Topic: Online Exam
Please see the attached questions ( 8-questions ) answer these question on 3 pages ( 3 answers on each page ).
Please use these 2 books to answer the questions. :-
1. Egbert, Joy & Sanden, Sherry (2014). Foundations of Education
Research: Understanding Theoretical Components, Routledge. ISBN:
2. Lee G. Bolman, Terrence E. Deal (2013). Reframing Organizations:
Artistry, Choice, and Leadership, 5th Edition, Jossey Bass Publishers.
1The opening article describes why the author feels that a person’s
mindset is more important than their skill set. This is counter to what
many educators have said, and the way many classes are organized. Why
would the author make this bold assertion?
2In this course, I have adopted a model very similar to the “Model of
Authentic Becoming” featured in the article: Facilitating Authentic
Becoming” Can you identify how the course project puts a key feature of
the model into practice?
3In Module 11, you reviewed a rather extensive look at the relationship
between language, cognition, and culture. In summarizing the role of
language in cultural processes, the author provides three points:
1. Language encodes cultural meanings. The characteristic expressions in
a language afford economical ways of characterizing experiences and
expressing thoughts. These expressions are likely to be used in everyday
2. Using language to characterize a state of affairs may evoke or create
linguistic representations that compete with and overshadow the
perceptual representations of that state of affairs.
3. A speech community shares the formal rules of a language, as well as
the ground rules and assumptions that underlie language usage. The
contexts of language use influence the forms linguistic representations
of certain state of affairs will take. Through communication, private
cognitions are made public and directed toward a shared representation
of the referent.
Select one of the three points and describe how you would explain it to
a colleague who is being transferred to a new position where you think
the language/culture connection could be a problem for them
4In your own words, explain what is meant by intercultural communication and how it is an important competency to develop
5In the Robert Kegan / Lisa Lahey article “The Real Reason People Won’t
Change” they discuss how a competing commitment will stymie efforts to
change an employee’s behavior. Along the way to revealing the answer to
this question they discuss big assumptions.
a. What do they mean by big assumption and what is the role of a big assumption in this process?
b. Why is it important to understand if you are working with a change resistant employee?
6The author of Chapter 8 of Beginner's Guide to Deep Culture Experience
suggest that the possible reactions to situations where cultural
learning exposes a gap between what we know already and the demands of
responding to the novel cultural context include résistance, acceptance,
and adaptation. Please provide an illustration of each response that
illustrates your understanding of why it might be chosen as the response
to the novel context created by the increasing presence of non-English
speaking residents in U.S. communities.
7The article, Leadership Discourse at Work, suggests that both
relational and transactional discourse is important. The first focuses
on “ensuring group harmony and creating a productive working
atmosphere”, while the second “gets things done, solve problems and
achieve set goals”. The chapter then suggests that in order to study
discourse in leadership two meanings of discourse are important –
Language above the sentence & Practices that systematically form the
objects of which they speak. Please describe in your own words what is
meant by these two ways of thinking about discourse.
8Resilience refers to a dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation
within the context of significant adversity. Implicit within this
notion are two critical conditions: (1) exposure to significant threat
or severe adversity; and (2) the achievement of positive adaptation
despite major assaults on the developmental process. You have looked at
applications of this definition in articles on Adversity Quotient, but
this article critically examines the way resilience is defined because
in practice it covers such a broad array of situations that it has
questionable consistency in use. As you go forward from this course,
this will be an important concept for you to have working knowledge of
as a leader. One central reason for this is that understanding the ways
in which people respond to adversity (or feel that they can protect
themselves from losing out to the causes of adversity) greatly influence
motivation and executive functioning. Please demonstrate your
understanding of these concepts by giving an example of how a leader
without knowledge of a person’s culture or ethnicity might fail to grasp
why they are not responding to efforts to improve their resilience.