the Unlimited.

A. True

B. False

51. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and

 Parmenides are known as Post-Socratics

A. True

B. False

 

52. Plato explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a cave

A. True

B. False

53. Berkeley maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived. 

A. True

B. False

 

54. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ulti- 

 mate existence.

A. True

B. False

55. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cul-

 tural terms.

A. True

B. False

56. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims that 

 knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.

A. True

B. False

57. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as rationalism claims that 

 knowledge comes from sensory experiences.

A. True

B. False

58. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately 

 depends on___________.

A. The senses

B. The mind

C. The soul

D. Our logic

59. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the 

 concept of causality.

A. True

B. False

60. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical catego-

 ries, otherwise known as comparing apples to oranges.

A. Informal

B. Incorrect analogy

C. Category false

D. Category mistake

61. A triangle has three sides is an example of an analytic statement.

A. True

B. False

62. Descartes uses the example of a piece of melting wax to claim that the

 senses are the only dependable source of knowledge.

A. True

B. False 

63. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists and 

 empiricists. 

A. True

B. False

64. An argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted 

 that it must have a creator.

A. True

B. False

65. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job.

A. True

B. False

66. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.

A. Our morals

B. Our actions

C. Motion

D. Our sense of self
67. An onotological argument concerning Gods existence claims that by merely 

 contemplating the notion of God as that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-

 be-thought, we become aware that God must exist.

A. True

B. False

68. David Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people accept reli-

 gion on emotional grounds.

A. True

B. False

69. David Hume dismisses such arguments about Gods existence from causality 

 with the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent

 being, which means there is no need for a first cause.

A. True

B. False

70. Anselms discussion of the possibility of Gods existence relies on empirical 

 evidence alone.

A. True

B. False

71. Anselms argument is essentially Aristotelian because it believes that the 

 question of Gods existence can be settled by studying the workings of nature.

A. True

B. False

72. Hegels label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates real-

 ity is dialectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis. 

A. True

B. False

 

73. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.

A. Punishment

B. Forced labor

C. Unethical

D. Alienated labor

74. Karma is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based

 on the idea of individual free choice.

A. True

B. False

75. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fifth century B.C. Nepal who became

 a great spiritual leader.

A. True

B. False

76. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual de-

 velopment is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.

A. Karma

B. Our destiny

C. Rebirth

D. Free will

77. In Western culture, religion and philosophy thoroughly intermix, and in the

 East, they do just the same.

A. True

B. False

78. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is under-

 stood in Western philosophy.

A. True

B. False

79. Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophy 

 called Empiricism. 

A. True

B. False

80. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the 

 observer is moving or not.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity

81. Einsteins theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions, 

 not three.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity

82. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of 

 reality arent subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional

 strings of energy.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity

83. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called

 quantum mechanics. 

A. True

B. False

84. Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed

 of light for what the ships clocks record as a few months. The other twin re-

 mains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in 

 their ages.

A. True

B. False

85. Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train head-

 ing north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant 

  one to the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that your 

 friend on the train experiences things differently, seeing the northern bolt 

 strike before the southern bolt.

A. True

B. False

86. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is constant and absolute and 

 cannot bend.

A. True

B. False

87. The main psychological research on epistemological differences between 

 men and women focuses on different developmental stages that we go 

 through in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the con-

 cept of _____________.

A. Truth

B. Self-actualization

C. Understanding

D. Knowledge

88. In ______________ conventional morality, including stages three and four, 

 we understand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of 

 others.

A. Kohlbergs

B. Perrys 

C. Belenkys

D. Gilligans

89. If we are at Perrys second stage, unacceptable multiplicity, and we hear 

 two opposite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably 

 think that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.

A. True

B. False

90. In Belenkys first stage, ____________, knowledge is what some external 

 authority says it is.

A. Constructed knowledge

B. Received knowledge

C. Subjective knowledge

D. Procedural knowledge

91. In Belenkys final stage, _______________, believing is more important than

 doubting.

A. Constructed knowledge

B. Received knowledge

C. Subjective knowledge

D. Procedural knowledge

92. If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan, 

 the problem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficult 

 and involved.

A. True

B. False

93. Sex refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.

A. True 

B. False

94. Human and person are different, but related, ideas. Human is a bio-

 logical concept, while person is a _____________ concept.

A. Theological

B. Philosophical

C. Scientific

D. Emotional

95. Dolphins curiosity about humans can be traced back at least to ancient 

 __________.

A. Rome

B. China

C. Greece

D. None of the above

96. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is 

 like the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.

A. True

B. False

97. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.

A. 98.6

B. 96.8

C. 90.2

D. 92.2

98. As far as the criteria for personhood are concerned, dolphins probably do 

 possess awareness because the fact that they can be so easily trained 

 shows that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.

A. True

B. False

99. The fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from train-

 ers: prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, because 

 persons would not perform such menial behaviors.

A. True

B. False

100. In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins, 

 on balance, did pretty well.

A. True

B. False


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