research about Cindy Nemser as a CRITIC not as an artist

timer Asked: Nov 14th, 2016

Question description

Nemser is CRITIC not an artist so the paper will be a study of her as a critic?

Your state of the research paper will take the place of a final exam, so you will be expected to show me how well you have understood and assimilated the semester’s material. With that mind, it is expected that your project will address the issues we have discussed throughout the semester. The project consists of 3 separate stages or assignments, building to the final paper:

  • Annotated bibliography draft due in class: Mon, Oct. 3
  • State of research draft due in class for peer review: Wed, Nov. 16
  • State of research due in art office by 3pm: Fri, Dec. 9


In an annotated bibliography, each citation of a source is followed by a summary and evaluation of the source (of at least 150 words for each source) that informs the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

What sources can I use?

6 Dean B Ellis library (DEL) sources (no more than 2 of these can come from our syllabus)

  1. Books: if DEL does not have books on your artist, you can order these through Interlibrary Loan (ILL). There is a link for ILL on the DEL website. It usually takes 1-2 weeks to receive a book through ILL.
  2. Academic journal articles: You can search JSTOR, Art Index and other databases on the DEL website for journal articles on your chosen topic.

2 web sources

  1. using a search engine such as Google, you should perform a search using the name of your artist
  2. DO NOT cite a website that is only an image source
  3. not wikipedia

How do I cite my sources?

Sources should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name in the following manner:

Sample citation for a book:

Author last name, Author first name. Title. City of publication: Publisher, date.

Jones, Amelia. Body Art: Performing the Subject. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

Sample citation for a journal article:

Author last name, Author first name. "Title of article." Title of journal volume no. (month and year of publication): page numbers.

Barker, Emma. "Painting and Reform in Eighteenth-Century France: Greuze's L'Accordée de Village." The Oxford Art Journal 20 (March 1997): 42-52.

Sample citation for a website:

Author last name, Author first name (if known). “Title of essay.” Title of website. Date you accessed website. URL

Anonymous. “Pablo Picasso.” Wikipedia. 2 Aug 2011.

Questions to use in evaluating sources:

  • What material does the source cover? (artist’s early career? political background? Etc).
  • What argument (if any) does the author make?
  • What makes the source unique, i.e. does it give information not found in other sources? Be specific.
  • Find common themes that run through all of your sources and focus on these in your discussion of each source.


Your bibliography must be typewritten or computer-generated with margins no greater than 1.25", using an 11-point Times New Roman font.

It must include 6 library sources and 2 web sources (the rough draft must include at least 6 sources). Each source must be cited correctly. The summary/evaluation for EACH source must be at least 150 words. Each entry needs to be single spaced with double spaces between entries.

Sample entries:

Broude, Norma. Impressionism: a feminist reading. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.

Broude has taken full advantage of her feminist lens to scrutinize modern French science and its relation to Impressionism. Her text is accessible and reader-friendly and uses post-structuralism without becoming a slave to its theories. Her examination of the field, particularly in the chapter entitled "The Gendering of Art, Science, and Nature in the Nineteenth Century," reveals underlying patterns of gender discrimination inherent in traditional French philosophy, which upholds Descartes' theory "I think, therefore I am." Her examination of the social relations between art and science compels readers to take a harder more skeptical look at the sexual politics of postmodernism, whose theory seems to be rooted within the French Cartesian tradition. Her book gives a good overview of the feminine principle and how it is treated in a male-oriented universe. Her take on Impressionism was novel. Most of my other sources focused on the male artists in the group and the timelines of their output, their exhibitions, etc. It was interesting, but not as helpful for my presentation as some other sources because of its lack of specifics about individual works of art.

Dorival, Bernard. "Ukiyo-e and European Painting." in Dialogue in Art; Japan and the West. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1976. pp. 27-71.

Dorival discusses the history of Ukiyo-e prints in France. The essay states that they were known in France at least by 1860 and had an immediate influence on the vision and the craft of painters. First, Theodore Rousseau and Millet and then Whistler, Manet, and mainly Degas were profoundly affected. Asymmetrical compositions, scenes and landscapes represented from above or below, figures shown in close-up, pale palette, flat areas of color, the replacement of Albertian perspective with the system of opposed diagonals: all these innovations were taken up by the Impressionists, particularly Monet, who learned moreover not to reduce the scene he was painting to the limits of the canvas, and absorbed a pantheistic feeling for nature contrary to traditional Western humanism. After the Renaissance rediscovery of ancient art, nothing had so influenced European painting as Japanese prints. This source did of good job of explaining the formal aspects of Japonisme and how these influenced Monet and other artists. I found it very helpful.

Grade determination:

50% word count, quality of summary/evaluations, correct citation format

20% grammar, punctuation, spelling

30% coherent expression of ideas (including writing style, organization of ideas, sentence structure, etc.)


This must be type-written/computer-generated. Turn your annotated bibliography into a paper that flows, covering the various themes discussed in your 8 sources.

  • at least 4 pages
  • all 8 sources
  • TNR 11-point font
  • your paper should have an opening paragraph that introduces the themes to be discussed
  • each paragraph should focus on a theme – reviewing what each source said
  • your paper should have a concluding paragraph that reviews the material covered
  • turn in your annotated bibliography draft to show that you have incorporated suggestions

Grade determination:

50% ability to follow the above directions

20% grammar, punctuation, spelling

30% coherent expression of ideas (including writing style, organization of ideas, sentence structure, etc.)


This must be type-written/computer-generated. Your paper should review the various themes discussed in your 8 sources.

  • 5-7 (five FULL pages minimum)
  • all 8 sources
  • TNR 11-point font
  • your paper should have an opening paragraph that introduces the themes to be discussed
  • each paragraph should focus on a theme – reviewing what each source said
  • your paper should have a concluding paragraph that reviews the material covered
  • you must turn in your peer review draft with your paper to show that you have incorporated the suggestions of your peer reviewer

If you would like, you can be creative with the format of your final project. Suggestions include a website, a zine, a spoof on a fashion magazine, etc. HOWEVER, whatever form your final project takes, it must include a substantial paper of 5-7 pages. You may break up the paper to fit the format of your project (for example, use different aspects of it for different parts of your website or magazine).

Grade determination:

50% ability to follow the above directions

20% grammar, punctuation, spelling

30% coherent expression of ideas (including writing style, organization of ideas, sentence structure, etc.)

National Art Education Association The Women Artists' Movement Author(s): Cindy Nemser Source: Art Education, Vol. 28, No. 7 (Nov., 1975), pp. 18-22 Published by: National Art Education Association Stable URL: Accessed: 16-10-2016 05:59 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at National Art Education Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Art Education This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to THE WOMEN ARTISTS' MOVEMENT exquisite, earthy, pale-toned, and most nated organization called the Art Worker's Coalition. Challenging the exhibirecently, womb-centered. Rarely is Cindy Nemser Reprinted in part from The Feminist Art women's artistic achievement seen or Journal, Winter 73-74, 41 Montgomery evaluated on its own individual basis. Place, Brooklyn, New York Men artists have always had their own communities. In early days they came together in guilds and acade- "make it" in any art world. of meaningful entry into the heretofore male controlled world of art. While it is true that a few women have reached the top, overcoming almost insurmountable obstacles, most women artists find themselves outside lishment, the AWC demanded that members of minority groups, blacks and Puerto Ricans, be represented in mies; more recently, they meet in their these influential showcases. At a meeting late in June, 1969, one art worker favorite cafes and bars. There they have the opportunity to discuss all sorts of aesthetic and personal probists have also become aware that orlems and to supply each other with the technical know-how and professional ganization is essential if a significant contacts that are necessary if one is to number of their sex is to make any kind All over the country professional women have mobilized to fight sexism in their specialized fields. Women art- tion practices of the predominantly white upper class museum estab- Women artists have never had any kind of fine arts community of their own. Each woman alone in her own studio, excluded because of her sex from the male artists' haunts, was the highest art world circles, excludedforced to make her way in solitary from the most prestigious exhibitions,struggle against a basically hostile and denied access to financial recommasculine power structure. Therefore, it was a profoundly revolutionary act pense in the form of grants, teaching that took place when the first women positions, ability to command high artists left the isolation of their studios sales prices, etc. Even more damaging, at every turn, the male art world acts to to meet with their sisters. Indeed, since suggested that a black wing be incorporated into the exhibition structure of the Museum of Modern Art. Juliette Gordon responded facetiously, "Why not a women's wing?" While the idea of a black wing was given serious consid- eration, the notion of a women's sec- tion produced uproarious laughter. It was this inordinately hostile response on the part of the supposedly "radical" membership, Gordon told me in retrospect, that caused her to re-examine her proposal more carefully. "Why not a woman's wing? Come to think of it, how many women ever got into exhibi- tions at the Museum of Modern Art, or, for that matter, into any museum or gallery shows?" One woman's conthat decisive moment that marked the sciousness had been raised, and she undermine women's confidence in to talk to the other women in foundation of WAR (Women Artists began in their ability to make outstanding art. AWC. Soon a group came together to Revolution) the art world has never Over and over they are told that they cannot be wives and mothers and be been the same. As artist Juliette Gor- discuss their situation as women art- don put it in an article on the history ists. of Some were wives and mothers taken seriously as artists. Yet if they are WAR in the Manhattan Tribune, "we who were constantly pressured to put unmarried and childless, women artists their husbands' careers before their found a strange new kinship awakenare viewed as freaks, women who deny own. Others were single women forced their essential sexual and "female" ing based on the discovery that there to take on menial, time consuming jobs were instincts and are therefore incapable ofsimilar problems. While discussin order to continue as artists. In the ing how to make the art world more producing art with the most universal aware, we increased our own course of their initial exploratory talks, implications. Everywhere women artawareness." these women discoVered that they had ists run into biologically based stereoLike the women's movement itself, the least of everything, e.g., exhibition typed assumptions of what their art WAR grew out of a radical, male domi- space, gallery representation, teaching should look like: delicate, sensuous, 18 Art Education, November 1975 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to jobs, etc. WAR not only engaged in pathetic environment at Museum. In February, 1970, the first openly femi- the preceding year, the Ad Hoc Women demanded that the 1970 annual be 50% women artists. The museum refused to exhibition entitled X to the 12th consciousness raising. Carvingnist out a Power, which consisted of 12 youngmake any concessions to a quota syswomen artists who publicly declared tem, and therefore all throughout the women artist groups, they became their opposition to sexist oppression in late fall the Ad Hoc Committee harassactivists making demands upon the the art world, was held there. This Museum of Modern Art and the rest of ed the museum by leaving eggs and exhibition, including the work of such tampax on its elegantly inlaid floors. the New York establishments. They pioneer members of WAR as Sylviana, On the night of the opening of the called for continuous, non juried exhi- path soon to be followed by other bitions of women's work, more one woman shows, a women artists' advisory board, and 50% inclusion of women in all museum exhibitions. For the next year WAR met at Carolyn Mazzello, Vernita Nemec, and Dolores Holmes, had reverberations throughout the art establishment, giving courage to other serious, but here- tofore reluctant, women artists to Museum, a male directed, government come out into the open as feminists. financed artists' center, located in a loft Events were moving rapidly in New on lower Broadway, but in the spring of York at that time, and all throughout 1970, the women began to look around the spring the art world was in a state of for a home of their own. Joining forces turmoil. The explosion came when the with Feminists in the Arts, a more liter- United States invaded Cambodia and annual, the women duplicated the Whitney's selectively distributed invitations in order to gain admittance into the museum and once inside, pulled on red armbands and staged a sit-in right in the middle of the exhibition space. Even after the annual had opened, persistent members of the group continued to picket the Whitney on consecutive Saturdays. The Ad Hoc Committee's antics did not go unheeded. ary and performance oriented group, male artists such as Robert Morris and Statistics for women participants WAR founded a graphics and silkCarl Andre led an impromptu Artists' jumped that year to 21% and have screen workshop at an old firehouse on Strike Against Racism, Sexism, Repres-climbed ever since. This year, though the lower east side. This space proved sion, and War. As part of their protest,the stated goal of 50% has as yet not inadequate, and so the New York State they urged the American Artists to been attained, the percentage of withdraw from the all white male Venice Biennale. The idea was to take the work out of the U.S. Pavilion in Venice and show it at the School of Council's office Visual Arts here in New York. Of course was allotted. Outall the work withdrawn from the Bien- Council on the Arts was approached for a grant to house a Women's Interart Center. Plans were drawn up by July, 1970, but it was necessary for the women artists in the 1973 newly formed Whitney biannual is up to 25%. As historic as the Whitney protest was, the Ad Hoc Women's Committee women to picket the followed it up with perhaps an even before a $5000 grant more meaningful activity. They put of these funds a loft space at 549 W. 52 nale was also done by white male art- together the first women artists' slide Street was rented and the Women's ists, but this fact was carefully over- registry which is today available to Interart Center has since provided the looked by the strike's leaders. At this museums and colleges throughout the women artists' community with workpoint, Faith Ringgold and her daughter country. New curators, dealers, and art Michelle Wallace of WASABAL shops in various media, theatre, attracdepartment chairmen can no longer theBlack excuse that there are no worktive exhibition space, and an arena for (Women Students and Artists use for happenings, films, dance, video tapes, Artists' Liberation) who were previing women artists in order to avoid and discussions. ously engaged in fighting racism in the showing women's art or hiring them to teach studio courses. The slides are The New York art world being the art world became aware of its rampant there and accessible for all those who faction ridden, yet closely knit art comsexism. "How," they demanded, "could munity that it is, it was not surprising the Artists' Strike Against Racism and wish to view them. Hopefully through that other women artists of different this vehicle, women artists will be Sexism see itself as revolutionary while included in exhibitions all over the aesthetic and political persuasions it was willing to mount a racist and soon began to form feminist organiza- sexist exhibition at Visual Arts? After world. Moreover, other groups of women artists have followed the Ad tions separate from WAR. During the all, there were no women or blacks or spring of 1969, in reaction to the hard Puerto Ricans in the Venice Biennale Hoc Committee's example and there Selection." The white male leaders nosed sexism of the male dominated are now slide registries in existence in were aghast. "But you don't underFigurative Artists' Alliance, a Women's San Francisco, Chicago, Washington, Cleveland, and Boston. Indeed, it was stand," they cried, "It's the Venice Caucus was formed within that group out of this desire to know each other's Biennale!" "I understood all too well," by Patricia Mainardi, a painter and member of Red Stockings. Mainardi, Ringgold told me, chuckling as she work that WEB (West East Bag), an one of the earliest leaders of the wominternational network of women artists' recalled the scene, "I'd been watching en's movement, was the first to write that racist, sexist, government supgroups with chapters all over the world, about the plight of women artists in ported Venice Biennale ever since I came into being. feminist terms. All during the fall of became an artist." As a result of the Though the women artists' movement came out of New York, it d 1969, she edited a one-page newsRinggold-Wallace protest, the "Bienpaper whose motto was "Forward to nale" ended up at Museum as an open not take long for west coast women t Tokenism" dealing with the discrimi-show including the works of many jump into the fray. In 1970, artist Jud natory practices of the Alliance whose white, black and Puerto Rican women. Chicago started an art class exclumembers include artists Gabriel LaderOf course, most of the white male sively for women at Fresno State man, Sidney Tillim, and Alfred Leslie. superstars pulled out, but they had to College in which she encouraged her Out of her efforts came an open show take their dearly prized dreams of revo- students to express their feelings about for the members of Women's Caucus lutionary leadership with them. themselves as women through their art. held at International House in ManhatWomen artists' actions continued to Taboo subjects such as menstruation, tan in December, 1970 and the first all accelerate during the fall of 1970. Artist childbirth, personal relationships, etc., Brenda Miller, along with critic Lucy were to be given recognizable form. women artists' panel which was preLippard, who had until then steeredChicago insists that she did not direct sented at the Figurative Alliance in Janclear of the WAR women, formed the uary, 1971. It is ironic to note that in a her students to work in any particular Women's Ad Hoc Committee in order format; she simply gave her permission for the women to work out their "real machismo-minded group, the to program protest the pitifully low proportion of women artists in the Whitney annual.concerns," and . . "the class just took ended in a male fist fight. The Alliance off." was not yet ready for women's Noting that the percentage of women manner characteristic of this liberation. Women artists found a more sym- in the prestigious annual had never exceeded 16% and had been only 5% Chicago was also shrewd enough to realize that it was necessary for her to 19 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to invent a female aesthetic for those women artists who did abstract art as well as for those whom she had moti- a formal teaching situation at Cal-Arts, Chicago still feels that operating within an's art as distinct from a man's art was "Cunt Art" which made a case for an their own establishment, the Feminist tic biological formula or, to quote Chicago, "You see cunts in Bontecu, and cunts in Barbara Hepworth, and cunts in Georgia O'Keeffe and cunts in Mir- powers. Though she admits that L.A.C.W.A. has not, as yet, been able to act in concert the confines of a male dominated instias a large force against the male art esvated to work with realistic images. Her tution limits the potential of her stu- tablishment, individuals within it are answer to the frequently asked quesdents. Therefore, she, along with his- engaging in meaningful actions. Some tion of whether or not there was womtorian Arlene Raven, are reopening have formed a museum action commit- Studio Workshop, where they will intrinsic female imagery created out ofinculcate thirty women students, at round, pulsating "womb-like" forms. $750 a head, with their own brand of This "inner space" ideology reduces women's art and art history with no the work of women artists to a simplisinterference from male pedagogical iam Schapiro's painting and cunts in my work." Chicago was not the only woman artist attempting to arrive at a female aesthetic. In New York, the Red Stockings Artists, led by Patricia Mainardi, eschewing traditional female biological and cultural cliches, sought to define a contemporary women's art based on feminist politics. Marjorie Kramer, another member of Red Stockings Artists, even organized an open show at Museum with this end in mind, tee to lobby for museum reform in congress. Others have made it possible for Womanspace, the west coast equivalent of the New York Women's Interart Center, to come into existence. Offer- ing exhibition space, programs in dance, theatre, photography, discusSculptor Lila Katzen, who is also one sion groups, lectures, etc., according of the most eloquent members of theto its proponents, Womanspace fills a opposition to "Cunt Art," has seriously real need within the entire Los Angeles questioned Chicago's advocation of a women's community. separate education for female stuIt is interesting to note that in Los dents. At a time when the revered ivy Angeles a tangle with the art estab- league women's colleges are going coeducational, Katzen fears that a segregated art program will take lishment forced the newly organized women artists to acknowledge the fact that if they wanted to get their work female artists out of the major field of shown in any kind of numbers, they action just as they are in the process ofwould have to provide a showcase of entering it on an equal basis with men. their own for that purpose. Their To put it in Katzen's own words, "Let us acceptance of this responsibility is not not compound the ills of suppression to be viewed as a capitulation to male by keeping women's greatness out of the main stream." authority. Rather it reflects the unsatis- factory state of the Los Angeles art scene which offers little encourAlthough Chicago and Schapiro When word of Chicago's "Cunt Art"made a big splash in the media, they agement to its own artists while cater- but the results were inconclusive. credo came east in the summer of 1971 were not the only women artists active ing to male superstars from the east. via an issue of Everywoman, an under- in Southern California at that time. In If things are bad in Los Angeles, the ground women's journal, immediatelythe spring of 1971, the newly formed situation in the San Francisco Bay Are there was a counterwave of anti "Cunt L.A.C.W.A. (Los Angeles Council of is even worse in regard to getting wom Art" protest from New York feminists Women Artists) launched an attack on en's work shown. According to arti who objected furiously to such efforts the Los Angeles County Museum for Pat Tavenner, there are hardly any to categorize women's art within the not including women in their highly successful commercial galleries in th bounds of such outworn, male touted Art and Technology exhibition. vicinity and even fewer local artists invented stereotypes. Indeed, The However, though the women wanted being represented and supported by Feminist Art Journal, an international the benefits of establishment power them. Even more devastating, is the quarterly dealing with women's art past and recognized the need for a massive, terrible lack of a tightly knit art commuand present, founded in April, 1972 and well organized group action, they did nity. This factor explains why San not want to imitate the bureaucratic Francisco women artists have tended edited by Patricia Mainardi, Irene Moss, and myself, has consistently hierarchical male power structure and to band together in small groups such spoken out against this kind of narrow thus were unable to fight the museum as the Clitartists and Group One in on its own terms. Demands were made minded theorizing. order to do consciousness raising and for all women exhibitions, inclusion of hold small exhibits rather than Unperturbed by the mounting opposition on both the east and west women artists in forthcoming shows, acoalesce into one large organization. coast, Chicago moved to the California women's art history program, etc., butHowever, despite the absence of artisInstitute of the Arts in Valencia where according to Bruria Frankel, one of thetic unity in the Bay Area, the women of she joined forces with painter Miriam early members of L.A.C.W.A., "No the region have generated enough Schapiro to produce still another leader was chosen . . . and the group energy to maintain an active WEB "feminist" arts program. Their efforts was divided as to how to develop an chapter and a Northern California slide culminated in the transformation of an effective program of action against theregistry. They were also capable of old ramshackle building into Woman- museum. As a result, no direct action pressuring the Berkeley University Art house, which became a total exhibition was taken." Nevertheless, even without Museum into sponsoring a women's art of so called "women's art" complete a direct confrontation, the museum felt festival during the fall of 1972. with a menstruation bathroom, a Isolation, however, can be an asset. the impact of this organization of kitchen where fried eggs metamorwomen artists and responded with a According to sculptor Ida Horowitz, in four women exhibition in 1972 and a phose into breasts, and a lipstick dressSan Diego, the women artists who ing room where a woman sits endlessly proposal for a retrospective of wom- formed the 9 in Process Group came applying make-up to her face. en's art from the seventeenth centurytogether out of their desperate sense of Though Womanhouse drew many to the twentieth century to be held inalienation in an unsympathetic envi1974. supporters from among the younger, ronment and found great fulfillment more impressionable artists, many Yet something even more essential through group interaction. Together and beneficial resulted from this commore experienced women in the arts they created an exciting performance resented its implications that these ing together of heretofore isolated event which they presented before a supposedly "female" concerns were women artists. As Frankel puts it "the Los Angeles curator. universal for all women. They also felt need and delight women found in each In contrast to the sparcity of that the art displayed there was being other was great and it began to elimi- museums and galleries on the West nate the isolation of the individual artist accepted on a therapeutic rather than Coast, New York provides an abunaesthetic level. by nurturing intimacy and trust among dance of exhibition space for its artist Though Womanhouse evolved out of small consciousness raising groups." community. Therefore it is not surpris20 Art Education, November 1975 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to ing that the many women who had been standing at the palace gates for years were now determined to get a place at court. In the fall of 1971, instead of waiting to be offered an exhibition, a coalition of women artists' groups approached the Brooklyn Museum to demand a major women's show. Turned down, but undaunted, they attended the Open Hearing at the Brooklyn Museum, organized by Patricia Mainardi, to listen to artists, critics, and curators address themselves to the question of whether museums were relevant to women artists. For the first time a consciousness raising session took the form of a public event. Spurred on by this activity, the New York based WIA (Women in the Arts) which came into existence in April, 1971, and today claims a membership of 600, took the next step. Right from its inception WIA had set its sights on gaining a foothold in the male estab- left out entirely, reinforcing the already widely held opinion that women are incapable of conceiving monumental projects. Other time honored clich6s about the nature of women's art were also reiterated in the Catalogue state- sell for their own support and the sup- port of the Chicago Women's Liberation Union. Philadelphia boasts a Women's Interart Center of its own. In Washington, D.C. several women artists' organizations have come into exis- ment by Lucy Lippard who listed "ubiq- tence, and in Boston the WEB chapter "indefinable looseness or flexibility of handling," and "a new fondness for the its membership at the City Hall cosponsored by the Mayor's Office of uitous linear 'bag' or parabolic form," held a 119 women artist exhibition for pinks and pastels and the ephemeral Cultural Affairs. female art. heretofore not been particularly vi cloud-colors," as characteristic of Yet with all its faults and defaults, Women Choose Women was a major accomplishment. Providing exhibition space for such major artists as Audrey Black women artists who have in the overall women artists' move- ment, with a few significant exceptions such as Faith Ringgold and Kay Brown are now beginning to emerge. Flack, Alice Neel, and Joan Mitchell, The "Where We At" Black Women Art- Arlene Slavin, Nina Yankowitz, and the first black women artists' show in along with such promising talents as Tobi Zausner it demonstrated that women artists working together can gain entry into the male power establishment and alter its structure even as lishment. Though supposedly leader- ists Group, organized in 1971, staged known history at the 1199 exhibition held at the Martin Luther King Gallery in midtown New York. During the sixties, black women in the arts had been they create alternate power structures torn between their allegiance to the less, its most active members were Black Art Movement, which meant of their own. Women Choose Women, drawn from a group of women familiar reviewed by all the major art pubblack males only, and their own need to with the ways of the New York art lications and viewed by a public here- fight sexism as women. Now artist Kay world. WIA was in a position to demand tofore unaccustomed to seeing womBrown, leading spokeswoman for the and to get a positive response from the en's art, has proved, conclusively, that "Where We At" group feels that "black women artists united are a force that male powers that be. women across the board are beginning The organization's first big push in the male art world can no longer ignore. And of course, the communication of New York Museums demanding an exhibition of approximately 500 this essential message was the underwomen artists to be entitled Women lying purpose of all the women artist Choose Women and to be selected by festivals, conferences and panel disthe group itself. This demand was cussions taking place during the spring and fall of 1972 in New York, Buffalo, accompanied by a demonstration in this direction was an open letter to six April of 1972 in front of the Museum of Modern Art where WIA picketed and distributed statistical evidence of the museum's discriminatory practices towards women artists. Out of this logue, instead of being furnished by the museum, as in the case of primarily male exhibitions, had to be raised by the women themselves and it is to their credit that they convinced Exxon to come across at the last hour. The exhibition, due to lack of space and lack of focus, was not the convincing lenging the myths that have been spread about black women in general." Brown predicts more unity among black women themselves and "hope- fully a coming together of all women in the arts." particular importance because it was male art historian and "name" male The conference at the Corcoran was of carried out on a national scale. Moti- ready to organize and to fight discrimination on every front. During the fall of 1972 there was a ing other women artists, a jury with flurry of unprecedented activity on the three of the group's artists, two outside part of women artists. From the talking women critics and Amaya did the stage women have gone to the doing choosing. The money for the cata- are expected to play as well as chal- Cornell, Wisconsin, and at the Corcoran Museum in Washington, D.C. action came a series of meetings with vated by the outrageous exclusion women artists from the Corcoran bianmuseum directors and eventually Mario Amaya of the New York Cultural nual, a steering committee of seven Center provided WIA with a space to women, assembled by Mary Beth Edelexhibit Women Choose Women. son and Cynthia Bickely, brought However, in the course of the women in the arts together from all negotiations, many compromises had over the country and sent them home to be made. The show's total number of artists dwindled from 500 to 109. Instead of each member of WIA select- to relate to each other and are beginning to explore the various roles they stage with women's organizations and exhibitions proliferating everywhere. New York has seen the opening of the first all women artists' cooperative, AIR (Artists in Residence), while in Cleveland, due to the influence of the WEB Newsletter and The Feminist Art Jour- Even the stodgy College Art Association, home of the conservative artist, has felt the impact of the women of artists' movement. This past January, at its annual meeting, which took place at the Americana Hotel in New York, the Women's Caucus, formed last year during the organization's San Francisco convocation, scheduled a luncheon meeting to discuss the best means of ending job discrimination in the art departments and to make sur more women get on the CAA's decision making board. The women art histori- ans also held a session on women in art past, present, and future, coordinated by Paula Hayes Harper, but unfortunately, their papers, with the exception of Eleanor Tufts's rousing discussion of women artists of the renaissance, revealed little feminist consciousness, concentrating, for the most part, on the images of women as nal, a registry and a women artists' they are portrayed by men artists. Howgroup has appeared. June Wayne, art- ever, the three other sessions on and definitive statement for women's ist and author of the Tamarind Report, women and the art world organized by art it might have been if WIA had not has been holding Joan of Art seminars Patricia Sloane and myself dealt been willing to compromise so much ofin Los Angeles which instruct women openly with all kinds of problems faced its original plan. Many top women art-how to use their own initiative to pro- by women artists including theirexcluists had not been invited to participatemote and market their work. In Chisions from art history. During these and many up and coming young talentscago a WEB chapter is active and a stimulating sessions, women from all had been ignored, while sculpture of areas of the visual arts, Louise NevelWomen's Graphics Collective is in the large-scaled solid variety had been operation creating feminist posters to son, Audrey Flack, Lee Krasner, Patri21 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to cia Mainardi, Lila Katzen, and curator Marcia Tucker among them, spoke out tions, lectures, and conferences. Most tive historical exhibition of women art- ican Art, 1974" (which contained Nochlin and Ann Sutherland Harris to boldly and specifically against the the exhibitions "Woman's Work: Amer- male art structure. To add fuel to the almost 100 works of our foremost con- unequal treatment of women in the year, we are looking forward to a defini- impressive among those events were ists past and present curated by Linda be held at the Los Angeles County fire, throughout the conference, Thetemporary American women artists) Museum. Committee's Rip-Off File (a collection Civic Center; "In Her Own Image," (a of personal accounts of sexist putsurvey of how major women artists downs by male members of the art viewed women) at the Fleisher Art world) were circulated among the Memorial; and the historic exhibition of C.A.A. participants. "The Pennsylvania Academy and Its moved in many directions, and one cannot help but feel gratified by the progress they have made. Along with Feminist Art Journal and the Ad Hoc held at the Museum of the Philadelphia Women," held at the Academy. 1975 has seen the strengthening and growth of organizations inaugurated in women in the art world. Out in Los the past five years. The Women's CauAngeles a variety of women's organiza-cus for Art, under the dedicated leaderThe year 1973 brought many exciting new developments along with the College Art Association sessions on tions including Womanspace, the many faceted Feminist Studio Work- shop, headed by Ruth Iskin and Arlene Raven, as well as several all-women's galleries moved into their own head- quarters, the Woman's Building. In New York, at the Women's Interart Center, a women's museum, complete with historical archives, began to take shape. In 1974, other cooperative women's galleries made their appearance: Soho 20 in New York, Arc and Artemisia in Chicago, and Hera in Rhode Island; and in April of that year Philadelphia was the scene of a mammoth operation known as Philadelphia Focuses on Women in the Visual Arts (Focus) in which every major art-oriented institution participated in a series of exhibi- ship of Ann Sutherland Harris and Mary Garrard, has become an entity in its own right, holding its own sessions Women artists, as we can see, have the rest of the women's movement, women in the visual arts have advanced from small consciousness raising groups to large professional conferences to concrete promotional projects and their efforts are being rewarded. More women are being included in museum exhibitions; more women are being representedby presti- gious galleries; and, most important, more women are taking the initiative at the College Art Association and producing its own newsletter, while and creating new and stimulating The Feminist Art Journal has moved showcases for themselves. In the course of claiming their from newspaper to magazine format. This year has also seen the birth of rightful share of recognition from the several new organizations such as the art community, women artists have National Art Education Association's generated new life and vitality into a Women's Caucus which is actively rapidly deteriorating art scene. If we working to elevate the status of women are to have an art which affirms and in art education, as well as the advent ofcelebrates human existence rather a Washington Women's Art Center than an art that defiles it, it is clear that sporting its own publication, Woman-women will be instrumental in bringing sphere. 1975, the International Year of it forth. the Woman, promises art exhibitions and publications by women all overthe Cindy Nemser is editor of The Feminist world; and in 1976, our BicentennialArt Journal, Brooklyn, New York. m I.E. PrehhnT N.El PIIII,IIA Inside the container-Amaco The new bright, white, strong, plastic container for Amaco Modeling Dough offers many advan- Modeling Dough-a special plastic composition of harmless, color- ful ingredients. Available in 1 lb. tages. A snap-off, snap-on lid fits tight and keeps the dough safe and 2 lb. jars; four colors to choose from: red, yellow, blue and white. and pliable between modeling projects. When the dough has Look for our new container in Amaco Art and Craft Products been used, the empty container is reuseable and will serve many art- Catalog No. 35 coming January 1, 1975. room needs. ( ) American Art Clay Co., Inc. * 4717 West Sixteenth Street * Indianapolis, Indiana 46222 22 Art Education, November 1975 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:59:09 UTC All use subject to
National Art Education Association Interview with an Anonymous Artist Author(s): Cindy Nemser Source: Art Education, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan., 1970), pp. 32-35 Published by: National Art Education Association Stable URL: Accessed: 16-10-2016 05:52 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at National Art Education Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Art Education This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:52:08 UTC All use subject to INTERVIEW WITH AN ANONYMOUS ARTIST 32 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:52:08 UTC All use subject to BY CINDY NEMSER This interview takes place on a stretch of barren marshland s coast of southern New Jersey. INTERVIEWER: (looking around suspiciously) Well, I think we will be safe here. Now, tell me, who are you? Where can your work be seen? ARTIST: Please--no names, no places. I speak for a group of artists whose identity must remain a secret. Their art is disguised as non-art. To reveal its location would destroy its validity. INTERVIEWER: You mean your group never shows at museums or art galleries? ARTIST: Absolutely not! We believe that art viewed in the context of commercial art galleries or publicity-ridden museums is doomed to be experienced in a 33 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:52:08 UTC All use subject to narrow, inhibiting manner. You come to those places primed for an aesthetic experience. You feel gypped if you don't have it, and, what's more, it better be the right kind of aesthetic experience. INTERVIEWER: How could you do away with this unbearably artificial situation? ARTIST: There is only one solution. We must get art out of the galleries and museums. Artists must confront the public on the city streets, the town squares, and the local countryside. Robert Rauschenberg said he was acting in the gap between art and life. We believe that that gap should be eliminated entirely. We want to make an art that resembles life so closely that the viewer will be unable to disentangle the one from the other. Then he can respond to art without any preconceived aesthetic assumptions. INTERVIEWER: Then you would not let your viewers know that they are having an aesthetic experience? ARTIST: Certainly not. In fact we deliberately withhold all clues that might reveal what we are up to. INTERVIEWER: But don't you believe that one gains more out of an aesthetic experience by knowing something about its aims and intentions? ARTIST: Not necessarily. By being able to respond to a seemingly natural phenomenon or situation, the viewer can react in a completely natural manner. He could never achieve much spontaneity if he knew he was viewing "art." Through anonymous art the passive spectator is transformed into an active participant. He becomes deeply involved as a total being, bringing to the experience all his own deep-seated emotions and ideas. At last he can react with genuine feeling, not the artificial simulated response he has been taught to associate with a work of art. INTERVIEWER: If your productions are so life-like, how can you call them art at all? ARTIST: Let me assure you. Our creations may imitate life, but they are as care conceived, constructed, and executed as any traditionally accepted art form INTERVIEWER: What kind of art experience do you offer? ARTIST: Here are examples of the works of three artists who choose to remain anonymous. Artist #1 works on natural scenery. He adds globs of jello to the other assortments of flotsam thrown up on the sea-shore. He festoons beaches with bright yellow ribbons, and stains the ice with vivid Day-Glo paints. The waters of the ocean nearest the shore turn bright green after he saturates them with vats of green paint. INTERVIEWER: He sounds like a mod queen Mab-a landscape painter in the most literal sense of the word. What about Artist #2? ARTIST: He also plays pranks on the natural order. Streams flow upward because of his manipulations. By his ministrations, carved-out hollows of sand, resembling the work of some amphibian creature, appear on beaches. INTERVIEWER: (pointing to the right) You mean that large hole over there might be his doing? ARTIST: It's possible-but I don't think he knows this territory. INTERVIEWER: Does anonymous Artist #3 redecorate scenery, too? ARTIST: No. He prefers to do his aesthetic acts in a man-made setting, and incorporate people as well as objects into his events. INTERVIEWER: He sounds like a happener. ARTIST: He isn't. There's none of that self-conscious posturing in his activities. His most recent creation consisted of a brilliant series of consecutive actions. First, he arrived in a small Midwestern town passing himself off as a research soil sampler. He took various specimens from the locale and departed. A month later, dressed in artist's regalia, he returned in a small panel truck which contained some undisclosed objects. In the backyard of a rented house, this eccentric intruder erected a tent which he kept brightly lit day and night. His erratic behavior caused a minor sensation among the local populace. Peeping Toms came from everywhere to check up on these strange goings-on. Then as suddenly as he appeared, the mysterious interloper departed. Within the confines of the tent, the perplexed townspeople discovered five apple seedlings, nurtured by the earth samples of their native soil. INTERVIEWER: A nice performance indeed, but I'm rather disappointed. After all, messing upI mean manipulating-the scenery, and mystifying the man on the street are not exactly innovations in this day and age. Famous and not so famous artists are doing similar things right at this moment. To name a few: 34 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:52:08 UTC All use subject to Oldenburg, Heizer, Oppenheim, Kaltenbach, and Long have already invaded the urban complex, the town square, and the more remote backwoods regions. ARTIST: True, these people are making an effort to reach out and communicate with the general public. Nevertheless, they are simply making futile gestures. INTERVIEWER: What brings you to that conclusion? ARTIST: They are afraid to go all the way toward merging art with life. Falling back on the traditional gallery or museum exhibition, they inevitably mark their efforts as art, not life. Their activities and creations may look and sound unorthodox, but their means of presentation is depressingly conventional. The press releases go out, the opening occurs, and the critics and reviewers arrive and dutifully record. Why, only recently, a whole plane load of artists, critics, and coordinators were carted up to the Cornell University museum to view the "natural phenomena" constructed by well publicized artists. The critics did what was expected of them, and the first description of their venture into the hinterlands has already appeared in detail in John Perrault's column in the Village Voice. INTERVIEWER: What about artists who do not show in galleries or museums? ARTIST: Just by identifying themselves they mar the spontaneity of the viewer's experience of their art. INTERVIEWER: But without galleries and museums to promote them, how do these artists become known to the public? ARTIST: They form groups and issue statements in esoteric art magazines. Then the media gets to them, and their names appear in major newspapers and periodicals, not to mention appearances on the Today Show. INTERVIEWER: Well, if you wish to dispense with all the claptrap and publicity seeking, why are you telling me about your ideas and intentions? ARTIST: My dear, we as artists must acknowledge our debt to the past as well as our responsibility to the future. It is our duty to art to assume both obligations by informing a small art-oriented group about the actual motivation behind our activities. INTERVIEWER: I guess the art historians will place you between the earth movers and art dematerializers, acknowledging, of course your debt to the abstract conceptualists, and documenting your influence on the erotic perceptionist ARTIST: Yes. It will be annoying to be categorized along with the rest, but we will have had the satisfaction of having done right by past and future generatio INTERVIEWER: Your stoicism is admirable, but don't you think that you are being just little elitist by keeping your secret confined to a small "in" group? ARTIST: Heavens, no! Don't you see that those who don't know that they are involv in an art experience are the real beneficiaries? INTERVIEWER: And you really think you can remain unknown? ARTIST: (gives a sigh of resignation) We'll try our darnedest, but I suppose the will get to us eventually, and then everyone will know about anonymous art. INTERVIEWER: I can just see it. People will be constantly on the alert. They will begin to expect a happening on every street corner and an artist in every backyard. ARTIST: Say, it might not be bad at that! Imagine, we as artists will influence man's everyday living consciousness. We will have altered his whole way of perceiving his environment. Certainly loss of anonymity is a small sacrifice for bringing about this idyllic situation. INTERVIEWER: Your selflessness is overwhelming. I don't know how to thank you for all the time and trouble you've taken to give me this interview. It took great moral courage on your part to reveal yourself to me. ARTIST: A man must do what he has to--but, please, do me one favor. INTERVIEWER: Anything you ask. ARTIST: Please get this interview down on paper before your next deadline. Anonymous art has remained unknown for too long-and one more thing. INTERVIEWER: Yes. ARTIST: When the dreadful moment arrives for us to step forth and disclos identities, make sure you spell my name right. Cindy Nemser is a staff critic for Arts Magazine. 35 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:52:08 UTC All use subject to
National Art Education Association An Art of Frustration Author(s): Cindy Nemser Source: Art Education, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Feb., 1971), pp. 12-15 Published by: National Art Education Association Stable URL: Accessed: 16-10-2016 06:00 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at National Art Education Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Art Education This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 06:00:25 UTC All use subject to T,NN i:- I 31 w i a i ~ ~ ~ :- k _ JIL '7777~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' 0~~ "IM q This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 06:00:25 UTC All use subject to j-T t i I I I :' - ';r jj 4 \1 1i ?li I .1 ii : V -i Pjr ?r ? ly B f .. 7 I, r: " rt i I , , I 4 _ Af-- _0 ~l 114 S * . , A' ii B ii It I? I;R ** \ '\'^ 1 " t K ^L} 'b t+. *^r .k.e This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 06:00:25 UTC All use subject to ; in understanding what his art was trying to communic It seemed to me that a deeper comprehension of his soc ( I r D Y 1 E z A S political, and economic situation might enable a critic i myself to evaluate better the results of this kind of crea Last year, effort. large chun In subsequent meetings with many young so-called "conto get aro ceptual" or "process" artists, I discovered that, like the stu- leaves. On dents, they were supported by the upper middle class Es- check room tablishment. Liberal teaching institutions, up and recently lying flat downtown galleries, and large industrial concerns act like told t fondthat surrogate parents making it possible for their progeny ceptual an to follow their artistic fancies and experiment with any to behold material or concept that ignites their curiosity. Often these nothing patrons refrain from even intruding personally upon the is the season artist. One young creator of plastic objects admitted that he wandering had only seen the owner of his gallery once over a period fiberglass, of several years; this meeting took place at a large cocktail ing, party givenand at the man's apartment. familiar The leading conceptual artists, again like the university w show was student leaders, are the products of a superior education During the and live in an environment that is replete with all material threading goods needed for economic security. Few of these young motionles male artists living in New York are faced with economic clippings t deprivation. They live in an insular community, in comwalls and fortable lofts, near one another, and seldom need to worry worm-inf where their next meal is coming from. extravagan Nevertheless, despite this economic security that enables them to experiment with any forms, materials, or methods they choose, these artists have no more respect for or gratitude towards the Establishment than do the insurgent students who appear to be their counterparts. They say the art ? * * . R world is corrupt, and they continually express their contempt for everything it stands for, even as they accept its blessings. Why should artists who are actually making it with the Establishment, be so riddled with resentment towards it? Since these artists appeared to have so much in common with the university rebels, I wondered if a theory put forth to explain student dissent might not shed light on the motives behind the artists' belligerent impulse to bite the art EL Establishment hand that feeds them. According to many social commentators, one of the major causes of the students' dissatisfaction is their inability to exert any influence ? on the way our society functions. They have no power to make decisions or direct events which are of immediate concern to them. These students know they are economi cally secure, but socially and politically bereft. If this is th true state of affairs, one can understand why students o OF W 0 ? M F A ? 0 today's world are impatient with their impotent position. Artists today are in a similar position. Up until the industrial revolution the artist was the form-giver to the most es sential ideas of his culture. His products were of the utmost importance to the members of the power elite. With th introduction of mechanization, the artist was forced to relinquish his vital function to the scientist and technologist, and from that time on, art has played no major role in the social structure. For Barbara Rose to maintain that art has assumed the burdens of religion in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and is now tossing them off, is absurd.' After ICE. RAPHAEL FERRER COURTESY OF WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART all, religion in its heyday reached masses of people and played an essential role in ordering their everyday lives. Modern art has never come anywhere near to playing this role. Most people are only vaguely aware of the art of any A much more difficult question arose in my mind while I period, was gazing at this perplexing display, a question that has and as for contemporary art, they are, for the most part, indifferent towards it. The public wants museums as a been nagging at me each time I see a larger and wilder source display of raw and synthetic materials. If this is art (and it of amusement and diversion. For the rich, art is a sophisticated form of entertainment not to be found on the must be, since it is in a museum), just what is it about? The television catalogue which accompanied this exhibition stressed that or cinema screen. A close look at the functionings of the art world unveils these works had been created right in the museum and were it for the manufacturer of entertainments that it is. Dealers the direct results of the artists' spontaneous movements. Since so much of the work had to do with the artists' perencourage artists to work in ever new, more radical styles in sonal gestures and private conceptions, I decided that anto catch the attention of the novelty seeking collecorder examination of the artist himself might be of great assistance tors and museums. Museum curators, who measure their 14 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 06:00:25 UTC All use subject to success in terms of attendance figures, in turn welcome any radical art that comes their way, as they continually need new lures to catch the fancy of the jaded public constantly demanding "something new." It is no coincidence that museums are listed under the entertainment sections of and affluent young artists, raised in a democratic idealistic milieu, cannot accept being the entertainers and decorators of the rich as the sum total of their importance. Once again, like the students, they are furious at being in an impotent position. However, older and more experienced than the tourist guide magazines along with cinema, theatre, and students, they also know that outside of this position they local zoos. Nor is it surprising that many critics, whose main have no importance at all. function is to promote this novelty art, had to invent a Some critics have interpreted the activities of these artists formalistic jargon that would impress the pleasure-seekingas a new and radical challenge to the traditional conceptions public without giving them anything much to think about. of art. Actually, these process and conceptual artists are only Many artists today are aware of the peripheral position another milestone along the road artists have been treading art holds. Some turn back to older narrative traditions and for the past hundred years. Traditional art was under attack do figurative art. However, their work is outdated, as it has as soon as its function was usurped by technology. been superseded by the camera. Others continue to utter The most vital art of our present civilization is not to be rebellious cries in the manner of the early expressionists. found in the museums or art galleries. If we go back to the They are the angry voices wailing alone in the wilderness. broader, earlier definition of art which states that art is both Many others, following the footsteps of Seurat, are still "skill in performance acquired by experience, study, or obtrying to embrace technology. However, so ill equipped are servation," and "human ingenuity in adapting natural things they for this task, that the results of their efforts are feeble. to man's use," then the greatest example of art today is to How can they compete with technology when their training be found in the IBM building. After all, the highest art of and financial backing in most technological fields is so insignificant? The only valid use so far found for technological every era was a concrete embodiment of the ideas and values that civilization most respected. The Egyptian pyraart is its entertainment value. It has been used to provide mids were vast monuments to the spiritual beliefs that condiverting visual patterns on major television networks. trolled every phase of Egyptian life. The same could be said Some of the artists involved with process and conceptual for the Greek temple, the medieval cathedrals, and the sixart realize the futility of personal expressions of anguish, and teenth and seventeenth century churches and palaces. Today they also see the hopelessness of the mad rush to marry with technology rules our lives, and its tremendous force takes technology. These young people are most acutely aware of the terrible dilemma in which art finds itself today. They the forms of gigantic rocket ships and mammoth com- know that art cannot usurp the place of technology and science in our materialistic culture. They also realize that no one really cares about expressionistic statements. If people can ignore realistic photographs of the horrors perpetrated in Viet Nam and Biafra, what degree of feeling can painted canvases produce? These young artists, some of the most sensitive, intelligent, spoiled, and frustrated individuals of our day, are tormented by the desire to express their sense of alienation, outrage, and misery towards a materialistic world that has transformed the artist into a court jester. How to express their frustration? The answer: lash out at the public in ways guaranteed to attract its attention. Reveal that you know the public has only given the concept of art lip service for years. Stick out your tongue at the amusement seekers who have been kidding themselves into believing they have been visiting museums to attain "culture" when they only wanted distraction. Turn the museum into a shambles of dirt, grime, and refuse. Pretend you are supplying high art, when you are only delivering the wasteproducts of a viciously destructive environment. Deprive the dealers of consumer goods that can be sold as art, but supply the n* t mtrii * ? * ? * ? *_ * _ media with plenty of novelty news strictly for laughs. This is precisely what these conceptual artists are doing, and though they kid the press, the public, and sometimes even themselves as to their motivations, their feelings are revealed in their art, their actions, and their life style. They dress like hippies: long beards, long hair, mod and workclothes abound. They talk either tough and rebellious or detached and cerebral. Often they are surly in public situations, but in private they cling to each other and to the art Establishment like frightened children. They have nothing else. Forced into the role of entertainers, they need the dealers, the rich collectors, and, above all, the media to keep them going. (Some galleries even supply them with public relations people.) Caught between rage and dependency, they strike out whenever possible, but they still know which side their bread is buttered on. One artist associated with a prominent so-called "far out" gallery vehemently urged his fellow artists to withdraw their works from museums and galleries. The next month he had his annual one-man show at the aforementioned Establishment. Actually this sort of inconsistency is a direct result of the terrible impasse art has reached. These intelligent, educated, * ? UNTITLED. BILL BOLLINGER COURTESY OF WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART puters. This realization does not hold out much hope for the future of art, as we know it, as an important influence on society. Indeed, it is apparent that museum art is experiencing its final death throes at this very moment. As it grasps for breath, one cannot blame the most sensitive and vigorous of its practitioners for trying to revenge themselves on the materialistic society that has made them members of a dying race. Cindy Nemser is staff critic for Arts Magazine. REFERENCES Barbara Rose, "Problems of Criticism VI: The Politics of Art, Part 111", Artforum, Vol. VII, No. 9, May, 1969, p. 50. 15 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 06:00:25 UTC All use subject to
Review Reviewed Work(s): Art Talk by Cindy Nemser Review by: Elsa Honig Fine Source: Art Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Summer, 1976), pp. 426+428+430 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: Accessed: 16-10-2016 05:49 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at College Art Association, Taylor & Francis, Ltd. are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Art Journal This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:49:13 UTC All use subject to books in review mained mained much much the the same; same;progress progresshas hasbeen been J. J. L. L. Collins, Collins,Women Women Artists Artists in America in America II. II. gallery, gallery, and and is is oneone of 55 ofnationally 55 nationally selected selected women for the American Artists '76: A Celeslow, slow, and and change change cyclical. cyclical. Chattanooga, Chattanooga,Tennessee, Tennessee, 1975. 1975. $15.00. $15.00. Art Talk Talk Cindy Cindy Nemser Nemserasks asksthe thesame same bration opening at the McNay Art Institute,In Art Jim Jim Collins' Collins'Women Women Artists Artists in America in America IISan is,IIAntonio, is, on May 23. questions questions that that have havealways alwaysbeen beenasked askedabout about the woman woman artist. artist. Were Wereany anyof ofthe thewomen women I would like to propose all of the above plus by by the thevery verynature nature of of its its ambitious ambitious undertakundertakgreat great artists? artists? Certainly, Certainly,atatthe thetime timethey they the following ing, ing, vulnerable vulnerable toto omissions. omissions. In his In his short short inin- artists (admittedly, personal fafor an immediate addendum: Jennettworked worked they they were wereconsidered consideredasascompetent competent troduction troductionCollins Collins writes, writes, "Two "Two years years of vorites) conof continued research found me with a wealth of Lam, famous for her beach-chair motif, isand were were as as well well paid paidasastheir theirmale malecolleagues colleagues (some of whose names are now household represented in the permanent collection of the material on the contemporary woman artist, Museum, the Brooklyn Museum,words in homes where art is important), and and this necessitated the compilation of a Whitney refthey were equally favored; when Charles I and the Yale University Art Gallery. She erence source focusing primarily on those her paintings bi-annually in the purchased 500 pounds of ultramarine, he split American women who are working now." exhibited The Grand Central Moderns Gallery and then in it between his two favorite painters, Anthony prospective book-buyer has the impression the Cordier-Ekstrom Gallery and is on the Van Dyck and Ann Carlisle (ca. 1610-1680). that here is a complete biographical dictionat the University of Bridgeport. Eva But I do not think there were any women ary of contemporary women artists infaculty the Llor6ns Allen, Spanish-born American painter, before the 20th century, with the exception of fields of painting, sculpture, printmaking, Mary Cassatt, who were innovators. (I cannot and photography, yet a glance through who the received her B.F.A. and M.F.A. from use the word genius.) Most aimed to please, Yale, has had one-woman exhibitions in Madunnumbered pages reveals that Nevelson, and were praised for their beauty and femirid, Rome, Boston, and New Haven; her work O'Keeffe, Marisol, Bontecou, Joan Mitchell, has been included in Biennales of Sao Paulo nine graces as well as their talent - and given Elaine de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, Nell (1953 and 1957) and of Rio de Janiero (1955) the conditions of their sex, it is amazing that Blaine, Peggy Bacon, Isabel Bishop, and Hedda Sterne-to name a few-are all missand is in the collection of the University ofthey accomplished so much. Were they married, did they have children, and how did they Massachusetts and Simmons College. The ing. Why? Because most of them appear in painter Jean Koch has exhibited on both themanage to combine marriage and a career? In Collins' earlier compilation entitled Women East and West Coasts and in the Southwest, Nemser's sample, ten out of the twelve Artists in America: Eighteenth Century to the and her work is in the Hirshhorn Collection, women were married, and eight had one or Present. But even after that seeming overEdward and Betty Marcus Collection, Mrs. more children. It is possible to combine marsight is cleared up, such famous figures as Richard Tucker Collection, Sears Building riage, family, and a career, and there are a Joan Mitchell, Sylvia Mangold, and Sylvia (Chicago), Seattle Civic Center, University ofvariety of solutions. Rosa Bonheur, in choosSleigh are still not included in either volume. New Hampshire, and Oklahoma Art Center. ing to remain single, wrote: "Circumstances June Wayne, who appears only in the earlier Among publication, is given a very incomplete de- her recent prizes are Tarrant Countydo not allow all women to combine the various Award (1971), Delta Art Exhibit (1973), and necessary elements of happiness. In my case, scription with no mention of the Tamarind North Texas Painting and Sculpture Show it has been art which has monopolized my Workshop, which she established. existence .... But no one more than I better (1973). The entries are unfortunately sketchy and inconsistent. Sometimes a birthdate is given Is there any value to Collins' book? Yes, Icomprehends that to be a wife and mother as but not always. One worries about the believe relia- that despite its serious flaws it is a well as an artist must be complete bliss." Herculean beginning to the compilation of an Rachel Ruysch was productive throughout bility of the data. For example, in Women Artists in America II Anna Hyatt Huntington up-to-date biographical dictionary of womenher career and had ten children! But of artists is listed only under her maiden name, the in America. Athena's blessing on the course, many women artists chose to rem single at a time when they were legally s year of her birth (1876) is not given nor islabor. that ELEANOR TUFTS ject to the whims of men, and when the wo of her recent death, and cited as her one printhey produced and the money they earn Southern Methodist University cipal work is Boy with Great Dane, "done with were not their own. her sister." Why not her monumental Joan of Arc on Riverside Drive, or El Cid, Don As in Nemser's group, many of the women artistsCharles of the past were married to artists; Cindy Nemser, Art Talk, New York, Quixote, etc. at the Hispanic Society in New someblack had more successful careers than their and York? Among Huntington's distinctions isScribner's Sons, 1975, 367 pp., 23 husbands. A few, like Mary Beale's (1632that she was elected a corresponding memberwhite illustrations, preface by Marcia 1697) husband, Charles, managed the houseof that Spanish male bastion, the AcademiaTucker. de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. hold, stretched the canvases, and mixed the colors for their wives (we also read how her When Christine de Pisan (ca. 1363-ca. 1431) The book's major drawback, however, is the children played among the canvases in her omission of leading women artists such as wrote, "If it were customary to send little "Paynting roome"). Antonio Zucchi, although Catherine Murphy, Louisa Matthiasdottir, girls to school and to teach them the same also a member of the Royal Academy, perMay Stevens, and Pat Mainardi, who have all subjects as are taught little boys, they would the same chores for his wife, Angelica learn just as fully and would understand formed the had important one-woman exhibitions in New York recently. What about Audrey Flack, subtleties of all arts and sciences. ... If theyKauffmann, during their years together in (He also may have fulfilled the male who has been in the Whitney Annual, the understand less it is because they do not Rome. go fantasy of living off the earnings of his wife.) New York Cultural Center, and the New out and see so many different places and Photo Realism show at the Wadsworth AtheMale art critics have always assumed that things but stay at home and mind their own work," she became one of the first women to there was something peculiarly feminine in neum? The sculptors Mary Frank, Sue Fuller, and Nancy Grossman are missing. The young publicly advocate equality between the sexes, women's work, and developed a vocabulary of painter Deborah Remington is overlooked, and perhaps the first feminist. And ever since "put-down" phrases to describe it. When they published Cyte of Ladyes, the condition of could not perceive this special quality, they yet she has exhibited at the Institute of she Conresponded by giving women what to them was women and the art they produced has retemporary Art, Boston, and in a New York ART JOURNAL, XXXV/4 426 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:49:13 UTC All use subject to never used maquettes; she worked directlytive "ladyes" one can meet, a role she enjoys the ultimate accolade: "She paints like a tremendously. man!" Even though some feminists are at- with her material. Twice she mentioned how tempting to create a female imagery, I agreeannoyed she was when people, after meeting The interview with Lee Krasner is a finely her for the first time, would exclaim: "We'd honed chronology of the artist's development, thought you'd be a larger woman." Hepwortha biography of the forces in her life that "over-all female sensibility" in women's art. claims great strength and huge muscles are shaped her work. Krasner has a non-intellecBeing a woman, like being a black, is only one often a hindrance to a sculptor, thereby fi-tual approach to her art. She talks of the aspect of the totality that is a human being and makes an artist. Ironically, when nally putting an end to the myth that womenimages emerging from her unconscious, imare too frail for the profession. (As Lila ages whose meaning she does not understand; Charles Sterling, by the process of deduction, has found out, it is the one myth that indeed, sometimes they frighten her. In redeclared that the portrait of MademoiselleKatzen du men will not relinquish as they continue to Val d'Ognes, lone one of David's most popular jecting the idea that she only emerged as an dominate sculpture departments at universipaintings of a woman, was in actuality from independent artist after Pollock's death, the hand of Constance Marie Charpentier ties and art schools.) According to Hepworth,Krasner claims she was too busy to prepare for the yearly shows necessary to promote (1767-1849), the painting suddenly acquired "it's not the strength that does it, it's a feminine attributes. Concluded Sterling: "Its rhythm." Occasionally during the interview,oneself during the years her husband was poetry, literary rather than plastic, its en- Nemser sounds a jarring, politicized note, emerging as a giant force in American art. semble made up from a thousand subtle atti- bringing her prejudices to bear in trying toShe gave him nurturance, and is still contudes, all seem to reveal the feminine spirit." shape Hepworth's responses. But Hepworth sumed by the details of the Pollock estate, but Cindy Nemser's interviews with artists has her own sense of timing, her own sense ofhe in turn supported and encouraged her have been appearing in various art journals worth, and her personal political necessity. work, and believed in what she was doing. With Sonia Delaunay, Nemser becomes in-(Grace Hartigan has a different view of the for the past several years. She handles the tape recorder well; the interviews in Art Talk trusive again. Delaunay was content to workrelationship.) Krasner claims that she made and to live; her work and life were one and it the decisions that affected her life, and arare immediate, but they are also a partial history of women and women artists of the was inner necessity that compelled her and ranged her priorities; her work and not her 20th century, beginning with Sonia Delaunay not success and recognition in the market- promotion came first. (b. 1885) and concluding with Nancy Gross- place. "It's a false idea you have -an Ameri- Alice Neel, the portrait painter, never did a man (b. 1940). Surveyed are not only twelve can idea that artists must be famous," she self-portrait; she wasn't her type! But she vivartists, but three generations of art and told Nemser when asked why she did not idly painted her life for Nemser: she lived the women. Their personal and individual histo- promote her work. She was not creating awild, Bohemian existence of the starving artries are a microcosm of the larger community product, she did not want a dealer to limit herist in the Greenwich Village of the twenties in which they were nurtured and worked. The freedom, and she did not have the same needsand thirties, with husband and lovers, and as her husband to communicate her ideas to a mysteries of the creative process and the knew all the Village characters. (Ironically, sources of their imagery are also explored, as larger audience. Like Hepworth, her art was her sons became "straight" professionals, a are the chance meetings and chance locations part of her total environment; she created lawyer and a physician, while she wanted that influence and redirect one's "oeuvre." them to become a ballet dancer and a concert fashions as well as furniture, prints for fabAlthough at times I found Nemser's questions rics as well as paintings. All were equally pianist, respectively. She put them both intrusive, still the individuality of each artist important. "One day you make paintings and through school and they and their families comes through; some are sensitive, poetic, one day you make clothing." Her friends are very close and the subjects of many of her humble, and funny, others are arrogant, stribought her work, and merchandised her prod- recent works.) Her paintings are her autodent, powerful, and somber. I found ucts. myself It was a natural development, and not biography; the people she touched base with a result of a conscious decision that she changing the rhythm of my reading toasaccomand the landscape in which she lived became pany the cadence of each "voice." What is became the support of the family. She theand subject matter for her paintings. She surrounds herself with these canvases-most most exciting about all these women is their Robert had one son. need for and commitment to work. Married or The interview with Louise Nevelson is bethave not been sold, as she never painted t ter than those with the other two "old missingle, their work has been the core of their please the sitter or the marketplace -as if lives. It is the common thread that unites tresses." Nevelson has been politicized and a family gathering, and she the matriarch o has claimed "I am a woman's liberation." And them, for they have no other commonality the clan. Even with two children to suppor save for the fact that they are women, and Nevelson and Nemser are more although Neel continued to paint, working at night they have survived and thrived in a man's than a generation apart, they both exist in,while they slept, because, as she explained, world, and that they do not deny theand "femiare at variance with, what Nevelson re- a woman stops working for ten years to rai fers to as the New York Art Mafia. Nevelson nine" quality in their work. But as Nevelson her children, she loses touch with her art a refusedis to conform to their dictates and was becomes a dilettante. pointed out, that does not mean the work not powerful. It is feminine because females excluded from some significant events, butGrace Hartigan never thought much about did it, and "femininity" and "powerful" are not care. After all, she concluded, she does how difficult it was to be a woman artist, but not mutually exclusive terms. None of shethese is the original, she is the creator, she is the she did think about how hard it was to paint. women fear success, but the inner forces that universally known artist whose work will Married at seventeen, with child at eighteen, drive them to create have nothing to do with her, while they are just critics and survive she only started to draw during her pregthe "bitch goddess" success. curators, temporary aberrations on the art nancy when she and her husband took eveBarbara Hepworth spoke with a soft,scene. gentle Nevelson married early, thinking she ning classes together. Her child resented her voice and was at peace with herself and had with no alternative, produced a son, the sculppainting, and after her husband remarried, the universe. There was a flow and a balance tor Mike Nevelson-she still has guilt feelher son, age twelve, went to live in California in her life; the many facets-wife, mother,ings about her lack of maternal involvewith his father. She never saw him again and ment-and then discarded her husband and daughter, artist-complementing each other, it remains the most bitter experience of her one aspect reinforcing or stimulating the began to recreate herself. Her aim was tolife. liveDuring the forties in New York she lived other. The pain that comes with living a closea full, complete, total life, and never to beher male colleagues: she was poor, tough, like family life-accidents, illness, and death- "second best or below." Indeed, she is an worked orig- hard, and they respected her as they never destroyed her. From this pain she was were not used to such determination in a inal. Not only is Nevelson one of the most able to create a new work of art, a new life. significant of contemporary artists, she is one During the fifties the beautiful Harwoman. Unlike many modern sculptors, Hepworth of the most interesting, feminine and decoratigan was one of the darlings of the art world with Nemser when she writes that there is no 428 ART JOURNAL, XXXV/4 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:49:13 UTC All use subject to and sold most all her paintings, but the vi- materials and concepts, and be out of step but did not take her work seriously. Now that with what is au courant in the art world. No the significance of her forms has been recogAbstract Expressionists from the face of nized, the people are threatened by her. Her work one would explain their recognition, or indeed earth. Neglect hurts, but it does not stop the in the sixties had social content; she tried the to success of any of the twelve artists inneed to paint. Now teaching in Baltimore, make it accessible to everybody, but she iscluded no in Nemser's survey, in the terms used where she lives with her second husband, she longer interested in working for the general by Fuseli to explain Angelica Kauffmann's is supportive of her women students, but she populace. After the Nixon debacle, she lost phenomenal success two centuries ago: "She cissitudes of the sixties almost obliterated the interest in them. rejects the solutions suggested by Nemser, pleased, and desired to please, the age in which she lived." believing each woman has to find a personal Although I found the remaining interviews ELSA HONIG FINE direction for her life and her work. Hartigan (with Eva Hesse, Lila Katzen, Eleanor Antin, Knoxville, Tennessee also has no time to be politically involved; Audrey she Flack, and Nancy Grossman) less inmust devote herself to her work-"selfishly teresting, Nemser is at her best with this and thoroughly." group; the rhythm of her responses and quesAll inquiries should be addressed to the For a brief period Marisol encapsulated tions the fits in with their responses, and their new Book Review Editor: Donald B. Kuspit, traditional 18th- and 19th-century role of life the experiences are similar. Most are too Department of Art, Ackland Art Center, female artist. She was a glamorous, elegant, young in the development of their biographies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, mysterious figure who was photographed to at fascinate. What is exciting about this Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514. Unsolicited manuall the "right" parties. Myths were created group is that they are not followers, and thatscripts will not be considered. about the Marisol mystique; men adored they her have had the courage to explore new 430 ART JOURNAL, XXXV/4 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:49:13 UTC All use subject to
A Revolution of Artists Author(s): Cindy Nemser Source: Art Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Autumn, 1969), pp. 44+52 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: Accessed: 16-10-2016 05:53 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at Taylor & Francis, Ltd., College Art Association are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Art Journal This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:53:11 UTC All use subject to mon life, or the monotony of routine repeated, he has also isolated the subject from its original meaning, and thereby permits special significance to be attached to the image by virtue of its dislocation from ordi- nary experience. We view a painting or a sculpture, not a road sign or an oversized Now the question arises that if this isAinRevolution of Artists deed the case, will the art museums retreat, or will they acknowledge and accept the preCindy cept that designed products, rooted in our Nemser technological tradition, are contemporary arts Artists as well as students are actively reof significance? If these products are acknowl- edged as having the potential of being a belling against the stifling materialism of modern society. Many young artists are refus- major, contemporary art, and we develop an ing to make art objects. To this group, colappropriate aesthetic for their consideration, lecting and connoisseurship are abhorrent acthen perhaps we may begin to achieve some tivities, symptomatic of the evils everywhere of the quality control in design so desperapparent in our materialistic, object-oriented ately needed for these arts-and here I speak culture. These artists refuse to make objects of the entire range from architecture to the The Magic Theater represents the latter, that will be treasured as examples of virtuosand as such it was an adventure into the portable objects for office use. ity and expert craftsmanship, or contemknown rather than the psychic. Eight This designneed for revising our conceptions conplated as icons of pure sensibility. They are ers, starting with concepts rooted in cerning the techthe artist is given impetus by the acno longer interested in creating decorations nology of today, produced art objects that tions of artists. Certainly we are seeing a tenfor the eyes of the rich and privileged. Art, are genuinely modern. Since the results dencywere for many professionals to retreat from to them, is not meant to be savoured only by presented as eight, individual pieces, the realm andwhere amateurs can easily compete, those on the art scene or by people affluent placed in an art museum, we lookedand at this them may account for the greater interest, enough to muster up the price of admission as works of contemporary art, and shown we could by the capable and imaginative artistinto the Museum of Modern Art. They want do this with or without considering the designer, in those fields where only the to make an art that will speak of universal theatrical elements of the overall production. professional can command the skills and the experience, an art that is accessible to all, an But with each piece, there was more than a apparatus. This influx of quality designersart that tears down barriers between art and unique work of art, there was the possibilityinto the periphery of technology, without life. This kind of art, they believe, must of an assembly-line with non-utilitarian, envi- being technologically employed, has already burst the tight confines of museums and galronmental objects coming out of the termi- made inroads on reorienting our vision of leries and reach out to everyman. nal, much as automobiles drive off the assem- the industrial object. At least that is what The beginnings of this impulse towards a bly line, one-a-minute. seems to be happening if I am correctly read-universal art can be traced back to the Today we produce a great many designed ing the trends in recent exhibitions. large-scaled works of the painters and objects in this way. Some have some utilitar- This then was the experience of The Magictors of the New York School in the 'fifties ian purposes, but all have, in common with Theater, an environmental experience proand 'sixties. Too large for private collection The Magic Theater, their dependence upon grammed for the viewer of art. If its signifithese works demanded a public patronage industrial support. They are not unique, cance is recognized, then perhaps a bridge from government and industry. As that p has been built between the world which has hand-crafted items. They are, in this sense, tronage was only rarely forthcoming, som anonymous rather than personal expressions.been outside of the museums and that tradiartists turned to less expensive and more ra We might wish to call the designers by theirtionally inside them. The outside world has ical forms of public art. Robert Rausche names, and we may see the individual handbeen made more significant by the act of berg and Allan Kaprow, among others, in the design, but the artist contributes the bringing it inside, so that we look at it for its created "Happenings," which encourage own sake. But we must also look at it where conceptions rather than the object. spectators to become part of the art event itTo this observer of The Magic Theater, it originates and exists as an integral part of self. Other artists began to produce inexpenwhatever the other aspects and effects, it was our contemporary society. If we can truly do sive objects some of which were designed to the very act of placing these pieces in the art this, perhaps some magic has indeed been be disposable. Posters and color prints began museum that was the factor of greatest signif- wrought. to flood the market. However, these relatively icance. The act of acceptance of the objects, 1 May 25 to June 23, and July 9 to July 28, 1968. inexpensive items are still too closely conand their underlying concept, was an act of Also shown in Montreal and later New York. nected to our assembly-line culture to suit recognition for mass-produced art as a signif- 2 The Magic Theater was commissioned to the many artists. Therefore, they have made an Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum by the Performing icant art of our time. That an elaborate ar- hamburger. Now this is not the same thing as becoming a designer who uses the processes of machine production to create new objects which are aspects of our technological life. Arts Foundation of Kansas City. The staff responart that is intangible. It takes the form of gument, based upon a highly subjective thesible for the exhibition was quite large, and was ideas written in print, of images transmitted sis, was necessary to initiate the act of made accepup of Gallery staff and members from the on TV, of events performed in a given pecommunity. This group was augmented by a great tance is, for me, beside the point. That we riod of time and then forever dissolved, or of many volunteers who helped realize this ambitious can operate within traditional aesthetics by project. The entire project was under the direction designs executed on a landscape inaccessible treating the individual works (or environof Ralph T. Coe, Assistant Director of the Nelson to most viewers except as a conception in the ments) as individual productions of an Gallery-Atkins artist, Museum, and he was assisted by mind. is a convenient illusion for both the maker D. Craig Craven, also of the museum staff. This rejection of the tradition of the pre3 There and the viewer. But we must not ignore thewas no exhibition catalog, but rather a program which noted the eight acts and contained cious saleable object is closely related to the obvious fact that the methodology ofprogram mass- notes for the audience. A "catalog-aftericonoclastic and egalitarian impulses that moproduction is implicit in these prototype the-fact" is being prepared by Mr. Coe. tivate students causing upheavals on cam4Ralph T. Coe, Program [p. 1]. pieces, and this technological element cannot 5 ART JOURNAL, XXVII, 4 (Summer, 1968) p. 422. puses all over the world. As students are debe submerged from view. But most impor6 Program, [p. 422]. tant, these works have achieved the sanctity of A full-page in the program is devoted to a list- termined to make education available to all, (Continued on page 52) museum display not as industrial design, but ing of manufacturing credits (of donors of materials as major art works in their own right. Andand services) and the list is admittedly in- MRS. NEMSER, who has an M.A. in art history complete. from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York this, I argue, is the unexpected and the most s lthough ready manipulation does not imply efUniversity, is a critic on the staff of Arts important achievement of The Magic fective The- or meaningful control of the materials ater. within their inherent physical limitations. Magazine. 44 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:53:11 UTC All use subject to M Plea for Federal Support Revolution of Artists (Continued from page 44) AMERICA'S MUSEUMS: THE BELMONT the revolutionary artists have similar intenREPORT, a Report to the Federal Council on tions toward their art. Furious at having ar The Arts and The Humanities by a Special pushed out by technology to the periphery o Committee of the American Association of our social network, these artists are trying t Museums, October, 1968. This report assemget back to the center again. They declaim bles the facts on the present condition of their role in the dealer collector art business museums, their relation to the education sysand the obligation it places on them. Instead tem, demands made on museums, and their All needs, and ends with recommendations for they wish to share their visions and experi- ences with the common man. As artists they federal support. The report covers the many want to reach out to the community and tear types of museums in the country from large down the artificial boundaries that our industo small, science to art, city and college and trial culture has thrown up between fellow building suffered little from the shock; the small town museums. The educational and human beings. It sounds naive, but many of brick and stucco wings, however, were demolpleasure-creating functions of museums are them see their art as the great equalizer. ished. In 1909, portions of the main building related to increasing pressures from population Just as university students are making us were reopened. Lack of funds and personnel growth, interest in what museums offer, includaware of the weaknesses and hypocrisy of the forced its closing during World War II, but ing research facilities, use of buildings as comsupposedly liberal universities, artists are expart of the Museum was again opened to dismunity centers, and the creation of traveling posing the narrow snobbery and vulgar complay remnants of the collections, some of Nathan Cummings Art Building at Stanford Univer- sity with Henry Moore's Torso Arch set in front of the Art Library. exhibitions, that all demand more funds for mercialism of the art world beneath its lib- which had been excavated from the earthstaff, equipment, and space. At the same time, eral platitudes. However, unlike the students, quake rubble. Intensive rebuilding began operating in expenses rise, whether from inflamany artists are working to overthrow the sys1964 and continues today. A vigorous protion, increased building and insurance costs, tem by undermining it from within. Gnawing gram of acquisition and reorganization, diwages increasing, and the necessity for par- at its very foundation, they display their unrected toward enlargement and improvement ticularly qualified staff, whose training is exsaleable, unpreservable works within the sacof the collections, is also under way. The pensive. The report, just summarized here, sugrosanct walls of its most prestigious galleries Museum is widely used by the community gests as a mechanism for federal support, based and museums which they plot to destroy. well as the campus. Members of the Commiton existing legislation, such as The National Will their plot succeed? Will the revolutee for Art at Stanford, which was estabMuseum Act, for which Congress has not tionaries topple the old regime or become lished in 1953, have contributed to the develmade appropriation; and urges that grants consumed (as has happened in the past) by opment of the Museum, both through fundfrom federal departments and agencies already it? At this point, it is as hard to predict the raising activities and volunteer work. concerned with museums be increased, espeoutcome of this confrontation as it is to preThe Thomas Welton Stanford Art Gallery cially the National Endowment for the Arts, dict the future of the university in western was built in 1917 from funds given to the the National Endowment for the Humanities, society. University by a younger brother of Senatorthe U. S. Office of Education, and the NaOne can safely say, however, that if this Science Foundation. There are several new public art is to survive, it must have the changing exhibitions of art. After fifty years statistical studies included. Library of Consupport of the younger generation. It will be Leland Stanford. Its special use is to house tional of hard use, the Gallery is about to be re- modeled. The Association of Art Museum Directors, theft Stolen at the Stanford Art Museum, June 8, 1969, was an album of contemporary Chinese works of art, measuring 13 X 9" closed, 13 X 18" open, with Chinese brocade cover, containing the following: 1. Calligraphic inscription by Chuang Yen, in the manner of the Sung Dynasty Emperor Hui-tsung. 2. Landscape: The Waterfall by Huang Chiin-pi, teacher of traditional painting in Taipei. 3. Scholar Amid Pine Trees by Chang Tai Chien. gress Catalogue Number 74-80109, 81 pages. interesting to see if they will respond to the visual artists with the same enthusiasm they $3.75. now demonstrate toward the members of the alarmed by the serious financial problems of Living Theatre. Both of these art forms have museums brought out by the Belmont Re- much in common, as they both offer a source port, have incorporated in order to present a of release for youth's frustrated ideals and resolid front at a time of financial crisis, it was pressed energies. They both act as vehicles announced by Perry Rathbone, Director of for the anger and contempt that creative the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and presihuman beings are experiencing toward a socident of the AAMD. Other incorporators with ety that has anesthetized itself to human feel- Rathbone are Charles Buckley, City Art Museum, Saint Louis, Harry Greer, Frick Collection, New York, Sherman Lee, Cleveland Museum of Art, and Laurence Sickman, Nel- ing and suffering. Like the Living Theatre, the public art of today still lacks coherent form and structure; it is still awkward and son Atkins Museum, Kansas City. groping. Like the activist students, many of its practitioners are not sure where they are Lehman Collection going, but only know that they must break with the past. In art, as in politics, we are wit- 4. Landscape by Chang Ta-ch'ien. 5. Monkeys by Ch'en Ch'i-K'uan. The Robert Lehman art collection has been The remaining pages in the album are given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, nessing a period of gestation and upheaval which may yet give birth to a new, more in- clusive art form, as well as a new life style. Hopefully, out of all this intense exploration, The album is the property of Dr. Michaelwho was chairman of the board of trustees. there will emerge an art capable of arousing Sullivan, Professor of Oriental Art at StanComparable to the Frick, Widener anda Mellon genuine emotional and intellectual re- blank. following the recent death of the collector, collections it is a spectacular addition to the from a multitude of viewers. We may ford University, and was executed especially sponse Museum. The announcement was made on for him. Apart from their artistic value, yet obtain an art that will crystallize, for several are tokens of long friendship. Dr. the eve of the Metropolitan's centennial year, many, the fragments of contemporary life Sullivan hopes that whoever has the album which will be celebrated by five outstanding and make it more comprehensible, and consewill find a way of returning it to him.-P.E. exhibitions. quently, more bearable. 52 This content downloaded from on Sun, 16 Oct 2016 05:53:11 UTC All use subject to

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