need an essay.

Anonymous
timer Asked: Nov 18th, 2016

Question description

I need a 5 page essay in APA format on the In Re Winship case using the references from the annotated bibliography I've attached. I also need a reference page. It has to be written in 12pt font in Times New Roman, 1 inch margins, reference page, thesis statement and a title/cover page, double spaced.

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Ainsworth, J.E. (1996). The Court’s Effectiveness in Protecting the Rights of Juveniles in Delinquency Cases, THE JUVENILE COURT 6 ( 3 ), 64-74 Between 1960 and 1970s, the Supreme courts made numerous decisions to safeguard minors of certain procedural privileges. This article evaluates the effects or the results of these decisions made on the real practices of the crimes jurisdiction of the juvenile court of law. The article also discovers the possible shortcomings facing teenagers due to the constitutional rights. The paper concludes with various viewpoints on this current argument. This article is one of the most reliable to give us the insight about this issue since its author Janet E. Ainsworth has served at Seattle University as an associate professor of law. She has also authored other articles on issues relating law Bilchik, S. (1999). Juvenile Justice: A Century of Change. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/9912_2/contents.html The author of this article Shay Bilchik tries to put across the course at which juvenile cases is taking as the nation jumps from the 21st century to the new millennium. The author gathered essential and reliable information to evaluate the pervasive problems faced by the juveniles. In his article, he also touches on the steps taken by the justice system handing juvenile cases in to reduce the effects. Although most of the views are from the author, the source is reliable since the author gathered information from very reliable sources. Bilchik, S. (1998). A Juvenile Justice System for the 21 set Century. Crime & Delinquency, 44(1):89-101. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/169276NCJRS.pdf. 2 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 this source illustrates how African American youth have been represented excessively in the juvenile courts. According to the author Judith L. Rozie-Battle, this is as a result of rise in criminal offenses among the youth and the wave of politics. The author points out the measures which the African American community should take to solve this issue since the nation has taken a course of harsh treatment from the early rehabilitation. This source matches my research topic, and it is a reliable source. The author is has authored various other articles. Birckhead, T. (2011).Juvenile Justice Reform 2.0. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228127635_Juvenile_Justice_Reform_2044 This source is an article which explores the possible decisions taken by the Supreme Court about the constitution rights of juveniles. It also investigates the means courts take while handling, processing and punishing young offenders. The article further deliberates on the ways and approaches which the organizational restructures litigation to bring about change. Also, the challenges faced by the courts when attempting to change multiple organizations are discussed in this articles. It deliberates the effects alteration of the juvenile judicial system can bring on the juveniles. The author of the article Tamar R. Birckhead has written various articles and books on topics concerning law hence this source is reliable. Bridges, K.M.B. (1927). Factors Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2038&contex t=jclc ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 This article evaluates factors which contribute to juvenile delinquency in the United States. According to the article, many delinquencies arise due to some factors. Some forms of delinquencies which are frequently linked to psychoses are vagrant. They disturb the peace of mind of the juvenile, causes acts of cruelty, violence, and theft. The article explores in depth various theories which cause the juveniles to engage in crimes. This article is of important since proper conclusions of how the issues can be solved can be drawn. The article is reliable and aligns with my research subject. Chambers, H.L. (1988). Reasonable Certainty and Reasonable Doubt, Marquette Law Review, 81 (3), 655-704. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1462&context=mulr This article explains the methods that the assumption of innocence and reasonable doubt can be taken to mean and takes into account the consequences resulting from the application of such clarifications into the juvenile judicial system. The article also examines how the criminal justice systems determine guiltiness with the use of skepticism. Moreover, it explains how relaxed and strict applications of the presumption of innocence and reasonable doubt standards affects jury verdicts. The author of the contents Professor Henry L. Chambers has lectured in various universities hence this source is reliable for researching this topic. Defining Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763736287/Chapter_02.pdf ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 The contents in this source pinpoint the main ancient improvements that resulted in the creation of the juvenile delinquency as a legal and social concept. It also pronounces the origin of the juvenile courts during the 19th century, developments such as houses of refuge, reform schools, inadequate laws, child saving movement and the placing-out. It further describes the character of the juvenile court, its procedures, its philosophy and the jurisdiction system. The contents of this source relate to the theme of this paper. Deviance and Secondary Sanctioning. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/413274-LabelingEffects-of-First-Juvenile-Arrests-Secondary-Deviance-and-Secondary-Sanctioning.PDF This article mainly has two aims; the first is to differentiate between two categories of probable labeling effects and secondly, is to identify the impacts of labels on wrongdoing behavior versus the consequences of labeling on public reactions to the label primarily through forthcoming sanctioning. The paper further explores the effects caused by the society while responding to misbehavior and impacts of labels on deviant behavior. The article is reliable for our research since its authors Akiva M. Liberman, David S. Kirk, and KiDeuk Kim are experienced writers who have handled various topics relating to justice. Edwards, L. P. (1996). The Future of the Juvenile Court: Promising New Directions. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/06_03_10.pdf The writers of this article try to pinpoint tendencies which illustrates that one option is the abolition of most of the court's crime task since much of the ruling on criminology by ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 6 youth is shifted to the adult criminal system. The other option offered by the article is the reduction or exclusion from juvenile court ruling of status crimes, comprising absence, running away from home, beyond control by parents and others. The source is reliable and aligns with the research subject. Its author (Hon. Leonard P. Edwards) is a judge and has authored numerous articles. Fagan, J. (2008). Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes. Retrieved from http://www.futureofchildren.org/publications/docs/18_02_05.pdf The author of this article Jeffrey Fagan scrutinizes the lawful structural of the new border drawing system and how efficient the system is in decreasing lawbreaking. According to the author, the juvenile court has at all times have the authority to relocate teenagers to the criminal court of law. He further points that judges themselves made the decisions about the transfer after evaluating the conflicting interests of the prospect to rehabilitate young lawbreakers and the safety of the public. This source is reliable since the author is a professor of law and epidemiology and also he has authored other numerous articles and books. Flicker, B.D. (1982). Standards for Juvenile Justice: A Summary and Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/sections/criminaljustice/PublicDo cuments/JJ_Standards_Summary_Analysis.authcheckdam.pdf This book is intended to be of great importance as it compiles all the principles of juvenile fairness enclosed in the series of 23 books. It attempts to blend and evaluate the different sections by tracing standard features, integration variation and explaining ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 apparent infidelities. In the book is conducted survey and views of various parties about the subject. This article has procedures and views of some stakeholders hence can be considered trustworthy to some extent. Guggenheim, M. Graham v. Florida and a Juvenile’s Right to Age-Appropriate Sentencing. Retrieved from http://harvardcrcl.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Guggenheim-Grahamv.-Florida.pdf Most of this article is dedicated to discovering the justice of juveniles in the future. The articles touches on an issue that sending a juvenile to prison for future detention without an option of a bail for lawbreaking other than murder is prohibited since it breaks the constitution. The article debates the Grahamhas suggestion is far past the reach of its effluences. The article further points that the arguments from Grahamhas was out of bounds in the modern children's era. IN RE WINSHIP. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/aci/cases-pdf/aci1.winship.pdf This article discusses how the jurisdiction system uses proof beyond reasonable doubt to persuade the trier of all the necessary fundamentals of being guilt. This form of the evidence originated many years ago but is still used. This kind of judging is also accepted in the common law jurisdictions. Although this form is approved, it does not show steps which the law should be enforced and justice administered. The author has written many other articles relating law hence this article is of great significance for this research paper. In re Winship case brief (1970). Retrieved from http://www.lawschoolcasebriefs.net/2013/11/inre-winship-case-brief.html ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 This article is about an appeal which hunts to review a verdict from the court of appeal of New York and the conclusions to be prepared at a juvenile adjudicatory hearing. The petition was to be grounded on a majority of the proof as it is presented in the New York act. The constitution was expected to safeguard in making use of the evidence against reasonable doubt. It was necessary during the adjudicatory phase of criminal behavior proceedings and the New York act providing to the opposing was unlawful. Juvenile justice system structure and process Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf This article elaborates the juvenile justice system. It focuses on organization and process features that are similar to wrongdoing and the position of offense. Also, there is a section which handles matters about maltreatment of children. Further, some parts of the paper provide an overview of the background of the juvenile justice structures in the state and current important resolutions passed by Supreme Court which has modeled the present juvenile system. Finally, the article touches on the modifications the state has created concerning sentencing, confidentiality, system's jurisdiction authority and corrections programming. Liberman, A, M., Kirk, D.S. & Kim, K. (2014). Labeling Effects of First Juvenile Arrests: Secondary This article points out the effects of first juvenile arrests. The author label that when a juvenile is arrested for the first time, there a possibility of future arrests on the same teenage. The author points out that the effects of succeeding arrests are widely considered a result of the continuations of the criminal offending. In the article are records from a ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and other certified arrest registers. This is one of the most trusted sources since its authors are experts in law and cases of juvenile jurisdiction systems. Olson, J.K. (2005). Waiver of Juveniles to Criminal Court: Judicial Discretion and Racial Disparity, Justice Policy Journal, 2(1), 1-20. Retrieved from http://www.cjcj.org/uploads/cjcj/documents/waiver_of.pdf The paper has a research which is about the enlightening summary of the popular literature that scrutinizes racial inequality in the relocation of for to criminal law. It also examines the decision in the waiver procedure and lastly the outcomes of the surrendering juveniles to adult court. The paper further points out that racial inequality is manifested in the course of surrendering juveniles to the adult court besides during other points of making the verdict. This article is well researched by the author Jodi K. Olson hence it is helpful and reliable for this paper. Reforming the Juvenile Justice . Should teens who murder be treated as adults? Retrieved from http://youthlaw.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Juvenile-Justice-Sep-2015.pdf This article explores the means in which juvenile justice can be improved. It digs how youth supporters seize bipartisan welfares in criminal justice improvement and traditionally low crime rates to lobby federations to reduce standards while pronouncing judgment to the juveniles. The article gives a picture of how those youth supporters put more efforts to persuade troubled youth including those sentenced for very vicious crimes to change and become productive to the community. This source of information is helpful in my research. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 The History of JUVENILE JUSTICE. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/features/DYJpart1.authc heckdam.pdf This article tries to elaborate the history of the juvenile justice system. According to it, the law well demarcates a line between adult and juvenile lawbreakers, but that line has been drawn at various places for different motives. For example in the United States olden times, the law was substantially swayed by the legislation of England which rule the American settlements. The article further digs deeper about the line between various people like the Blackstone which were acknowledged to be unable to commit a crime. The article is dependable for this research since it aligns with the theme of the paper. Ridgeway, G. & Listenbee, R.L. (2014). Young Offenders: What Happens and What Should Happen. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/242653.pdf This source examines policies that affect young lawbreakers who cross are transferred from the juvenile to the adult criminal justice system. The author centers on the teens and those offenders in the early adulthood, putting more weight on juveniles criminals between 15 to 17 years and youth between the ages of 18 and 24 presently in criminal justice system. It summarizes what should be done to make the adult and juvenile justice system efficient. The source is from the U.S department of justice hence reliable for the research.

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