Do Chapter summary and Lab report

timer Asked: Nov 19th, 2016

Question description

Do Chapter summary and Lab reports.

There are two labs I need report for each one.

please follow the instructions also answer the pre and post lab questions then add it to the report.

Please follow the chapter summary instructions.

Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology What is the genetic code, and how is it harnessed? Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College Learning Objectives  Describe what DNA is and what it does.  Explain the process of gene expression involving transcription and translation.  Explain the causes and effects of damage to the genetic code.  Discuss biotechnology in agriculture.  Describe biotechnology and its implications for human health. DNA: what is it, and what does it do? 5.1 Knowledge about DNA is increasing justice in the world. Q What is the most common reason why DNA analyses overturn incorrect criminal convictions? Selfish dictators may owe their behaviour partly to their genes, according to a study that claims to have found a genetic link to ruthlessness. –Nature, April 2008 Too Many One-Night Stands? Blame Your Genes . . .according to a new study, it may be fair to say that while you jolly well could help cheating, your particular genes did make things more difficult. — Time magazine, December 2010 Genetics in the News Take-home message 5.1  DNA is a molecule that all living organisms carry in almost every cell in their body.  It contains instructions for the functions of every cell. Take-home message 5.1  Because every person’s DNA is unique and because we leave a trail of DNA behind us as we go about our lives, DNA can serve as an individual identifier. 5.2 The DNA molecule contains instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms. DNA “Double Helix” Nucleic acids and nucleotides Sugars, Phosphates, and Bases A, T, C, and G The Base pairs Base-pairing rules Take-home message 5.2  DNA is a nucleic acid, a macromolecule that stores information.  It consists of individual units called nucleotides: a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base. Take-home message 5.2  DNA’s structure resembles a twisted ladder, with the sugar and phosphate groups serving as the backbones of the molecule and base pairs serving as the rungs.  The sequence of bases on one side of the ladder-like DNA molecule complements that of the bases on the other side. 5.3 Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins. Why is DNA considered the universal code for all life on earth? Genes A sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a protein molecule or RNA.  Locus: the location or position of a gene on a chromosome. Genetic Information • The sequence of bases in DNA carries information. • “AAAGGCTAGGCC…” continuing on for another 3,000 or so bases. Take-home message 5.3  DNA is a universal language that provides the instructions for building all the structures in all living organisms.  The full set of DNA an organism carries is called its genome. Take-home message 5.3  In prokaryotes, the DNA occurs in circular pieces.  In eukaryotes, the genome is divided among smaller, linear strands of DNA.  An organism’s DNA pieces are generally called chromosomes. Take-home message 5.3 A gene is a sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a polypeptide or RNA molecule. 5.4 Not all DNA contains instructions for making proteins. An onion has five times as much DNA as a human. Why doesn’t that make them more complex than us? The Proportion of the DNA That Codes for Genes Introns  Non-coding regions of DNA  May take the form of short (or long) sequences that are repeated thousands of times  May also consist of gene fragments, duplicate versions of genes, and pseudogenes Take-home message 5.4  Only a small fraction of the DNA in eukaryotic species is in genes that code for proteins. • The function of the rest is still poorly understood, although at least some of it plays important roles in the cell, such as gene regulation. 5.5 How do genes work? An overview  Genotype • all of the genes contained in an organism  Phenotype • the physical manifestations of the instructions Take-home message 5.5 The process by which this information is used to build an organism occurs in two main steps:  transcription, in which a copy of a gene’s base sequence is made, and  translation, in which that copy is used to direct the production of a polypeptide. Building organisms: information in DNA directs the production of the molecules that make up an organism. 5.6 In transcription, the information coded in DNA is copied into mRNA. 5.7 In translation, the mRNA copy of the information from DNA is used to build functional molecules. Several ingredients must be present in the cytoplasm for translation to occur.  Free amino acids  Ribosomal  Transfer units RNA The Genetic Code Take-home message 5.7  Translation is the second step in the twostep process by which information carried in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins.  In translation, the information from a gene that has been encoded in the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is read, and ingredients present in the cell’s cytoplasm are used to produce a protein. 5.8 Genes are regulated in several ways Gene Expression & Gene Regulation Microarrays • A powerful tool used to monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously • Particularly useful in exploring how gene expression differs in response to an illness, or the treatment of an illness, or in response to aging Controlling Gene Expression • Transcription factors – proteins that bind to specific regulatory sites on the DNA • “positive control” & • “negative control” Prokaryotic Gene Control and the lac operon Elements of Gene Control • Promoter • Operator • Regulatory Gene Eukaryotic Gene Control • There are many other ways that genes can be regulated, besides operons. • Transcription Regulation – Activators & Repressors – Enhancer Sequences – Chemical interference • Post-Transcription Regulation Damage to the genetic code has a variety of causes and effects. 5.9 What causes a mutation, and what are its effects?  Alteration DNA of the sequence of bases in • can lead to changes in the structure and function of the proteins produced • can have a range of effects Breast Cancer in Humans  Two human genes, called BRCA1 and BRCA2  More than 200 different changes in the DNA sequences of these genes have been detected,  each of which results in an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Mutations in Sex Cells & Non-Sex Cells • Differences? • Which may get passed on to offspring? Q Why do dentists put a heavy apron over you when they X-ray your teeth? Ionizing Radiation Q Why is it dangerous to be near the core of a nuclear power plant? 5.10 THIS IS HOW WE DO IT Does sunscreen use reduce skin cancer risk? What happens when our skin cells are exposed to the sun? • UVB radiation • Inflammation • Skin cancer? – melanoma Why would anyone question whether sunscreen has a positive effect? • 1960s and 1970s: sunscreens widely available • Increase in incidence of melanoma • Swedish study Sunscreen users were at greater risk for cancer! How can that be? • False sense of security • UVA & UVB How can you figure out whether sunscreen users are actually protected from cancer? • Case-controlled studies • Assumptions and confounding variables “Randomized controlled trials.” Why are they better than casecontrolled studies? • Randomly assigned 1,621 adults to one of two groups: 1) regular sunscreen use and 2) discretionary sunscreen use. Results? • Sunscreen-use group • 11 melanoma detects • Discretionary-use group • Twice as many new melanomas detected! • Invasive melanomas 4x more frequent! If randomized controlled studies are so much better, why would anyone bother doing case-controlled studies? • Difficult to conduct • Relatively expensive • Compliance issues 5.11 Faulty genes, coding for faulty enzymes, can lead to sickness.  How can people respond so differently to alcohol? A single difference in a single pair of bases in their DNA. A “fast-flush” response Q Why do many Asians have unpleasant experiences associated with alcohol consumption? From mutation to illness in just four steps: (1) A mutated gene codes for a nonfunctioning protein, usually an enzyme. (2) The non-functioning enzyme can’t catalyze the reaction as it normally would, bringing it to a halt. From mutation to illness in just four steps: (3) The molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates, like a blocked assembly line. (4) The accumulating chemical causes sickness and/or death. Biotechnology is producing improvements in agriculture. 5.12 What is biotechnology? And What Is Genetic Engineering?  Adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another, to alter the organisms in useful ways 5.13 Biotechnology can improve food nutrition and make farming more efficient and eco-friendly Q How might a genetically modified plant help 500 million malnourished people? Nutrient-rich “golden rice” Almost everyone in the U.S. uses genetically modified crops regularly without knowing it. What crops are responsible for this? Insect Resistance Q How can genetically modified plants lead to reduced pesticide use by farmers? Herbicide Resistance Faster Growth and Bigger Bodies 5.14 Fears and risks: are genetically modified foods safe? Concern#1. Organisms that we want to kill may become invincible.  Concern#2. Organisms that we don’t want to kill may be killed inadvertently.  Concern#3. Genetically modified crops are not tested or regulated adequately.  Concern#4. Eating genetically modified foods is dangerous.  Concern#5. Loss of genetic diversity among crop plants is risky.  Concern#6. Hidden costs may reduce the financial advantages of genetically modified crops.  Biotechnology has the potential for improving human health (and criminal justice). 5.15 The treatment of diseases and production of medicines are improved with biotechnology  Prevent  Cure diseases diseases  Treating diseases • The treatment of diabetes Q Why do some bacteria produce human insulin? Recombinant DNA technology Several important achievements followed the development of insulin-producing bacteria, including: (1) Human growth hormone (HGH) (2) Erythropoietin What is “blood doping”? How does it improve some athletes’ performance? 5.16 Gene Therapy: biotechnology can help diagnose and prevent diseases But has had a limited success in curing them 1) Is a given set of parents likely to produce a baby with a genetic disease? 2) Will a baby be born with a genetic disease?  cystic fibrosis  sickle-cell anemia  Down syndrome  others 3) Is an individual likely to develop a genetic disease later in life?  breast cancer  prostate  skin cancer cancer Ethical Dilemmas  Discrimination  Health  How insurance to proceed with the information? Q Why has gene therapy had such a poor record of success in curing diseases? Gene Therapy Difficulties (1) Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed. (2) Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect. Gene Therapy Difficulties (3) Difficulty arising from the transfer organism getting into unintended cells. (4) Difficulty regulating gene expression. 5.17 Cloning—ranging from genes to organs to individuals—offers both promise and perils Are there any medical justifications for cloning? Can a human be cloned (and should they be)? 5.18 DNA as an individual identifier: the uses and abuses of DNA fingerprinting DNA From Different Humans • 99.9% identical • So what differs? • Highly variable regions • STRs What is a DNA fingerprint?
LAB REPORT Please fill the blanks tables in the experimental that attached as PDF file and do the report. The Lab report should be 2 pages exactly . TITLE: AUTHER: Name, Address # INTRODUCTION: - GENRAL BACKGROUND - MOTIVATION - PURPOSE – HYPOTHISIS DEVSION # EXPERMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURE - APPARATUS - APPROACH # ANALYSIS - METHOD - RESULT # DISSCSSION AND CONCULSION
Chapter summery instructions 2 pages max, font size 12 *GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR SUMMARY WRITING: 1. Overall summary should be the first paragraph: possible points 20 2. Remaining write it after the bullets: possible points 5 3. Write efficiently - extract main ideas, points, reasoning, etc. from the text: possible points 10 4. Concise – whether it is shorter than original article: possible points 5 5. Own words- write your own language which will be easy to understand: possible points 5 6. Covers all the necessary information: possible points 5
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