social diversity writing

timer Asked: Nov 12th, 2016

Question description

1. please fix and add a paragraph on the following instructions:

  • An excellent paper will incorporate the definitions from the course such as cultural diffusion, ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and assimilation or any of the other terms as they are appropriate to the paper that demonstrates that the student has read and engaged the reading materials and applied it to their interview case study.
  • Include a paragraph using the textbook and course materials discussing how culture is formed and determined.
  • Demonstrate how ethnography is a primary research method for Symbolic Interactionism.

2. please fix this paper with this instructions:

  • Define the terms in your own words while citing sources in the textbook and other course materials.
  • Examine how this is an important element of American history in the development of a diverse culture, while at the same time increasing social distance.
  • Include a description of how Affirmative Action has reformed some of the discrimination and racism in the United States while also enhancing social distance.
  • Attempt to align your findings with Structural Functionalism, Conflict Perspective, and/or Symbolic Interactionism. (Note: You are not just to copy what Parilla’s conclusions are here).
  • You may also add your own experiences to how these things have affected your lives and community.

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES 2014DEC SOC-322-OL010 Thomas Edison State College Submitted by: Student ID: Written Assignment # 1 Submitted on: December 7, 2014 Mentor: Donna Duellberg Assignment: What are some of the reasons for this resegregation? Hernandez 2 What are some of the reasons for this resegregation? When the Supreme Court declared the end of official segregation, the public schools became the center stage for the struggle to promote racial integration and equity in America. For many years desegregation was creating political issues local and State laws. Now the population is changing and for the first time the minority students outnumber whites students in public schools, this changes creates a the new reality of American schools being resegregated. A study by Stanford University's School of Education professor Brown Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the resegregation of American Public Schools," said in a Stanford write-up of the study. Reardon says “hundreds of school districts, mostly in the South, are resegregating. Of the nearly five hundred districts examined, almost half that were under court order to desegregate have been freed from judicial oversight in the past couple of decades, and the results have led to resegregation.” The study shows that many of the gains that resulted from the Brown v. Board of Education decision are being lost. There are a many reasons to cause the rapid resegregation of schools since 1991. First, beginning in the 1980s, courts turned against desegregation plans - denying new petitions to desegregate schools, ending previous court imposed plans and even striking down voluntary plans created by local school districts. Executive branch agencies have stopped the aggressive campaign to enforce the Brown decision and the Civil Rights Act that was so successful in the 1960s and '70s. At the same time, rapid growth in the Hispanic and African American population and growing income disparities have increased the concentration of minorities in high poverty districts. The first reliable data for assessing the impact of school desegregation on racial balance was collected in 1968 by the Office for Civil Rights in HEW (OCR). According to David J. Hernandez 3 Armor “The survey consisted of enrollment data by individual schools and by five racial-ethnic categories (white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) in a sample of school districts. There was no survey in 1969, but from 1970 through 1974 OCR collected data annually. Beginning in 1974, the survey was conducted every other year and included all districts with court-ordered desegregation plans. The sampling scheme used by OCR varied from year to year and thus after 1974 the OCR data do not constitute a representative sample of school districts. In fact, in some years important school districts are simply missing.” In the article "Resegregation in American Schools," authors Gary Orfield and John Yun argue that a new form of segregation is emerging in the nation's schools, particularly in the South. “Many white students remain cloistered in their own schools, particularly in regions with few non-white residents. Meanwhile, non-white racial groups, Latinos, and blacks in particular are often located in schools with a non-white majority. These schools with non-white majorities are also often located in areas with high crime and poverty rates. This new segregation will have several important long-term consequences not only for the Latino and black students but also for society as a whole. Education is seen as a stepping-stone for a brighter future. The goal of educators, after all, is not only to teach students skills for gainful employment. In doing so, education is supposed to give young people the critical and analytical foundations that will later allow them to contribute to their communities.” The report shows that important but limited achievements were made in the integration during the period between the 60s and 80s are in the process of being reversed. According to the study, three-quarters of the nation's black students, 76.6 percent, were in predominantly minority schools in 1968-69 where educational levels were far lower than those of most white schools. By 1980-81 black students in predominantly minority schools had dropped to 62.9 percent. By Hernandez 4 1996-97, the percentage of black students in an integrated environment had regressed to 68.8 percent, below the level established before busing for integration began as a national policy in 1971. Unfortunately, many students in poverty-stricken areas do not have access to quality education. This lack of access thus helps to maintain and even exacerbate the racial and class divisions that are already plaguing American society. For white students in the good academic schools, the public education system amply provides them with the preparation for college and for productive careers. The others, however, get left behind. This is only one way wherein the "segregation" happening in the public schools today ensures that some students will already make it into college, while for many, higher education remains elusive. In the long term, these lack of educational opportunities turns into a social responsibility as well. Statistics has shown that teen pregnancy and drug use is much higher among girls who do not graduate from high school. The resegregation of schools does not necessarily indicate any violation of the ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. That ruling specifically related to finding segregation of schools unconstitutional when it results from state action – when state government or agencies require or enforce school segregation. Brown v. Board of Education stated the truth that separate schools can never be equal. It takes willing leadership, supportive teachers, and smart education policies to do what is right for children and for the future of our nation over the long term. Hernandez 5 References EDUCATION. (n.d.). Retrieved from Gary Orfield, J. T. (1999). Resegregation in American Schools. Civil Rights Project, Harvard University, Civil Rights Project, Harvard University. Resegregation - The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human ... (n.d.). Retrieved from Schools resegregate after being freed from judicial oversight ... (n.d.). Retrieved from STATES, S. C. (154, May 8). Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+). Retrieved from APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF KANSAS:
CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES 2014DEC SOC-322-OL010 Thomas Edison State College Submitted by: Student ID: Written Assignment # 2 Submitted on: December 14, 2014 Mentor: Donna Duellberg Assignment: Is affirmative action necessary to achieve racial equality? Hernandez 2 In your opinion, is affirmative action necessary to achieve racial equality in the United States? Why or why not? The practice of affirmative action has been at the frontline of intense debate for many years. The provisions of Executive Order 11246 “In the United States, affirmative action refers to equal opportunity employment measures that Federal contractors and subcontractors are legally required to adopt. These measures are intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin". A number of programs including quotas, preferential hiring, minority scholarships, diversity, and reverse discrimination have all been linked to affirmative action fueling the arguments. There is a popular belief that Affirmative Action made mandatory the use of quotas. For example, people believed that businesses had to hire a certain percentage or number of African Americans to be in compliance. The truth of the matter is that quotas have always been illegal under Affirmative Action. However, businesses with a certain amount of employees had to make an Affirmative Action Plan that would show that they are making an attempt to hire underrepresented protected minorities in their geographical area. For example, a business could hold a job fair in a neighborhood with a large population of Asians as part of their Affirmative Action Plan. The basic end effect of Affirmative Action should have been that if a business were located in an area with 50 percent African-Americans, then the business should have roughly 50% African American employees. If the business did not have an Affirmative Action plan or were not in compliance, they could face severe penalties. While ratios were and are illegal under Affirmative Action, it is easy to see how this law in effect does promote them. Two class-action lawsuits, Gratz v. Bollinger [02-516] and Grutter v. Bollinger [02-241], Hernandez 3 filed in response to white students being denied admission to the University of Michigan's undergraduate and law school program, provided the United States Supreme Court with its best opportunity in recent years to focus on the constitutionality of adopting such admissions policies. Affirmative action is a program that serves to rectify the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and opportunities to minorities and women. The leading argument in support of affirmative action policy within society is the need for diversity whether in the scope of the workplace or in education. Those in support of attaining diversity maintain the importance of every person coming to appreciate other's culture and outlook on life. Another argument in defense of affirmative action policy in the workplace and in education is a critical need for role models. Successful minority people will encourage and motivate other people of minority status to be confident in knowing that excellence can be achieved becoming role models that influence younger people to strive for excellence. Barbara Bergmann (1996), author of In Defense of Affirmative Action, asserts, "The major justification for affirmative action in the workplace is its use as a systematic method of breaking down the current discrimination against blacks and women. The desirability of diversity provides the strongest justification for affirmative action in college admissions." A campus environment immersed in the diversity of people, ideas, and arguments fulfill one of the essential goals of education by developing the mind and the intellect. Those individuals opposed to affirmative action policy in the workplace and in education claim discrimination is being proposed as a solution to resolving the effects of past discrimination. Implementing preferential treatment is a method that can compensate for past and ongoing injustices against women and other minorities. Notwithstanding, the compensation argument is vulnerable because compensation is only limited to race and gender. Hypothetically, Hernandez 4 a male or female, born poor and white, could be extremely disadvantaged, yet under affirmative action would not collect any benefits. A significant argument directed against affirmative action is that it imparts discrimination on those individuals not covered under its precepts. Specifically, discrimination directed at nonminority only creates another form of discrimination. This argument stipulate that is implementing affirmative action policy within the workplace and in higher education are inconsistent with the principle of merit and they penalize innocent person for the crimes of his or her ancestors. Effectively known as reverse discrimination. The argument can be made that racial preferences are a form of discrimination any time an individual is granted preferential treatment and opportunities and are denied others who may be just as qualified based on race. Regardless of intentions, such policies create new injustices with new victims. When individuals of a certain race are selected to receive special treatment, those individuals must struggle against the idea that their skin color rather than merit is behind their success. The United States is a multicultural nation. It is one of the most diverse nations of the world in terms of race and ethnicity. We have such a rich culture of people of all kinds. These individuals must be given the equal protection under the law. After many years of military service, I believe that America is ready to move beyond race. However, policies that promote race-based discrimination continue to undermine the American Dream and the only way to end discrimination is to ensure that fair and equal treatment for everyone is a reality. In my opinion, affirmative action cannot achieve that end. Hernandez 5 References Executive Order 11246] – Equal employment opportunity". The Federal Register. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 2014-12-13. Bergmann, B. (1996). In defense of affirmative action. New York: Basic. Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 244 Bergmann, B. R. (1997). In Defense of Affirmative Action. New York, NY: Basic Books.

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