# Questions- Please anwser throughly

*label*Psychology

*timer*Asked: Nov 4th, 2016

**Question description**

**Q1. [10 points] Give an example of a well phrased research question that could be used for developing an “explanatory” study. Make sure that in this question, you can clearly identify two variables, and the population to be studied. **

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**Q2. [10 points] Give an example of a non-directional testable hypothesis that could be used for developing an “explanatory” study. Make sure that in this question, you can clearly identify two variables, and the population to be studied. You may use to derive this hypothesis from the research question, or you may present a different one.**

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**Q3. [10 points] Give an example of a directional testable hypothesis that could be used for developing an “explanatory” study. Make sure that in this question, you can clearly identify two variables, and the population to be studied. You may use to derive this hypothesis from the research question, or you may present a different one.**

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**Q4. [10 points] Give an example of a null testable hypothesis that could be used for developing an “explanatory” study. Make sure that in this question, you can clearly identify two variables, and the population to be studied. You may use to derive this hypothesis from the research question, or you may present a different one.**

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**Q5. [10 points] Consider the following case scenario. A researcher was concerned whether parent immigration status affected attitude toward education in children, and developed the following hypothesis: **

**School-aged children of immigrant parents will have a significantly different attitude toward education than school-aged children without immigrant parents?**

**(a) In this hypothesis, identify the independent variable:**

**(b) In this hypothesis, identify the dependent variable:**

**(c) In this hypothesis, identify the population that would be studied:**

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**Q6. [10 points] A different researcher proposed to study the following hypothesis:**

**Parents of young children who participate in PAT program will significantly improve their self-esteem and childrearing competence from before to after their participation in the PAT program.**

**(a) (a) In this hypothesis, identify the independent variable(s):**

**(b) In this hypothesis, identify the dependent variable(s):**

**(c) In this hypothesis, identify the population that would be studied:**

**(d) Think some more about this hypothesis, and suggest one more possible “intervening” variable that might be good to study in order to better understand how these parents have improved over time, and briefly justify/explain your reasoning as to why you recommended that this variable should also be studied in relation to the outcomes: **

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**Q7. [10 points] Now, let’s consider how variables may be related in hypotheses, and you are asked to identify the direction of the posed variable relationships in the following statements: “positive, negative, non-directional, or curvilinear, or non-enough to know.” **

**(a) A researcher hypothesized that a higher level of higher satisfaction with supervision contributes to an increase in client job satisfaction.**

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**Variable direction****:**

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**(b) The type of agency ownership is significantly related to the number of services offered to clients in assisted living facilities.**

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**Variable direction****:**

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**(c) Clients who reported lower rating of social work trainees’ interviewing skills at intake also reported lowered satisfaction with agency services.**

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**Variable direction****:**

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**(d) Clients with earlier onset of alcohol use reported more difficulties in interpersonal relationships in adulthood.**

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**Variable direction****:**

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**(e) Parents raising one child and parents raising more than four children demonstrated significantly higher levels of stress than parents raising two or three children.**

**Variable direction****:**

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**Q8. [10 points] Now, let’s focus on identifying the level of measurement in variables:**

**“nominal, ordinal, ordinal but could be used as interval, and ratio.”**

**(a) A researcher wanted to study the variable “environmental area.”The researcher collected data on this variable by asking the following question: Please indicate the location of the area in which you live as:____**urban (within the city X zipcode)

____sub-urban (within the sub-urban area of city X zipcode)

____rural (beyond the sub-urban reaches of the city X zipcides)

__Level of measurement: __

(b) **A researcher wanted to study the variable “length of time being employed.” The researcher collected data on this variable by asking the following question: Please indicate approximately how many years and months have you been on the job?____yearsand ____months**

__Level of measurement: __

(c) **A researcher wanted to study the variable “physical self-efficacy.” The researcher collected data on this variable by asking the following question: Please indicate the level of your physical efficacy by completing 10 item statements on a Likert questionnaire. In this questionnaire each item statement is rated on a scale of 1 to 5 points, and t**he score of “1” = Strongly Disagree and score of “6” = Strongly Agree. The total summated score on this questionnaire represents a level of physical efficacy.

__Level of measurement: __

(d) **A researcher wanted to study the variable “agency ownership.” The researcher collected data on this variable by asking the following question: Please check/identify the ownership for your agency as:**__Public __Non-profit __For Profit

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__Level of measurement: __

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**(e) A researcher wanted to study the variable “level of anxiety.” The researcher collected data on this variable by asking the following question: Please identify the level of anxiety that you have most typically experienced during the past 30 days as:**

__None or very low level of anxiety

__Low level of anxiety

__Medium level (50/50) of anxiety

__High level of anxiety

__Very high level of anxiety

__Level of measurement: __

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**Q. 9 [10 points] The question focuses on sampling. You are asked to match “key terms” with items listed below. **

__Key terms to be matched:__

**Simple random sampling****Systematic sampling****Stratified proportional sampling****Stratified disproportional sampling****Availability nonprobability sampling****Purposive key informant sampling****Quota sampling****Snowball sampling****Probability based****Non-probability selection strategy**

- Participants in the sample were chosen from a framing list by every n
^{th}method after a random start.__This approach represents:__ - A researcher wants to use probability procedure and compare gender of college students by their grade-point-average (GPA) across several colleges. He/she also wants to maintain the original gender distribution in these colleges within the sample.

__The researcher should use__:

- A sampling procedure that uses accidental or convenience selection.
__This sampling procedure is called__: - A quota sampling of participants in the population.
__This sampling approach represents__

- A cluster sampling this type of sampling method.
__This type of method is called__: - A researcher wants to use a probability sampling and compare gender of college students by their drinking habits across 10 colleges, but without being concerned about the original gender distribution in the population of these colleges.

__The researcher should use__:

- A researcher forms a sample by using a random table.
__This type of method is called:__ - A non-probability sampling procedure that considers the knowledge of the informant in the sample selection process is called:
__This type of method is called:__

- A non-probability sampling strategy that relies on getting information from respondents in helping to find other respondents for the study.
__This type of method is called:__ - A non-probability sampling strategy that enrolls representative groups of participants based on original population distribution.

__This type of method is called:__

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Q.10 [ 10 points] A researcher wanted to study individuals who seek services from an social service agency, and give them a survey on their satisfaction with agency services. This agency is currently providing services to 200 clients, who have received services for at least 2 months or more.

(a)Your task is to explain how the researcher could form a sample of 50 cases that would be selected by systematic sampling. In your answer please explain in good amount of detail how or what steps would be taken to form this sample.

__Answer__:

(b) Now, consider that in the list of 200 clients can be stratified by race/ethnicity as “White” and “Non-white.”That is,, some clients are of “White” race/ethnicity and some are of “Non-white” race/ethnicity.Your task is to explain how you would select 50 cases for a sample that is “stratified disproportionately with random selection.” In your answer please explain in good amount of detail how or what steps would be taken to form this sample.

__Answer__: