Biology 101 Problem Set Questions

Anonymous
timer Asked: Nov 18th, 2016

Question description

Please READ DIRECTIONS and answer the questions.

Please answer these questions on a separate sheet(s) of paper, and please type. It is imperative that no part of your answer be copied directly from an online source, or from another student, either in this class or from a previous year. This problem set is due by safe assign, the due date being listed on the syllabus, and is very firm.

1. A researcher is exploring a tropical rainforest that is destined to be clear cut and turned into a palm oil plantation, six months in the future. She encounters many species that are new to science.

a) Which species concept would be most expedient and effective, in the process of collecting, naming, and describing what she finds?

b) Go online and research. Give at least three examples of actual species that are new to science, that were discovered in tropical rainforests, within the last few years. Why don’t northern temperate forests yield as many new species, nowadays?

c) Why is palm oil a subject of concern for conservationists? In a few complete sentences, explain.

2. A researcher is studying the mating calls of a widespread species of cricket. He discovers that male crickets collected from different locations give different calls. Furthermore, females collected from different locations exhibit different responses to the calls, preferring the calls of males from the location they were collected from. The crickets are otherwise identical. In lab experiments, he demonstrates that females will not mate with males that have a call not typical of the location they were collected from, but if tricked, by playing calls of the appropriate male while another type of male is present, they will in fact mate, and these matings produce fertile offspring.

  • Are these crickets a single species, or a species complex? Is there an isolation mechanism? Explain?
  • Go online and research. Give at least two examples of species complexes composed of morphologically similar microspecies or cryptic species.

3. A population of humans, isolated for centuries on an island in the Indian Ocean, exhibits the following phenotypes for pigmentation.

9,999 pigmented

1 albino

This form of albinism is caused by being homozygous recessive at a single locus.

  • Assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the expected frequency of normal and albino alleles. How many individuals would you expect to be heterozygous?
  • Go online and research. List three historically isolated populations of humans with unusually high frequencies of a phenotype which is uncommon elsewhere. Explain why this might be the case, for each example.

4. Green swordtails are sexually dimorphic: males have a long, swordlike projection from their tails, and females have rounded tails.

An experimenter decides to perform a female choice experiment. He isolates unmated females with a choice of two mails, each from one of four groups of males.

1) Unmodified control males

2) A second group of males with tails cut off, and re-glued.

3) Males with shortened tails.

4) Males with lengthened tails.

  • Imagine the researcher got the following data.
  • Why might this be the case?
  • Go online and research. List three studies of sexual selection, the organism, and their conclusions.

Chosen by female # vs group, for each trial. Trials were replicated 20 times

Trial Who the Female Chose

Group 1 vs. Group 2 Group 1- 10 Group 2- 10

Group 1 vs. Group 3 Group 1- 18 Group 3- 2

Group 1 vs. Group 4 Group 1- 6 Group 4- 14

Group 2 vs. Group 3 Group 2- 16 Group 3- 4

Group 2 vs. Group 4 Group 2- 6 Group 4- 14

Group 3 vs. Group 4 Group 3- 0 Group 4- 20

What might this data indicate, in terms of sexual selection?

5. Go to the following link and read the paper.

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep00757

Write a two paragraph summary of what you learned from reading it.

Bios101 Problem Set Three Please answer these questions on a separate sheet(s) of paper, and please type. It is imperative that no part of your answer be copied directly from an online source, or from another student, either in this class or from a previous year. This problem set is due by safe assign, the due date being listed on the syllabus, and is very firm. 1. A researcher is exploring a tropical rainforest that is destined to be clear cut and turned into a palm oil plantation, six months in the future. She encounters many species that are new to science. a) Which species concept would be most expedient and effective, in the process of collecting, naming, and describing what she finds? b) Go online and research. Give at least three examples of actual species that are new to science, that were discovered in tropical rainforests, within the last few years. Why don’t northern temperate forests yield as many new species, nowadays? c) Why is palm oil a subject of concern for conservationists? In a few complete sentences, explain. 2. A researcher is studying the mating calls of a widespread species of cricket. He discovers that male crickets collected from different locations give different calls. Furthermore, females collected from different locations exhibit different responses to the calls, preferring the calls of males from the location they were collected from. The crickets are otherwise identical. In lab experiments, he demonstrates that females will not mate with males that have a call not typical of the location they were collected from, but if tricked, by playing calls of the appropriate male while another type of male is present, they will in fact mate, and these matings produce fertile offspring. a) Are these crickets a single species, or a species complex? Is there an isolation mechanism? Explain? b) Go online and research. Give at least two examples of species complexes composed of morphologically similar microspecies or cryptic species. 3. A population of humans, isolated for centuries on an island in the Indian Ocean, exhibits the following phenotypes for pigmentation. 9,999 pigmented 1 albino This form of albinism is caused by being homozygous recessive at a single locus. a) Assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the expected frequency of normal and albino alleles. How many individuals would you expect to be heterozygous? b) Go online and research. List three historically isolated populations of humans with unusually high frequencies of a phenotype which is uncommon elsewhere. Explain why this might be the case, for each example. 4. Green swordtails are sexually dimorphic: males have a long, swordlike projection from their tails, and females have rounded tails. An experimenter decides to perform a female choice experiment. He isolates unmated females with a choice of two mails, each from one of four groups of males. 1) Unmodified control males 2) A second group of males with tails cut off, and re-glued. 3) Males with shortened tails. 4) Males with lengthened tails. a) Imagine the researcher got the following data. Chosen by female # vs group, for each trial. Trials were replicated 20 times Trial Who the Female Chose Group 1 vs. Group 2 Group 1- 10 Group 2- 10 Group 1 vs. Group 3 Group 1- 18 Group 3- 2 Group 1 vs. Group 4 Group 1- 6 Group 4- 14 Group 2 vs. Group 3 Group 2- 16 Group 3- 4 Group 2 vs. Group 4 Group 2- 6 Group 4- 14 Group 3 vs. Group 4 Group 3- 0 Group 4- 20 What might this data indicate, in terms of sexual selection? b) Why might this be the case? c) Go online and research. List three studies of sexual selection, the organism, and their conclusions. 5. Go to the following link and read the paper. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep00757 Write a two paragraph summary of what you learned from reading it.

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