Simple Hume Treatise Book III Sect I assignment questions

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timer Asked: Nov 15th, 2016

Question description

First attachment shows what Ive done so far. The second is what I have so far.

My topic is animal abuse.

My focus is " animals can't protect themselves from harm because if they fight back they'll be out down."

Assignment 7: Hume I. Answer the following T/F and offer a brief justification for your answer. You will receive ZERO credit for any response that doesn’t include an explanation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Virtue is nothing but the “conformity to reason.” “Human passions and action have no influence” on morality. Morals cannot be derived solely from reason. Morality (virtue/vice) lies, “not in oneself but in the object one observes.” “…when you pronounce any action or character to be vicious, you mean nothing, but that from the constitution of your nature you have made a rational deduction to place blame merely from the contemplation of it.” “When confronting a statement such as is, and is not one is immediately aware of the logical connection to ought, or ought not.” “Reason judges neither matter of fact nor of relations. It cannot play any role whatsoever in the consideration of moral rules or laws.” Virtue is “whatever mental action or quality gives to a spectator the pleasing sentiment of approbation...” An examination of ingratitude shows that morality cannot be determined solely from the relation of ideas involved. One cannot find right or wrong by considering the ‘matter of feelings’ involved. II. Match each of the following passages (labeled 1-5) with the claim (labeled a-e) that they support. 1. To put the affair, therefore, to this trial, let us chuse any inanimate object, such as an oak or elm; and let us suppose, that by the dropping of its seed, it produces a sapling below it, which springing up by degrees, at last overtops and destroys the parent tree: I ask, if in this instance there be wanting any relation, which is discoverable in parricide or ingratitude? 2. `Tis certain, that an action, on many occasions, may give rise to false conclusions in others; and that a person, who thro' a window sees any lewd behaviour of mine with my neighbour's wife, may be so simple as to imagine she is certainly my own. 3. A fruit, for instance, that is really disagreeable, appears to me at a distance, and thro' mistake I fancy it to be pleasant and delicious. 4. In like manner, tho' `tis certain a musical voice is nothing but one that naturally gives a particular kind of pleasure; yet `tis difficult for a man to be sensible, that the voice of an enemy is agreeable, or to allow it to be musical. But a person of a fine ear, who has the command of himself, can separate these feelings, and give praise to what deserves it. 5. But to chuse an instance, still more resembling; I would fain ask any one, why incest in the human species is criminal, and why the very same action, and the same relations in animals have not the smallest moral turpitude and deformity? a. Mistakes of fact are not moral wrongs in and of themselves. b. Mistakes regarding understanding of right and wrong are not in and of themselves moral wrongs. c. The wrongness of an act does not lie in the relationship between external objects (be they persons or things). d. The wrongness of an action does not lie in the relationship between external, conscious beings (be they persons or animals). e. Not every ‘sentiment is legitimate; sometimes they are caused by our own personal interest. A good judge is capable of separating him/herself from his/her personal interest. III. Choose ONE of the above passages and offer a thorough explication of its significance to Hume’s argument. In your answer you will want to: 1. Explain the passage. 2. Explain the claim the argument is designed to support and 3. Explain how Hume uses the claim to either: Show that reason fails to account to moral justification OR Offer support for the notion that a certain sort of feeling does. IV. Answer the following questions in which you offer a Humean analysis of your topic: 1. Offer a particular instance of the ethical issue you are considering. 2. Explain the morally relevant action and identify the Agent and Recipient. 3. Explain how an Observer, appropriately relying on empathy, ought to determine the action of the agent was wrong (based upon a sentiment of disapprobation) or right (based upon a sentiment of approbation). 4. Lastly, explain why you believe Hume’s theory works or does not work when applied to this case.
1. Virtue is nothing but the “conformity to reason.” This is false. One’s virtuous actions cannot only be based on one’s reason. According to Hume’s theory on reason; he states that moral distinctions are not derived from reason. He instead implies that moral distinctions are derived from the moral sentiments: feelings of approval for example esteem and praise and disapproval for example blame while other come naturally. 2. “Human passions and action have no influence” on morality. This is false since human passions and actions do have an influence on morality. This can be confirmed by common experience which informs us that men are often governed by their duties and are often governed by what they like and what they do. 3. Morals cannot be derived solely from reason. This is true. Morals cannot be derived from reason alone because it can never have such an influence with the fact that morals have an influence on our actions and affections. Reason of itself is utterly impotent in this particular. 4. Morality (virtue/vice) lies, “not in oneself but in the object one observes.” This is false. Virtues and vices lie on the characteristic object of our judgment or what stimulates our sentiments which is our character or the character of someone else. 5. “…when you pronounce any action or character to be vicious, you mean nothing, but that from the constitution of your nature you have made a rational deduction to place blame merely from the contemplation of it.” This is true. From Hume’s theory of this he argued that humans have natural beliefs that are prior to experience and shape our perceptions. 6. “When confronting a statement such as is, and is not one is immediately aware of the logical connection to ought, or ought not.” This is false. Hume denies that there are necessary connections between distinct existences and the notion of logical consequences require that there be a necessary connection between distinct prepositions. According to Hume there could be no connection between prepositions hence there cannot be any form of genuine logical consequence. 7. “Reason judges neither matter of fact nor of relations. It cannot play any role whatsoever in the consideration of moral rules or laws.” This is true. Reason cannot help reflect on moral principles since laws and moral rules are binding if they do not reflect on moral principles. 8. Virtue is “whatever mental action or quality gives to a spectator the pleasing sentiment of approbation...” This is true. This definition of virtue is the consequentiality side of Hume’s ethics and it naturally leads to what Hume calls utility. He believes that all humans have an instinctual increase in sentiments with the increase of public utility. 9. An examination of ingratitude shows that morality cannot be determined solely from the relation of ideas involved. This is false. Moral distinction is not derived from reason but natural principles. Hume says that the relation of ideas is typically mathematical or logical and cannot be denied. 10. One cannot find right or wrong by considering the ‘matter of feelings’ involved. This is false. This is because someone who does not hold this view would say that their conscience tells them what is right and wrong. This is based on sentimentalism. Match each of the following passages (labeled 1-5) with the claim (labeled a-e) that they support. 1. To put the affair, therefore, to this trial, let us chuse any inanimate object, such as an oak or elm; and let us suppose, that by the dropping of its seed, it produces a sapling below it, which springing up by degrees, at last overtops and destroys the parent tree: I ask, if in this instance there be wanting any relation, which is discoverable in parricide or ingratitude? - C. The wrongness of an act does not lie in the relationship between external objects (be they persons or things). 2. `Tis certain, that an action, on many occasions, may give rise to false conclusions in others; and that a person, who thro; a window sees any lewd behavior of mine with my neighbor’s wife, may be so simple as to imagine she is certainly my own. -

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