The Training Program

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timer Asked: Nov 7th, 2016

Question description

******The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.)*** Please read in full before bidding*****Label and answer each part** Plagiarism report MUST be attached*** Introduction and conclusion paragraph required**** Paragraphs must consist of at least 5 complete sentences***6 scholarly sources is REQUIRED**** I have numbered each chapter to make easy reading, if you have any questions feel free to ask!! Graduate level work is expected!!!! Follow all instructions,,,,,.....****************

Presented at the end of chapters 4, 5, 8 and 9 of the Blanchard and Thacker (2013) text, are examples of what would be done in a real situation regarding a small business that requested training (these sections can be found in the electronic text by going to the “Summary” section for each chapter and scrolling down). Review the Fabrics Inc. examples at the end of these chapters. These sections are labeled, “The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.)”. Blanchard and Thacker (2013) have demonstrated the phases of the Training Process Model, from the needs analysis to evaluation. Notice how the phases build on one another.

Chapter 4 presents the needs analysis, the beginning of a step-by-step process for developing a training program, for this small fabrications company. Chapter 5 continues with a description of the Fabrics, Inc., training program identifying the training design. Chapter 8 provides examples of some of the training outputs, starting with the instructor’s manual and elaborates on the development and implementation steps. Finally, Chapter 9 examines the evaluation phase of the Fabrics, Inc. training.

The paper should use APA formatted headings to identify each of the following required sections:

  • Abstract
  • Background of Fabrics, Inc.
  • Needs Analysis
  • Training Design
  • Development and Implementation
  • Evaluation of Training
  • Conclusion
  • References

The paper should be 2,000 to 2,500 words in length (excluding the title, abstract, and reference page) and respond to the following prompts for each phase of the training process model:

Needs Analysis (Chapter 4)
Critique the organizational analysis conducted for Fabrics, Inc. and determine if there are other questions that should have been asked. Review the operational analysis done through the interview. Note that it was not completed. Generate some of the other questions that should be asked.

Training Design (Chapter 5)
In the design phase of Fabrics, Inc. Blanchard and Thacker (2013) only developed objectives for conflict resolution. Choose one of the other training requirements and develop three to four learning objectives. Critique the design component and identify areas that were not addressed satisfactorily.

Development and Implementation (Chapter 8)
Note that there is no discussion of Fabrics, Inc. in the development or implementation aspects of the training. List and describe additional training modules that could be developed based on the training objectives that were developed in the design phase of Fabrics, Inc.

Evaluation of Training (Chapter 9)
Evaluate the two evaluation instruments used in the Fabrics, Inc. case. Discuss how the evaluation results should be used. Be sure to address internal and external validity of the measurements.

The paper

  • Must be 2,000 to 2,500 words in length (excluding title and references pages).
  • Must be double spaced and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of The Training Program
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must include an abstract and the required headings as noted in the prompt above.
  • Must use at least six scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center

The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.) chapter 4

This section is the beginning of a step-by-step process for developing a training program for a small fabrications company. Here, we examine the TNA for the program, and in subsequent chapters, we will continue the process through to the evaluation.

Fabrics, Inc., once a small organization, recently experienced an incredible growth. Only two years ago, the owner was also the supervisor of 40 employees. Now it is a firm that employs more than 200. The fast growth proved good for some, with the opportunity for advancement. The owner called a consultant to help him with a few problems that emerged with the fast growth. “I seem to have trouble keeping my mold-makers and some other key employees,” he said. “They are in demand, and although I am competitive regarding money, I think the new supervisors are not treating them well. Also, I received some complaints from customers about the way supervisors talk to them. The supervisors were all promoted from within, without any formal training in supervising employees. They know their stuff regarding the work the employees are doing, so they are able to help employees who are having problems. However, they seem to get into arguments easily, and I hear a lot of yelling going on in the plant. When we were smaller, I looked after the supervisory responsibilities myself and never found a reason to yell at the employees, so I think the supervisors need some training in effective ways to deal with employees. I only have nine supervisors—could you give them some sort of training to be better?”

The consultant responded, “If you want to be sure that we deal with the problem, it would be useful to determine what issues are creating the problems and, from that, recommend a course of action.”

“Actually, I talked to a few other vendors and they indicate they have some traditional basic supervisor training packages that would fit our needs and, therefore, they could start right away. I really want this fixed fast,” the owner said.

“Well, I can understand that, but you do want to be sure that the training you get is relevant to the problems you experienced; otherwise, it is a waste of money. How about I simply contract to do a training needs analysis and give you a report of the findings? Then, based on this information, you can decide whether any of the other vendors or the training I can provide best fits your needs in terms of relevancy and cost. That way, you are assured that any training you purchase will be relevant,” said the consultant.

“How long would that take?” the owner asked.

“It requires that I talk to you in a bit more detail, as well as to those involved; some of the supervisors and subordinates. If they are readily available I would be done this week, with a report going to you early next week,” the consultant replied. The owner asked how much it would cost, and after negotiating for 15 minutes, agreed to the project. They returned to the office to write up the contract for a needs analysis.

The interview with the owner (who was also the manager of all the first-line supervisors) was scheduled first and included an organizational and operational analysis. What follows is an edited version of the questions related to the organizational analysis.

The Interview

Direction of the Organization
  • Q: What is the mission of the company? What are the goals employees should be working for?
  • A: I do not really have time for that kind of stuff. I have to keep the organization running.
  • Q: If there is no mission, how do employees understand what the focus of their job should be?
  • A: They understand that they need to do their jobs.
  • Q: What about goals or objectives?
  • A: Again, I do not have the time for that, and I have never needed such stuff in the past.
  • Q: That may be true, but you are much larger now and do need to communicate these things in some fashion. How do employees know what to focus on: quality, quantity, customer service, keeping costs down?
  • A: All of those things are important, but I get your point. I never actually indicated anything about this to them. I simply took it for granted that they understood it.
  • Q: What type of management style do you want supervisors to have, and how do you promote that?
  • A: I assumed that they would supervise like me. I always listened to them when they were workers. I believe in treating everyone with dignity and respect and expect others to do the same. I do not have any method to transmit that except to follow my style.
  • HR Systems

    1. Q: What criteria are used to select, transfer, and promote individuals?
    2. A: I hired a firm to do all the hiring for me when I was expanding. I told them I wanted qualified workers. As for the promotion to supervisor, I picked the best workers.
    3. Q: Best how? What criteria were you using?
    4. A: Well, I picked those who were the hardest workers, the ones who always turned out the best work the fastest, and were always willing to work late to get the job done.
    5. Q: Are there formal appraisal systems? If yes, what is the information used for promotion, bonuses, and so forth?
    6. A: I do not have time for that. I believe that people generally know when they are doing a good job. If they are not, I will not keep them.

    Job Design

    1. Q: How are supervisors’ jobs organized? Where do they get their information and where does it go?
    2. A: Supervisors receive the orders for each day at the beginning of the day and then give it out to the relevant workers. They then keep track of it to see that it is done on time and out to the customer.

    Reward Systems

    1. Q: What incentives are in place to encourage employees to work toward the success of the organization?
    2. A: Well, I think I pay them well.
    3. Q: Does everyone receive the same amount of pay?
    4. A: At the present time, yes, because they are all relatively new supervisors. I do plan to give them raises based on how well they are performing.
    5. Q: But you indicated that you do not really have a method of informing them what you are measuring them on. How are they to know what is important?
    6. A: Well, I will tell them. I guess I need to be considering that issue down the road.

    Performance

    1. Q: How do the supervisors know what their role is in the company?
    2. A: I told them that they needed to supervise the employees and what that entailed.
    3. Q: How do they find out how well they are doing in their job? Is there a formal feedback process?
    4. A: I talk to them about how they are doing from time to time, but I get your point and will think about that.
    5. Q: Are there opportunities for help if they are having problems?
    6. A: Take this problem with the yelling and getting employees angry at them. I have talked to them about it and have offered to get them training.
    7. Q: How do they feel about that?
    8. A: Actually, they thought it was great. As I said, none of these supervisors have had anything in the way of supervisory training.

    Methods and Practices

    1. Q: What are the policies, procedures, and rules in the organization? In your view, how do they facilitate or inhibit performance?
    2. A: I really do not think there is anything hindering their performance. I am always willing to help, but I also have work to do. That is why I promoted employees to supervisors, so I would not have to deal with that part of the business. After gathering information on the organization, the consultant gathered operational analysis data from the manager (owner). The consultant used the method provided in Figure 4-3. What follows is a portion of the completed form.
    JOB TITLE: SUPERVISORSPECIFIC DUTY: BE SURE WORK IS COMPLETED AND SENT TO THE CUSTOMER ON TIME
    TasksSubtasksKSAs
    Organize jobs in manner that ensures completion on timeExamine jobs and assess time required

    Knowledge of types of jobs we get

    Knowledge of times required for jobs to be completed


    Sort and give jobs to appropriate employees

    Organization and prioritizing skills

    Knowledge of employees’ capabilities

    Monitor progress of workTalk to employees about their progress on jobs

    Knowledge of proper feedback

    Effective feedback skills

    Helping attitude


    Examine specific job products during production to ensure quality

    Knowledge of quality standards

    Quality assessment skills

    Listen effectivelyProvide feedback to employees about performance

    Knowledge of effective listening skills

    Knowledge of conflict styles

    Conflict resolution skills

    Knowledge of proper feedback

    Effective feedback skills

    Positive attitude for treating employees with respect

    And so forth . . .

    Next, the consultant met with the supervisors, first as a single group of nine to do an operational analysis and then individually to discuss individual performance. He chose to use a slightly different approach to the operational analysis because he expected that they might have some problems working from the form used with the owner. The following excerpt comes from that interview.

    To begin the meeting, the consultant said:

    I am here to find out just what your job as supervisor entails. This step is the first in determining what training we can provide to make you more effective in your job. First, we need to know what it is you do on the job. So I am going to let you provide me with a list of the things you do on the job—the tasks. Let me give you an example of what I mean. For the job of a salesperson, I might be told a required task was to “sell printers.” This description is too general to be useful, or you might say you must “introduce yourself to a new client,” which is too specific. What we need is somewhere in between these two extremes, such as “make oral presentation to a small group of people.” Are there any questions? OK, let’s begin.

    1. Q: Think of a typical Monday. What’s the first thing you do when you arrive at work?
    2. A: Check the answering machine.
    3. Q: That is a little too specific. Why do you check the answering machine?
    4. A: I need to return any important calls from suppliers or customers.
    5. Q: What do these calls deal with?
    6. A: Complaints usually, although some are checking on the status of their job.
    7. Q: Anybody else do anything different from that?
    8. A: No.
    9. Q: What do you do next?
    10. A: Examine the jobs that have come in and prioritize them based on their complexity and due date.
    11. Q: The task, then, is organizing and prioritizing the new jobs you received. What next?
    12. A: Meet with each subordinate, see how they are doing, and distribute the new work.
    13. Q: Tell me what “see how they are doing” means.
    14. A: I make sure that they are on schedule with their work. I check their progress on the jobs they are working on.
    15. Q: OK, so check on progress of subordinates is the task. What next?
    16. A: After all the work is distributed, I check to see what orders are due to be completed and sent out today.
    17. Q: OK, but I guess that assumes everyone is on schedule. What do you do if someone is behind in their job?
    18. A: Depends how far behind the job is. If it is serious, I may simply take the job away and give it to someone I think can do the job faster.
    19. A: I do not do that. I find out what the problem is and help the person get back on track.
    20. Q: So you spend some time training that person?
    21. A: Well, sort of. It is not formal training, but I will see why the person is having problems and give some of my “tricks of the trade” to speed things up.
    22. Q: Anybody deal with this issue differently?
    23. A: I do not usually have the time to do any training. I will give it to someone who can do it, or in some cases, just do the job myself. Sometimes that is faster. After all, we have all this useless paperwork that we have to do.
    24. Q: I want to come back to the paperwork, but first, are you saying that no standard exists for dealing with employees who are having problems with particular jobs?
    25. A: Sure there is. The boss expects us to train them, but with the pressure for production, we often do not have time to do that.
    26. A: Well, I agree with that. Even though I do stop and spend time helping, I often feel the pressure to rush and probably do not do a good job of it. I do try and tell them what they need to do to improve in the particular area.

    Although the format used in the session starts first thing in the morning and continues through a typical day, clues often emerge as to other tasks that are done. The mentioning of “tell them what they need to do to improve” causes the consultant to focus on that task and what other tasks are related to it, because the owner did indicate that providing feedback was an important task.

    1. Q: OK, let’s look at the issue of telling them how to improve. We could think of that as giving feedback to employees. What other tasks require you to discuss things with subordinates?
    2. A: We are supposed to deal with their concerns.
    3. A: Yeah, that’s right, and also we are supposed to meet one-on-one with them and discuss their performance. Trouble is, these new employees are know-it-alls and not willing to listen.
    4. A: You’re right about that. On more than one occasion, many of us resort to yelling at these guys to get them to respond.
    5. A: Boy, is that ever true.
    6. Q: What about the paperwork?
    7. A: Well, it is stupid. A clerk could do it, but we are expected to do it. If we do not, then billing and other problems come up, so we have to do it or else. …

      A: Yeah, it takes away from us being out here where we are needed.And so forth. …
      Other questions that might be asked:What is the next thing you would do in the afternoon?The next?What is the last thing you do in the day?
      That pretty much describes a typical day (Monday in this case). Is there anything you would do at the beginning of the week (Monday) that is not done at other times?

    How about at the end of the week? Is there anything you do then that is not done during the rest of the week?

    Is there anything that you do only once or twice a week that we missed?

    Now think about the beginning of the month. What do you do at the beginning of the month that is not done at other times?

    How about the end of the month?

    Is there anything that is done only a few times a month that we might have missed?

    The beginning of the year?

    The end of the year?

    Are there any tasks that we may have missed because they occur only once in a while?

    You will note that often it is necessary to redefine the task statements for the incumbent. This art comes with practice. The following list contains some of the tasks and relevant KSAs obtained from the TNA.

    TasksKSAs
    Deal with customer complaints

    Knowledge of effective listening processes

    Knowledge of conflict resolution strategies

    Listening skills

    Conflict resolution skills

    Organize and prioritize jobs

    Knowledge of types of jobs received

    Knowledge of time required for various jobs

    Organization and planning skills

    Check on progress of subordinates’ work and provide feedback on performance

    Knowledge of proper feedback processes

    Communication skills

    Deal with concerns of employees

    Positive attitude toward treating employees with respect

    Knowledge of effective listening processes

    Knowledge of communication strategies

    Positive attitude toward helping employees

    Next, for the person analysis, individual meetings with supervisors and one with the owner (supervisor of the supervisors) were conducted. The questions came right from the job analysis and asked about the supervisors’ knowledge of the areas identified, the skills needed, and their attitudes toward issues identified as important in their job. The introduction to the interview was as follows:

    From the interviews, I have listed a number of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are necessary to be an effective supervisor here at Fabrics, Inc. I would like to ask you how proficient you believe you are in each of them. By the way, do not feel bad if you have no understanding of many of these concepts; many do not. Remember, the information gathered will be used to determine how to help you be a better supervisor, so candid responses are encouraged. In terms of having knowledge of the following, indicate to me if you have no understanding, a very low level of understanding, some understanding, a fair amount of understanding, or complete understanding.

    The results of the TNA identified a number of KSAs (training needs) that were deficient, as well as some nontraining needs.

    Addressing Nontraining Needs

    The following nontraining issues need to be addressed to help ensure that supervisory training will be transferred to the job:

    • Have owner (either with others or on his own) determine the goals and objectives of the company and which aspects of performance should be focused on.
    • Set up a formal appraisal system where, in one session, the owner sits down with each supervisor to discuss performance and set objectives. In another session, performance development is discussed.
    • Use objectives set for the year and clarify how rewards (bonus, pay raises, and so forth) will be tied to the objectives.
    • Set up similar sessions for supervisors and subordinates in terms of developmental performance review (at a minimum). Also, consider incentives based on performance appraisals.
    • Hire someone to relieve the supervisors of some of their paperwork so they can spend more time on the floor. And so forth. . . .

    Training Needs

    Several training needs were evident from the needs analysis beyond what was indicated by the owner. Specific to those issues, however, supervisors were particularly candid in indicating that they had never been exposed to any type of feedback or communication skills. They had no knowledge or skills in these areas. Attitudes in this area were mixed. Some believed that the best way to provide feedback is to “call it like it is.” “Some of these guys are simply not willing to listen, and you need to be tough” was a typical comment from these supervisors. Others believed that treating subordinates the way you would like to be treated goes a long way in gaining their support and willingness to listen.

    A partial list of training needs includes lack of knowledge and skill in:

    • Effective listening
    • Communication
    • Conflict resolution
    • Effective feedback
    • Employee performance measurement
    • Employee motivation . . . and so forth

    At this point, we will leave “the training program” with the needs identified. The next step is the design phase. We will return to Fabrics, Inc. at the end of Chapter 5.

    The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.) chapter 5

    This continues the description of the Fabrics, Inc., training program that we began in Chapter 4. Recall that Fabrics, Inc., grew quickly and experienced problems with its supervisors. In Chapter 4, we described how the consultant completed a needs analysis. From this TNA, the consultant determined a number of areas in which supervisors could use training. A partial list included a lack of KSAs in the following areas:

    • Effective listening
    • Communication
    • Conflict resolution
    • Effective feedback
    • Measuring employee performance
    • Motivating employees

    For the purpose of this exercise, we deal with only one, conflict resolution. The first step will be to develop the learning objectives.

    The Learning Objectives

    Some of the learning objectives are as follows:

    • The trainee will, with no errors, present in writing the four types of active listening, along with examples of each of the types,with no help from reference material.
    • When, in a role-play, the trainee is presented with an angry comment,the trainee will respondimmediatelyusing one of the active listening types. The trainee will then explain orally the technique used and why,with no help from reference material.The trainee will be presented with five of these comments and be expected to correctly respond and explain a minimum of four.
    • The trainee will, with 100 percent accuracy,provide in writing each step of the conflict resolution model, along with a relevant example,with no help from any reference material.
    • In a role-play of an angry customer, the trainee/employee will show concern for the customer by listening and providing alternative solutions, using the steps in the conflict resolution model,with help from an easel sheet that has the steps listed on it.The trainee must use all the steps and two types of active listening in the role-play.
    • After watching a role-play of an angry person and an employee using the conflict resolution model,the trainee will,without reference to material, immediatelyprovide feedback as to the effectiveness of the person using the conflict resolution model.The trainee must identify four of the six errors.

    Reaction Objective

    The trainee will, upon completion of training,respond to a 15-item reaction questionnaire withminimum scores of 4 on a 5-point scale.

    Transfer of Training Objective

    When an angry customer approaches the employee and begins speaking in an angry tone of voice,the employee will,immediately,use the conflict resolution model tocalm the customer down.

    Organizational Objective

    Three months after training,there will be a 75 percent dropin letters of complaint from customers.

    Design Issues

    We turn now to design issues. The conflict resolution model has four steps and requires attending to cues at verbal, vocal, and visual levels. From an ET perspective then, it is a complex task. The four steps in the model are as follows:

    1. Use active listening.
    2. Indicate respect.
    3. Be assertive.
    4. Provide information.

    Further examination of the model reveals that the first part, active listening is a complex task by itself,100 as is the total model. So the first decision is what mix of spiral/topical sequencing to use in the training of this model. Active listening, being a skill that can also be used on its own, suggests the use of topical sequencing to train employees in active listening first. Then we will use spiral sequencing to train the total conflict resolution model.

    Teaching of the cognitive component of each of these skills will be completed before the skills training, but for brevity we will discuss only the behavioral component. Using SCM, as proposed by ET, we first determine the epitome (simplest version of the task that still embodies the whole task). For active listening, it will be to use the skill in an everyday situation, such as discussing which movie to see. In this situation, the initiator (person in the role of disagreeing with the trainee) will simply disagree regarding a movie the trainee wants to see. This situation has minimal emotional content and should require minimal monitoring of the initiator by the trainee, as it will not result in an argument. The same epitome used for active listening can also be used for the conflict resolution model because the latter simply takes the discussion to a different level.

    The most complex task will require dealing with a great deal of anger on the part of the initiator of the discussion. Once these two extremes are conceptualized, those in between can be determined.

    Let’s now examine this training at a micro level using Gagné–Briggs theory. For the module related to teaching active listening, we want to begin by getting trainees’ attention, as suggested by Gagné–Briggs design theory. This can be accomplished by showing a video of two people in a heated argument and then asking, “Has that situation ever happened to you? Would you like to have a better way of responding in such a situation so tempers do not flare?” This would allow you to introduce active listening. The next step in the theory is to inform the trainees of the goal. Presenting the learning objective related to active listening accomplishes this. The training would continue to be designed paying close attention to the steps in the design theory.

    Now let’s turn to the evaluation component as an output from the training design. To consider these, we turn back to the learning objectives, which are as follows:

    • The trainee will, with no errors, present in writing the four types of active listening, along with examples of each of the types,with no reference material.
    • The trainee will, with 100 percent accuracy,provide in writing each step of the conflict resolution model, along with a relevant example,with no help from any reference material.

    These, along with a number of similar objectives not shown, will require a paper-and-pencil test of declarative knowledge.

    Regarding the behavioral component of the evaluation, consider these objectives:

    • When, in a role-play, the trainee is presented with an angry comment,the trainee will respondimmediatelyusing one of the active listening types. The trainee will then explain orally the technique used and why,with no help from reference material.The trainee will be presented with five of these and be expected to correctly respond and explain a minimum of four.
    • In a role-play of an angry customer the trainee/employee will show concern for the customer by listening and providing alternative solutions, using the steps in the conflict resolution model,with help from an easel sheet which has the steps listed on it.The trainee must use all the steps and two types of active listening in the role-play.
    • After watching role-play of an angry person and an employee using the conflict resolution model,the trainee will,without reference to material, immediatelyprovide feedback as to the effectiveness of the person using the conflict resolution model.The trainee must identify a minimum of four of the six errors.

    These objectives will require carefully developed standardized role-plays. The role of the initiator will be scripted and standardized to provide each trainee with similar situations to respond to. In addition, a standardized scoring key, which will guide the scoring of a trainee in the behavioral tests, will be developed. These scoring keys will provide examples of acceptable and unacceptable behavior of the trainee, and a rating scale for different responses. There will also be a scoring key provided for the explanations (oral test) that follow the behavioral part of the test.

    We will return to Fabrics, Inc., in Chapter 8, to provide a look at the development process.

    Fabrics, Inc., Development Phase chapter 8

    Recall that in the design phase for Fabrics, Inc., we developed objectives. The output from the design was an examination of the various methods of instruction and factors that affect learning and transfer. These outputs are now the inputs into the development phase of training. The process is to develop an instructional strategy, which leads to a program development plan. The program development plan includes developing instructional material, obtaining needed instructional equipment and facilities, creating or obtaining trainee and trainer manuals (if applicable) and selecting a trainer. Following are partial examples of some of these outputs, starting with the instructor’s manual.

    Instructor’s Manual

    First we will provide a section of the instructor’s manual that will take you through the start of the active listening training. This will lead into the practice sessions for active listening followed by an example of that material.

    Instructor’s NotesTimingPoints to be CoveredReference

    The question being asked is to get the trainees’ attention and involvement in determining the need to learn how to listen.

    20 min

    Ask the question “Why do we need to attend a training session on how to listen? After all, listening is a natural thing, right?”


    As you get trainee involvement, record their responses on an easel sheet. When ideas have been exhausted, examine the sheet, compare it to the prepared easel, and discuss any that had not been thought of by the trainees. Tape both to the wall next to each other.

    Easel points

    • tend to believe that we have the correct answer so why listen to others; they need to listen to us
    • message overload, too much going on at once
    • >believe that talking is more important
    • listening is the responsibility of the listener
    • listening is a passive activity
    Easel

    Now ask for a volunteer to play a peer of yours at a meeting. When you have someone, set up the scenario of you two sitting in a room waiting for others to show up for a meeting. Progress on the task has been slow but sure. Ask them to respond to what you say as they would in a real situation.

    Say “OK, now it is time for practice. I am handing out instructions for the practice sessions using Person 1, 2, 3; it is titled Handout 1. Now go to Instruction Sheet 1, and read the instructions to the trainees.



    The volunteer will answer as most people do in situations like this as they move directly to dealing with the issue. Responses will likely be something like the following:

    • So what should we do about it?
    • We have made some progress.
    • It’s not as bad as all that

    After they respond, point out to all that this is a typical response, as most people move toward trying to address the concern in some way. Point out that what you need to do is provide support through active listening first, then move to deal with the problem.



    Give volunteer the statement to read, and ask to reverse the roles and say that same statement to you.

    When they read the statement, respond something like “So you are saying that we are wasting our time at these meetings?”

    Handout with statement on it


    Now ask for volunteers. To each one say one of the following statements. Then provide feedback as to its effectiveness regarding active listening. . . .

    • I do not want to work with Bill on any more projects; he never does his share.
    • You are always giving me unscheduled work. I can’t get it done.
    • We tried that last year, and it did not work, so let’s not go there again.


    Now you are going to provide the trainees with the opportunity to practice their new skill. You will need Instruction Sheet 1 to read from and Handout 1 to give to trainees while you read the instructions from Instruction Sheet 1.

    Say “OK, now it is time for practice. I am handing out instructions for the practice sessions using Person 1, 2, 3; it is titled Handout 1. Now go to Instruction Sheet 1, and read the instructions to the trainees.



    This is the end of the instructor’s manual example



    The preceding example is a sample of what should be contained in an instructor’s manual. Now let’s turn to instructional material.

    Instructional Material

    Part of the training is going to involve trainees practicing active listening skills they have been taught. Following are the instructions for this (Instruction Sheet 1) and a sample of the exercise “Person 1, 2, 3,” which is an exercise designed to provide trainees with practice situations where they can use the new skill.

    Instruction Sheet 1 (Instructor reads this to trainees)

    “Now that you have seen how to use active listening in your response, we are going to give everyone an opportunity to practice this skill. To do this, we are going to put you into groups of three trainees. Each person in the triad will have a sheet labeled “Person 1,” “Person 2,” or “Person 3.” Now look at the Active Listening Exercise Instructions I have just handed out titled Handout 1, and follow along while I read it out loud.”

    The trainer now reads the instructions from the sheet (Handout 1) going down to the third situation (Situation C) and then asks if everyone understands or has any questions. Once the trainer is satisfied that everyone understands their roles, she puts them in groups of three and hands out the Person 1, 2, 3 sheets, one to each of the three person groups, again asking “Are there any questions?”

    Following are the instructions that are handed out for the exercise “Person 1, 2, 3.”

    HANDOUT 1 Active Listening Exercise Instructions

    Initiator: Begins the exercise with a conflict-provoking statement.

    Active Listener: Receives the statement from the initiator and provides an appropriate response.

    Observer: Watches the interchange between the initiator and the active listener. After completion, the observer gives feedback regarding the appropriateness of the active listener’s comment. NOTE: You have an example of an effective active listening response to that situation, so as an observer you can coach the active listener if necessary.

    Each group member will be alternating among the three roles!

    SituationPerson 1Person 2Person 3
    AInitiatorActive ListenerObserver
    BObserverInitiatorActive Listener
    CActive ListenerObserverInitiator
    DInitiatorActive ListenerObserver
    EObserverInitiatorActive Listener
    FActive ListenerObserverInitiator
    And so forth


    Following are the handouts for the three person groups. Each person in a group will receive Person 1, 2, or 3.

    Person 1

    Situation

    A

    Person 2 is the Active Listener

    Person 3 is the Observer

    You Are The Initiator

    Your boss just finished giving you a lecture for not being at the job site.

    You start. Say angrily:

    “HOW COME YOU NEVER WAIT TO HEAR MY SIDE OF THE STORY. YOU JUST ASSUME I’M IN THE WRONG.”
    B

    Person 2 is the Initiator

    Person 3 is the Active Listener

    You Are the Observer

    The active listener is meeting with a subordinate regarding their performance. The listener has just told the subordinate that her performance is average. Listen and provide feedback

    Response example:

    “YOU’RE SAYING I RATED YOU LOWER THAN WHAT YOU DESERVE.”
    C

    Person 2 is the Observer

    Person 3 is the Initiator

    You Are The Active Listener

    A group of equal-level managers are meeting on a project. You believe that these meetings need some structure, so you have taken control of the meetings. Listen, then respond to the comment by saying:


    Person 2

    Situation

    A

    Person 1 is the Initiator

    Person 3 is the Observer

    You Are the Active Listener

    You just reprimanded your subordinate for not being at the job site. Listen, then respond to comment by saying:


    B

    Person 3 is the Active Listener

    Person 1 is the Observer

    You Are the Initiator

    You have just been told that your performance rating for the year is average. You are angry.

    Say angrily:

    “YOU ONLY RATED MY PERFORMANCE AS AVERAGE. THAT’S RIDICULOUS. I AM 10 TIMES BETTER THAN ANY OF THE OTHERS IN MY DEPARTMENT.”
    C

    Person 1 is the Active Listener

    Person 3 is the Initiator

    You Are the Observer

    A group of equal-level managers are meeting on a project. The active listener believes that the meetings needed some structure and took charge. Listen and provide feedback.

    Response example:

    “SO YOU ARE SAYING THAT WHEN I BEHAVE THIS WAY, I’M ACTING TOO MUCH LIKE A BOSS.”

    Person 3

    Situation

    A

    Person 1 is the Initiator

    Person 2 is the Active Listener

    You Are the Observer

    The active listener just reprimanded a subordinate for not being at the job site. Listen and provide feedback.

    Response example:

    “SO YOU’RE SAYING I NEVER GAVE YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO PRESENT YOUR POINT OF VIEW.”
    B

    Person 1 is the Observer

    Person 2 is the Initiator

    You Are the Active Listener

    You are meeting with a subordinate regarding their performance. You have just told the subordinate that their performance was average.

    Listen, then respond using decoding and feedback.


    C

    Person 1 is the Active Listener

    Person 2 is the Observer

    You are the Initiator

    A group of equal-level managers are meeting on a project. One of these people has just taken control of the meeting, and you don’t like it.

    You start. Say angrily:

    “YOU’RE

    CONTROLLING THESE MEETINGS LIKE YOU WERE THE BOSS. WE ARE ALL EQUAL

    HERE AND I AM SICK AND TIRED OF YOU ACTING LIKE THE BOSS.”


    And so forth

    We will return to Fabrics, Inc., in the next chapter (evaluation) to complete the example. As you might expect, similar exercises appear in the evaluation chapter that are designed to measure how much learning took place.

    The Training Program (Fabrics, Inc.) Chapter 9

    We are now ready to examine the evaluation phase of the Fabrics, Inc., training. We presented the training, and it is time to do the evaluation. In the design phase of the training process, one of the outcomes was development of evaluation objectives. Although we developed and implemented the training, it is critical to remember that developing the tools for evaluation needs to be done concurrently with developing the training, not after it.

    Examination of the output of the evaluation phase of training indicated two types of evaluation: process and outcome. The process evaluation will consist of the trainer, during training, documenting what she covered in each module and the time spent on it. These results will then be compared with what was expected to be covered in each module and the time spent.

    For the outcome evaluation, four types are identified. The reaction questionnaire for trainers will model the one that was presented in Table 9-4 of the text. For the training itself, the reaction questionnaire is shown next in “Fabrics Reaction 1”.

    For learning, we need to revisit the learning objectives to determine what is required. We need a paper-and-pencil test for measuring knowledge (objectives 1 and 2) and two behavioral tests to measure active listening and conflict resolution skills (objectives 3 and 4). More specifically, the first two learning objectives (and the others related to the training but not developed here) are accommodated using the paper-and-pencil test. The content of this test is partially represented in “Fabrics Paper-and-Pencil Test” on the next page. But first let’s look at the knowledge objectives.

    Fabrics Reaction 1

    Using the scale that follows, evaluate the training by circling the appropriate number to the right of the item.

    • 1 = Strongly disagree
    • 2 = Disagree
    • 3 = Neither agree nor disagree
    • 4 = Agree
    • 5 = Strongly agree
    Active Listening Skills
    The training met the stated objectives.  1  2  3  4  5
    The information provided was enough for me to understand the concepts being taught.  1  2  3  4  5
    The practice sessions provided were sufficient to give me an idea of how to perform the skill.  1  2  3  4  5
    The feedback provided was useful in helping me understand how to improve.  1  2  3  4  5
    The knowledge and skills in this session were of value for my job.  1  2  3  4  5

    Circle the response that reflects your feelings about the pace of the session just completed.

    1. Way too fast
    2. A bit fast
    3. Just right
    4. A bit slow
    5. Way too slow

    What did you like best about this part of the training?

    What would you change?

    Comments:

    Note: A similar scale would be used for each of the other components of training that were taught.

    The trainee will, with no errors, present in writing the four types of active listening, along with examples of each of the types, without using reference materials.

    The trainee will, with 100 percent accuracy, provide in writing each step of the conflict resolution model, along with a relevant example, without help from any reference material.

    After watching a role-play of an angry person and an employee using the conflict resolution model, the trainee will, without using reference materials, immediately provide feedback as to the effectiveness of the person using the conflict resolution model. The trainee must identify four of the six errors.

    Fabrics Paper-and-Pencil Test

    Evaluation of Learning

    No specific time limit is set for this test, but you should be able to finish in about one hour.

    Answers to the questions should be written in the booklet provided.

    Please read each question carefully. Some of the questions contain more than one part.

    1. List four types of active listening, and provide an example for each.
    2. List the steps in the conflict resolution model. After each step, provide a relevant example of a phrase that could be used to represent that step.

    And so forth for as many questions as needed.

    The next objective is partly related to skill development. Following are a number of standardized scenarios and guidelines to evaluate them. “Fabrics Scenario: Active Listening” is an example. But first, here is the objective.

    When, in a role-play, the trainee is presented with an angry comment, the trainee will respond immediately using one of the appropriate active listening types. The trainee will then explain orally the technique used and why, with no help from reference material. The trainee will be presented with five of these situations and be expected to correctly respond and explain a minimum of four techniques.

    Fabrics Scenario: Active Listening

    This is read to the trainee: The following set of scenarios is designed to determine how well you, the trainee, have learned the active listening skills. There are three roles here: initiator, active listener (you, the trainee), and evaluator. The initiator is a nontrainee who speaks a conflict-provoking statement to you (the active listener). You, the trainee, listen to the statement, and then respond using active listening skills. The evaluator, who is trained in evaluating active listening, listens to your response and evaluates it based on the use of effective active listening skills.

    Note: The following forms (initiator’s role, active listener’s role, evaluator’s role) are given to the respective people, with the active listener’s role being given to you, the trainee.

    The next sheet is for the person playing the initiator.

    Initiator’s Role

    (The initiator is to be played by the same actor for all trainees.)

    Instructions for the Initiator Beginning with scenario 1, read the sentence describing the scenario carefully; wait until the trainee is ready, and then read the comment in bold next to the Scenario in an angry manner.

    Wait until you are told by the evaluator to move to the next scenario and follow the instructions above.

    Test Scenario 1
    You were just asked by your supervisor (the trainee) to serve on the same committee again. You are angry that they always ask you.
    You start. Say angrily:“OH, NO YOU DON’T. I’VE BEEN ON THAT COMMITTEE THREE YEARS IN A ROW AND IT TAKES UP TOO MUCH TIME!”
    Test Scenario 2
    Your supervisor just talked to you about following procedures. You think, Why me? After all, no one follows procedures.
    You start. Say angrily:“WHY ARE YOU PICKING ON ME ALL THE TIME? I’M NOT THE ONLY ONE WHO DOESN’T FOLLOW THESE STUPID PROCEDURES!”
    Test Scenario 3
    You were just asked by your supervisor for a second time today whether you will be attending the weekly meeting.
    You say angrily:“I ALREADY TOLD YOU, I CAN’T ATTEND THE WEEKLY MEETING BECAUSE I HAVE TO COMPLETE THE STAFF REPORTS FOR TOMORROW!”
    And so forth (for a total of 5).

    The next sheet is for the trainee.

    Trainee’s (Active Listener) Role

    Instructions for the trainee: This test will require you to respond to five different short scenarios in which you are a supervisor and you say something to a subordinate that elicits an angry response. You will be expected to respond using the skills of active listening. The description of each of the scenarios provides what you initially said to the subordinate. When you are ready for each of the scenarios to begin, nod your head to the initiator. At that time, the initiator will say something. You need to respond to the comment, and when complete, explain to the evaluator the rationale for your response.

    Scenario 1

    You asked a subordinate to continue working on a particular committee for another year. Listen; then respond using active listening. Nod your head when ready. . . .

    Scenario 2

    You just talked to a subordinate regarding the importance of following procedures. Listen; then respond using active listening. Nod your head when ready. . . .

    Scenario 3

    Today is the day of your weekly meeting. You asked if your subordinate would be attending the meeting; the answer was no. It is now time for the meeting and you call once more to check to see whether the subordinate can make the meeting. Listen; then respond using active listening. Nod your head when ready. . . .

    And so forth (for a total of 5).

    The next sheet is for the evaluator.

    Evaluator’s Role

    Instructions to evaluator for scoring trainee responses: Trainee fails the scenario if the response is focused on the issue instead of reflecting what the initiator says. For example, a poor (fail) response to the first scenario would be something where the trainee responds to the concern by dealing with the issue “But you are my best person for the job” or “You have to do it; I have no one else” or “Look, I am asking you as a favor to me.”

    Appropriate responses reflect what the person is saying, as in the first scenario: “So, you’re saying that being on the committee interferes with your doing your job” or “You feel you have done your share regarding work committee.”

    It is also important that the response does not sound like a mimic of what the person said. Although at this time we do not expect perfection regarding responses, the responses must, at a minimum, sound sincere. Refer to the tape recordings provided to understand the difference between what we consider mimicking and acceptable.

    For each of the five scenarios, there is an example of a poor (fail) response and an acceptable response. When the trainee explains his or her response, we expect the trainee to be able to identify the type of active listening response used (paraphrasing, decode and feedback, summarizing) and why it was chosen. Answers to why it was chosen are intended to show that they understand the different methods, and thus any answer that does this is acceptable.

    Scenario 1

    The supervisor (trainee being tested) asked the subordinate to continue working on a particular committee for another year, and the subordinate responds. Listen to the supervisor’s response and grade according to guidelines.

    Unacceptable response:“I am willing to talk about reducing the work you have to do if you will be on it.”
    Acceptable response:“You don’t want to be on that committee again because it interferes with your work and you feel you have done your share.”

    Scenario 2

    The supervisor (trainee being tested) just talked to a subordinate regarding the importance of following procedures, and the subordinate responds. Listen to the supervisor’s response and grade according to guidelines.

    Unacceptable response:“You are not the only one I have talked to about this.”
    Acceptable response:“You believe that you’re the only one that i am singling out for not following procedures.”

    Scenario 3

    The supervisor (trainee being tested) called first thing in the morning and asked the subordinate if she would be attending the weekly meeting; the subordinate said, “No, I’m busy.” The supervisor just called again at meeting time to check to see whether the subordinate could make the meeting, and the subordinate responds. Listen to the supervisor’s response and grade.

    Unacceptable response:“The meeting will only be an hour.”
    Acceptable response:“You’re not able to attend the meeting because you are completing staff reports that are due tomorrow.”

    And so forth (for a total of 5).

    Note that we do not provide the test for determining the knowledge part of this objective, where the trainee is asked to explain his or her response orally.

    The next objective is skill related and has to do with conflict resolution. See “Fabrics Role-Play Conflict Resolution” for an example of this. The objective is:

    “In a role-play of an angry employee, the trainee will calm the person using the steps in the conflict resolution model, with help from a poster that lists the steps.”

    Fabrics Role-Play Conflict Resolution

    Read the following to the trainee: The following role-play is designed to determine how well you, the trainee, have learned the conflict resolution skills. There are three roles here: initiator, active listener (you, the trainee), and evaluator. The initiator is a nontrainee who starts off very angry at something you did. You listen to what is said and respond using the conflict resolution model. The evaluator, who is trained in evaluating effective conflict resolution, listens to your response and evaluates it based on your effectiveness. The following forms (initiator’s role, active listener’s role, evaluator’s role) are given to the respective people, with the active listener’s role being given to you, the trainee.

    The next sheet is for the person playing the initiator.

    Initiator’s Role

    (The initiator is to be played by the same actor for all trainees.)

    Instructions for the Initiator

    • Read the role a couple of times and get in the mood suggested.
    • Be sure you understand the issues, so you can present them without referring to the role.
    • Once into the role, allow your own feelings to take over; if what the supervisor is saying makes you less angry, then act that way, and vice versa.
    • Do not refer back to the role after the role-play begins; simply act the way you normally would do in such circumstances.
    • Begin the role-play by presenting the points at the end of the role-play with anger.
    • To elicit an assertive response, interrupt the trainee at least once after the trainee begins to present his or her point of view. If the trainee allows the interruption, interrupt again until the trainee becomes assertive and asks you not to interrupt (maximum of four interruptions).

    The Role of the Initiator

    Your name is Pat. You are the longest working machinist in the plant, with 25 years’ service. You taught many of those who are presently there, including most of those who were made supervisor recently. The company has been busy for the last number of years, and you have been called upon many times to provide the extra boost to get some projects out. You worked hard all your life and are starting to feel it in your bones. The work is getting harder and harder to complete, especially with the older lathes. With only three years to retirement, you are wishing you could afford to retire now. You are really worn out, that is, until you hear the news that the company just purchased one of those new computer-operated lathes. You feel confident that once you get to use the new machine you will be rejuvenated. In fact, the thought of getting to work on one of these new machines gives you goose bumps. You have not felt this excited in years. Actually, the thought of going back to school to learn about it is the most exciting thing, as it is making you feel young again. You are sorry that you missed today’s meeting at which they were going to talk about the new equipment, but your car would not start.

    “Hey, did you hear the news?” your friend Bill called out.

    “I don’t think so, what is it?” you replied.

    “They just announced that Fred is going for training on the new computer-operated lathe. I guess he will be the one operating it.”

    “Are you sure?” you ask.

    “Yep, it was announced at the circle meeting this morning. He was selected to operate it and will be going for a two-week training course next week.”

    You are furious. Fred was only just hired and is just a kid. You deserve first crack at the new machine, given your loyal service. Well, that is it. Your supervisor (the young guy you taught how to run a lathe before he got promoted) never did get along with you, and now this. Well, you are not going to take it. You walk into the supervisor’s office and in a loud voice start off by saying:

    “What do you think you are doing? How can you give the new lathe to Fred, after all the years I have been here? This is not fair and I am not going to sit still for it.”

    Be sure to continue the anger and bring up all the points mentioned in the role-play. Go over them again and again until the trainee calms you down.

    5 days ago

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