Biology: Please review the file I have uploade, correct mistakes

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timer Asked: Nov 18th, 2016

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I am looking for someone to LOOK over my problem set questions. Please add what needs to be added and or change what needs to be changed as I will attach the file with my answers to these questions. I need to elaborate on these questions and that is what I mainly looking for.

Problem Set Three

Please answer these questions on a separate sheet(s) of paper, and please type. It is imperative that no part of your answer be copied directly from an online source, or from another student, either in this class or from a previous year. This problem set is due by safe assign, the due date being listed on the syllabus, and is very firm.

1. A researcher is exploring a tropical rainforest that is destined to be clear cut and turned into a palm oil plantation, six months in the future. She encounters many species that are new to science.

a) Which species concept would be most expedient and effective, in the process of collecting, naming, and describing what she finds?

b) Go online and research. Give at least three examples of actual species that are new to science, that were discovered in tropical rainforests, within the last few years. Why don’t northern temperate forests yield as many new species, nowadays?

c) Why is palm oil a subject of concern for conservationists? In a few complete sentences, explain.

2. A researcher is studying the mating calls of a widespread species of cricket. He discovers that male crickets collected from different locations give different calls. Furthermore, females collected from different locations exhibit different responses to the calls, preferring the calls of males from the location they were collected from. The crickets are otherwise identical. In lab experiments, he demonstrates that females will not mate with males that have a call not typical of the location they were collected from, but if tricked, by playing calls of the appropriate male while another type of male is present, they will in fact mate, and these matings produce fertile offspring.

  • Are these crickets a single species, or a species complex? Is there an isolation mechanism? Explain?
  • Go online and research. Give at least two examples of species complexes composed of morphologically similar microspecies or cryptic species.

3. A population of humans, isolated for centuries on an island in the Indian Ocean, exhibits the following phenotypes for pigmentation.

9,999 pigmented

1 albino

This form of albinism is caused by being homozygous recessive at a single locus.

  • Assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the expected frequency of normal and albino alleles. How many individuals would you expect to be heterozygous?
  • Go online and research. List three historically isolated populations of humans with unusually high frequencies of a phenotype which is uncommon elsewhere. Explain why this might be the case, for each example.

4.Green swordtails are sexually dimorphic: males have a long, swordlike projection from their tails, and females have rounded tails.

An experimenter decides to perform a female choice experiment. He isolates unmated females with a choice of two mails, each from one of four groups of males.

1) Unmodified control males

2) A second group of males with tails cut off, and re-glued.

3) Males with shortened tails.

4) Males with lengthened tails.

  • Imagine the researcher got the following data.
  • Why might this be the case?
  • Go online and research. List three studies of sexual selection, the organism, and their conclusions.

Chosen by female # vs group, for each trial. Trials were replicated 20 times

Trial Who the Female Chose

Group 1 vs. Group 2 Group 1- 10 Group 2- 10

Group 1 vs. Group 3 Group 1- 18 Group 3- 2

Group 1 vs. Group 4 Group 1- 6 Group 4- 14

Group 2 vs. Group 3 Group 2- 16 Group 3- 4

Group 2 vs. Group 4 Group 2- 6 Group 4- 14

Group 3 vs. Group 4 Group 3- 0 Group 4- 20

What might this data indicate, in terms of sexual selection?

5. Go to the following link and read the paper.

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep00757

Write a two paragraph summary of what you learned from reading it.

Running Head: RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION Rain Forest Expedition Name Institution 1 RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION 2 Rain Forest Expedition A rain forest expedition is a combination of environmental education, tourism and research. Biologists and environmentalists regularly undertake such programs. During such activities, researchers can discover new species that had not been discovered. The process of identifying species involves certain procedures. Different species identification concepts recognize species depending on different characteristics. Some methods classify organisms depending on the observation of the outward appearance while others examine functional traits. For instance, the biological concept classifies species according to their reproductive compatibility (Morris, 2013, p. 22). On the other hand, the phylogenetic concept identifies the species depending on the integrity of the genetic material. The most effective method for recognizing species in a rain forest expedition is the morphological species concept as it classifies species according to their physical appearance. This method is effective during expeditions as it is not practical to carry lab apparatus for biological or genetic testing (Morris, 2013, p. 22). However, further tests can be carried out in the lab if the researcher carries samples from the forest. Recently, scientists have discovered new species in the tropical rain forest. Some of the new species include opossums, frogs, and plant-hoppers (National Geographic, 2016). The tropical rain forests provide the largest variety of species because they are dense and thus provide habitats for numerous organisms. The main concern conservationists have about palm tree farming is the destruction of habitats. When the forests are cleared the living organisms become vulnerable to danger and risk becoming extinct (Teoh, 2010, p.26). Another concern is the loss of forest cover and biodiversity. As a result of the numerous environmental conservation campaigns, it is now common knowledge that deforestation leads to climate change. The growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide cause acidic rain and the rise in sea level. RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION 3 During expeditions, researchers collect organisms that look alike but have different cues for attracting mating partners developed due to the difference in habitats. These species cannot be differentiated according to their physical appearance. However, they can be indentified using the biological species concept. They develop an isolation mechanism that causes them to avoid mating with members of the same species located in different habitats. Some characteristics that contribute to the isolation of these organisms include difference in size or colour. According to Pfennig, D. & Pfennig, K. (2012), the species isolation mechanisms are facilitated by genetic instructions (p. 183). As is the common knowledge, genetic material sends signals in response to the organisms needs. These morphological differences can also be identified in humans. For instance, the pigmentation alleles code for different skin color phenotypes. For example, in a population of 10000 people, only one person may display albinism. This occurrence is caused by the expression of a homozygous recessive gene in a single locus. If this population is used as a sample, the frequency of normal and albino alleles can be calculated using the HardyWeinberg equilibrium. In the simplest instance of a solitary locus with two alleles indicated A and a with frequencies f(A) = p and f(a) = q, individually, the normal genotype frequencies are f(AA) = p2 for the AA homozygotes, f(aa) = q2 for the aa homozygotes, and f(Aa) = 2pq for the heterozygotes. The genotype extents p2, 2pq, and q2 are known as the Hardy–Weinberg extents. Take note that the total of all genotype frequencies of this case is the binomial development of the square of the entirety of p and q, and such a total, as it speaks to the aggregate of all conceivable outcomes, must be equivalent to 1. Along these lines, (p + q) 2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. The sensible arrangement of this condition is q = 1 − p. RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION 4 Q2=0.01%, q=0.1% if q=1-p then 0.1=1-p therefore p is 0.9 for this reason if the frequency of A a is 2pq then 2*0.9*0.1=A a A a=18% of the population which amounts to 1800 people. Examples of isolated human population expressing high frequencies of rare phenotypes include The Pomak and Manolis communities in Greece. Another isolated human population is the Karafwayana community in Brazil. These communities are either isolated by choice or by the lack of an opportunity to interact with others. The study of isolated population groups can provide insight into the research on disease mapping since such groups have increased homogeneity (Panoutsopoulou, et al. 2014, par 3). During laboratory experiments, the green swordtail fish species best demonstrate the concept of isolation. They are sexually dimorphic as males have an elongated, sword-like projection from their tails, while females have round tails. The female fish prefer males with longer tail projections. For this reason, the genes of these males are more likely to be propagated than the short-tail male genes. The degree to which developmental changes have affected the phenotypic connections among human ailments stays indistinct. In Park and colleagues (2012) work, it was reported that phenotypically comparable infections are associated by the developmental requirements on human ailment qualities. Human ailment groups can be characterized into gradually or quickly advancing classes, where the sicknesses in the gradually developing class are enhanced with morphological phenotypes and those in the quickly developing class are improved with physiological phenotypes. Infections are regularly considered as uncommon changes that trigger the loss of a capacity in an organism. In some cases, certain disorder phenotypes are accounted to be gainful to the life form's survival and reproduction implying that they may have experienced RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION 5 positive determination and developed speedier in light of specific ecological challenges. While these discoveries have enhanced the researchers’ comprehension of the transformative limitations on human ailments, the genuine effect of the developmental associations between sickness qualities and the phenotypic resemblances among human ailments should be explained more comprehensively. Their discoveries built up a reasonable transformative association between illness classes and disease phenotypes surprisingly. Moreover, the high comorbidity found between sicknesses associated by comparable transformative requirements empowered the researchers to enhance the consistency of the relative danger of human illnesses. RAIN FOREST EXPEDITION 6 References Morris, J.R. (2013) CourseSmart International E-Book for Biology: How Life Works. Palgrave Macmillan Panoutsopoulou, K., Hatzikotoulas, K., Xifara, D. K., Colonna, V., Farmaki, A.-E., Ritchie, G. R., … Zeggini, E. (2014). Genetic characterisation of Greek population isolates reveals strong genetic drift at missense and trait-associated variants. Nature Communications, 5, 5345. http://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6345 Park, S., Yang, J. S., Kim, J., Shin, Y. E., Hwang, J., Park, J., ... & Kim, S. (2012). Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases. Scientific reports, 2, 757. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/articles/srep00757 Pfennig, D. W., & Pfennig, K. S. (2012). Evolution's wedge: competition and the origins of diversity (No. 12). Univ of California Press. Teoh, C. H. (2010). Key sustainability issues in the palm oil sector. A discussion paper for multi-stakeholders consultations (Commissioned by the World Bank Group). Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/2262711170911056314/Discussion.Paper_palmoil.pdf

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