# 3204c Exam 5 chapter 13 and 14

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Question description

Question 1 2 pts

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of –0.55 would be considered:

 small.

 medium.

 large.

 very large.

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Question 2 2 pts

According to Cohen's published standards, a correlation coefficient of 0.10 is considered to represent:

 no relationship.

 a small effect.

 a large effect.

 a medium effect.

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Question 3 2 pts

The Pearson correlation coefficient is symbolized:

 x

 r

 c

 t

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Question 4 2 pts

The numerical value for a correlation ranges between ________ and ________.

 0; 1.00

 –1.00; 1.00

 –1.00; 0

 negative infinity; positive infinity

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Question 5 2 pts

Test-retest reliability is determined by:

 correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even numbered items of a different measure.

 correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even numbered items of that same measure.

 administering the same measure to the same sample at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance on the two administrations.

 administering the same measure to two different samples at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance at the two different times

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Question 6 2 pts

The Pearson correlation coefficient can be used as:

 an inferential statistic.

 an analysis of cause through hypothesis testing.

 a descriptive statistic.

 both a descriptive and inferential statistic.

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Question 7 2 pts

A researcher collected data from 74 people about the number of fast–food meals eaten per week and length of commute to work in miles. Imagine the correlation was positive at 0.32. Two participants in the sample reported eating every meal out each week, totaling 21 meals each, and the shortest commute of 0.3 miles. If those two outliers were removed from the data, what might be a likely effect?

 The correlation will reverse in direction.

 The sign of the correlation will change to –0.32.

 The correlation could get stronger, increasing to greater than 0.32.

 The correlation would weaken to nearly zero.

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Question 8 2 pts

Which of the following values of the correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?

 –0.30

 0.42

 –0.87

 0.03

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Question 9 2 pts

Figure: Student-Faculty Ratio

Reference: Figure 1

(Figure: Student–Faculty Ratio) The relation depicted in the scatterplot is potentially deceptive because of:

 the presence of outliers.

 poor validity.

 restriction of range.

 poor reliability.

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Question 10 2 pts

Suppose a researcher discovers that length of time spent following a Mediterranean diet is negatively correlated with risk of developing cancer. Which of the statements logically follows from this information?

 Eating a Mediterranean diet increases the risk of developing cancer.

 Eating a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing cancer.

 People who ate a Mediterranean diet for more time were more likely to have cancer.

 People who ate a Mediterranean diet for more time were less likely to have cancer.

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Question 11 2 pts

The denominator (bottom half) of the Pearson's correlation coefficient includes:

 Σ(X – Mx)(Y – My).

 the square root of the product of the two sum of squares.

 the difference between the sample means.

 the sum of the product of the deviations for each variable.

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Question 12 2 pts

In an investigation of the psychometric properties of the Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS), Witte et al. (2006) administered the scale to 72 sex offenders. They found that scores on the scale correlated positively with recidivism for nonsexual crimes, but not for sexual crimes. This research suggests that:

 the CSS has validity.

 the CSS is a valid measure of sentiment to commit sexual crimes, but not a valid measure of the sentiment to commit nonsexual crimes.

 the CSS is a valid measure of sentiment to commit nonsexual crimes, but not a valid measure of the sentiment to commit sexual crimes.

 the CSS is not a reliable measure.

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Question 13 2 pts

A correlation is computed using data from 18 people. What is the critical cutoff for a two-tailed hypothesis test with a p level of 0.05?

 –0.468 and 0.468

 –0.468 or 0.468

 –0.444 and 0.444

 –0.444 or 0.444

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Question 14 2 pts

A coefficient alpha of ________ is considered a minimally acceptable level of reliability for measures that will be used to make decisions about individuals based on their scores on the measure.

 0.8

 1

 0.65

 0.9

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Question 15 2 pts

Psychometrics, an in-demand career, is a branch of statistics used in:

 measuring individual tests.

 creating election standards.

 the development of tests and measures.

 developing standards for education.

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Question 16 2 pts

The three main characteristics of the correlation coefficient include all of the following except:

 it always falls between –1.0 and 1.0.

 positive correlations are more common than negative correlations.

 it can be either positive or negative.

 it is the strength of the coefficient, not its sign, that indicates how large it is.

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Question 17 2 pts

What is the research hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?

 r = 1

 ρ0

 ρ = 0

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Question 18 2 pts

When a positive relation exists between two variables, what will be true in the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient?

 Most deviation scores will be positive.

 Most deviation scores will be negative.

 The product of most pairs of deviations will be positive.

 The product of most pairs of deviations will be negative.

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Question 19 2 pts

Which of the following is the strongest correlation?

 0.66

 –0.70

 0.14

 –0.37

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Question 20 2 pts

What is the relationship between correlation and causation?

 Correlation is sufficient for causation.

 Correlation is both necessary and sufficient for causation.

 Correlation is necessary for causation.

 There is no relationship between correlation and causation.

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Question 21 2 pts

What kind of correlation would you expect to find between levels of family income and household spending on consumer goods?

 positive

 perfect positive

 negative

 zero

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Question 22 2 pts

The ________ quantifies the relationship between two variables.

 sign of the correlation

 correlation coefficient

 magnitude of the correlation

 correlation

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Question 23 2 pts

Calculating the degree to which two variables are related, with a correlation, requires that those variables are measured:

 as ordinal variables.

 using a ratio scale.

 as nominal variables.

 on a scale.

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Question 24 2 pts

When the Pearson correlation coefficient is computed on sample data, it is symbolized by ________, and when it is computed on population data, it is symbolized by ________.

 R; r

 ρ; r

 r; R

 r; ρ

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Question 25 2 pts

Correlations help us look at the ________ between two variables.

 difference

 co-relation

 causal relationship

 time sequence

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Question 26 2 pts

According to Cohen's published standards, a correlation coefficient of 0.49 is considered to represent:

 no relationship.

 a small effect.

 a medium effect.

 a large effect.

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Question 27 2 pts

A correlation is computed using data from 30 people. What is the critical cutoff for a two-tailed hypothesis test with a p level of 0.05?

 –0.361 and 0.361

 –0.306 and 0.306

 0.361

 0.306

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Question 28 2 pts

Nineteen ninety-five data from over 1,000 colleges published in U.S. News & World Report were used to predict the percent of alumni who donate to a college from the average SAT score of students attending the college. The resulting regression equation was Ŷ = –29.29 + 0.05(X). Using the regression equation, what would you predict to be the percent of alumni who will donate to a college whose students' average SAT score is 1020?

 21.71%

 0.6%

 62.6%

 80.29%

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Question 29 2 pts

With regression we are concerned about variability around the ________, rather than variability around the ________ which would be the case in t tests or ANOVAs.

 outliers; line of best fit

 median; tails of the distribution

 line of best fit; mean

 mean; outliers

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Question 30 2 pts

In the equation Ŷ = 98 + 4.30(X1) + 7.20(X2), what is the slope?

 7.2

 Both 4.30 and 7.20 are slopes.

 98

 4.3

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Question 31 2 pts

Which statistical tool allows us to predict a dependent score based on information about an independent variable?

 the mean

 correlation

 standardization

 regression

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Question 32 2 pts

Regression cannot prove causation, but it can:

 provide specific quantitative predictions that help explain relations among variables.

 serve as a substitute for good experimental design.

 provide stronger evidence for association than does correlation.

 predict people's behaviors on variables that may seem impossible to measure.

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Question 33 2 pts

A correlation of 0.38 is observed between an X variable (M = 5.8, SD = 1.07) and a Y variable (M = 2.2, SD = 0.68). If someone has a z score of 1.0 on the X variable, what would you predict as their Y score?

 0.65

 1.56

 2.46

 1.77

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Question 34 2 pts

Under what circumstance, unlikely as it might be, would the standard error of estimate be zero?

 The proportionate reduction in error is also zero.

 The standard error of estimate can never be zero.

 The correlation coefficient is either 1.00 or –1.00.

 The correlation coefficient is also zero.

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Question 35 2 pts

The statistical analysis that allows us to use one scale variable to predict outcome on a second scale variable is called:

 correlation.

 prediction.

 linear analysis.

 regression.

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Question 36 2 pts

A high standard error of the estimate indicates that the:

 mean is not a very good representation of the sample data.

 sample mean is not a very good representation of the population mean.

 observed Ys will cluster closely around the regression line.

 observed Ys will vary greatly from the predicted Ys.

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Question 37 2 pts

The standardized regression coefficient expresses the:

 likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis with a regression analysis.

 strength of the correlation between the two variables that are now incorporated into a regression analysis.

 predicted change in the dependent variable in terms of standard deviation units as a result of a 1 standard deviation increase in the independent variable.

 relation between the independent and dependent variable in terms of squared units.

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Question 38 2 pts

Once we have an equation for a straight line through our data, we can:

 compute post hoc tests.

 use an independent-samples t test to compare means.

 look at each value on the x-axis and predict its corresponding value on the y-axis.

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Question 39 2 pts

The predictions made by a regression analysis are ________ in nature.

 qualitative

 nominal

 quantitative

 ordinal

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Question 40 2 pts

In addition to capturing the direction and strength of a co-relation between variables, the correlation coefficient can be used to:

 test other variables.

 identify causes of outcome variables.

 develop a prediction tool.

 indicate the amount of variability in the data.

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Question 41 2 pts

The predicted score for the dependent variable will always be ________ the individual's score for the independent variable.

 less than

 more than

 two times

 the same as

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Question 42 2 pts

The tendency of scores that are particularly high or low to drift toward the mean over time is called:

 simple linear regression.

 regression to the mean.

 standard error of the mean.

 standard error of the estimate.

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Question 43 2 pts

The tendency for very tall parents to have children who are somewhat short illustrates the phenomenon:

 regression to the mean.

 central tendency.

 central limit theorem.

 variability.

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Question 44 2 pts

Which of the following formulas is the correct one for the proportion reduction in error?

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Question 45 2 pts

In the equation Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) + 3(X2), which of the following statements is true?

 130 is the slope of the line.

 This is a simple linear regression equation.

 There are two slopes.

 The y intercept is 8.

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Question 46 2 pts

In the equation Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) + 3(X2), what is the y intercept?

 5

 8

 130

 3

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Question 47 2 pts

Nineteen ninety-five data from over 1,000 colleges published in U.S. News & World Report were used to predict the percent of alumni who donate to a college from the average SAT score of students attending the college. The resulting regression equation was Ŷ = –29.29 + 0.05(X). This regression indicates that:

 for every one-point increase in SAT scores, a college can expect 0.05% fewer alumni to donate.

 for every one-dollar increase in donations, the college can expect a half-point increase in SAT scores.

 most colleges have very high alumni donation rates.

 for every one-point increase in SAT scores, a college can expect 0.05% more of its alumni to donate.

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Question 48 2 pts

A correlation of 0.38 is observed between an X variable (M = 5.8, SD = 1.07) and a Y variable (M = 2.2, SD = 0.68). If Ann has a z score of 1.5 on the X variable, what is her raw score for X?

 3.22

 7.3

 7.41

 4.3

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Question 49 2 pts

The standardized regression coefficient is often called a:

 beta weight.

 normalized regression.

 estimate of best fit.

 weighted estimate.

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Question 50 2 pts

If we do not know the regression equation and don't have the ability to generate one, the best predictor of any Yscore based on a given X score is:

 the mean for Y.

 that observed in the data.

 the mean of X.

 available only through standardization.

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Question 51 2 pts

We can examine a graph to get a sense of how much error there is in a regression equation. Which of the following describes a graph that reveals there will be a high amount of error when using our regression equation?

 Data points cluster close around the line of best fit.

 Data points cluster very close to the line with several outlier exceptions.

 The data points consistently cluster far away from the line of best fit.

 Data points fall directly on the line.

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Question 52 2 pts

A researcher calculates a standardized regression coefficient on data from 52 events and computes β as 0.274. Assuming a two-tailed hypothesis test of the relation between these two variables is being conducted with an alpha of 0.05, what are the critical cutoffs?

 –0.288 and 0.288

 –0.361 and 0.361

 –0.273 and 0.273

 –0.250 and 0.250

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Question 53 2 pts

Identify the formula for predicting an individual's score on the dependent variable from the score on the independent variable using the correlation coefficient.

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Question 54 2 pts

If we have information about the slope of the line of best fit that corresponds to two sets of data about class grades for different instructors, we cannot make comparisons based on these slopes because:

 they are not on a common scale.

 they are based on different populations.

 the slopes have to share the same sign.

 slopes cannot be compared meaningfully.

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Question 55 2 pts

A researcher calculates a standardized regression coefficient on data from 30 events and computes β as 0.19. Assuming a two-tailed hypothesis test of the relation between these two variables is being conducted with an alpha of 0.05, what are the critical cutoffs?

 –0.288 and 0.288

 –0.361 and 0.361

 –0.250 and 0.250

 –0.273 and 0.273

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