How do I create a invalid counter example to these.

Anonymous
timer Asked: Jan 23rd, 2016

Question description

Following arguments are invalid. Please identify and write down the argument form. Then, provide a counterexample to show the argument’s (the argument form’s) invalidity. (please submit here)

  1. No genuine Americans are communist spies. Some Oregonians are not communist spies. Therefore, some Oregonians are genuine Americans.
  2. All vegetarians who refuse to eat animal products are vegans. No vegetarians who refuse to eat animal products are cattle ranchers. Hence, no vegans are cattle ranchers.
  3. All rock musicians are cool. No nerd is a rock musician. Hence, no nerd is cool.
  4. All people who despise animals are neurotic. No veterinarian is a person who despises animals. Thus, no veterinarian is neurotic.
  5. All destructive acts are evil. Some wars are evil. So, some wars are destructive acts.
  6. No rock is sentient. Some mammals are sentient. No mammal is a rock.
  7. Some intelligent people are highly immoral. All highly immoral people are unhappy. Therefore, some unhappy people are not intelligent.
  8. If you want to ruin your life, you should take hard drugs. But you don’t want to ruin your life. So, you should not take hard drugs.
  9. Sam is wealthy if he has more than a billion dollars. But Sam does not have more than a billion dollars. Therefore, Sam is not wealthy.
  10. If Lewis is a famous author, then he knows how to write. But Lewis is not a famous author. So, he does not know how to write.
  11. All planets are round. The earth is round. Therefore, the earth is a planet.
  12. If my society approves of genetic engineering, then genetic engineering is right. But my society does not approve of genetic engineering. So, genetic engineering is not right.
  13. Those who are responsible for 9/11 are terrorists and Muslims. Therefore, all Muslims are terrorists.
  14. If Donald Trump wins the presidential election, then he will be the next president. If Donald Trump wins the presidential election, then the U.S. foreign policies will be a mess. Thus, if Donald Trump becomes the next president, then the U.S. foreign policies will be a mess.
  15. Tomatoes are either fruit or vegetables. Tomatoes are fruit. So, they are not vegetables.

Im not looking for someone to do these for me, im just looking for someone to explain it to me,
Give me an example to go on.

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