Research Paper

timer Asked: Nov 19th, 2016

Question description

I have a research paper that is due this Monday, in less than 2 days. It is required to write at least 10 pages, and I already wrote 8 pages. I need proof reading, paraphrasing, and organize the paper logically. 

Almutairi 1 Abdulrahman Almutairi Research Paper 11/1/2016 Privacy is very basic right that we enjoy in our lives without even noticing it. Privacy is an invisible wall that we feel very secure in, very protected from others’ observation. Privacy gives us the opportunity to be creative and not be judged, and it adds a lot of value to our lives, that can not be compromised otherwise. Andrew McStay in Privacy and Philosophy stated “Privacy is essential to human dignity and autonomy in all societies. The right to privacy is a qualified fundamental human right—meaning that if someone wants to take it away from you, they need to have a damn good reason for doing so.” Privacy is an essential for a creative environment that provide a non-judgment zone. “A life without privacy is inconceivable. But what purposes does privacy actually serve? … privacy stakes out a sphere for creativity,psychological well being, our ability to love, forge social relationships, promote trust, intimacy, and friendship.” Unfortunately, Politics have deeply influenced privacy, from 9/11 and the Patriot Act, to the Arab Springs and the consequences that followed. While the change is moderate in the western countries, the change of privacy has been severe in the middle-east, and it worsen the human rights. Privacy can be interpreted differently in different cultures, in the western world, privacy is considered to be a basic right, whereas in the middle east, privacy can be easily violated. Jacqueline Klosek presented the western perspective about privacy in her book the war on privacy. She wrote “Privacy is a relatively new concept. While it is true that today most jurisdictions around the world recognize privacy in some respect, the right to privacy, particularly as an enforceable legal right, is a relatively new creation. Moreover, there continue Almutairi 2 to be tremendous differences in how privacy is viewed, let alone how and even if, individuals may enforce their privacy rights.” She continues “In certain jurisdictions, including most European countries, privacy is viewed as a fundamental human right. In other jurisdictions, especially the United States, the right to privacy is more often conceptualized as the right to be left alone from interference. Still, in other areas, including many Middle Eastern and some Asian countries, “privacy” in terms of commonly accepted Western conceptions is not often viewed as a matter of significant concern” While privacy is an essential right, many countries in the middle-east suffer from losing much important rights, such as freedom of speech and elected governments. As a result, privacy with its current concept in the west, has not been existed in the middle-east. This has changed after the social media, when people can hide their identities under anonymous accounts and practice freedom of speech without any limits. Social media surprised dictator governments in the middle-east, and it toppled many political regimes that many thought they were indestructible, which will discuss in details later. In the modern world however, where governments give many rights unlike the middleeastern governments, privacy has deeply influenced, especially after 9/11 . In America for example, privacy tremendously changed after 9/11, this change and the war in terror did not only affect the United States, but it also affected every other country in the world. Right after 9/11, the U.S legislature issued the Patriot Act, which is titled as Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The text of Patriot Act exceeds 100 pages, which makes it the longest legislation passed in a short period in the American history. A lot of Americans thought that this act would be temporary, however sixteen years later, the act is still in place. The act is affecting the personal privacy in much deeper level, it did even decrease the Almutairi 3 individual liberties in the U.S. Many countries around the world followed the U.S steps, which led to a world war on privacy. (war on privacy) The day of 9/11/2001 has devastated the United States, and the rest of the world. The united nation rushed to pass new legislation called resolution 1368, just the day after 9/11. This legislation encourage the cooperation between countries to eliminate and suppress terrorism. Two weeks later in 9/28/2016, the United Nations passed a more significant Resolution of 1373, which called all the member states to start taking very serious and wide actions to fight terrorism. Major concern of the bill is its failure to address human rights and privacy consideration in the war against terror. Within months after the bill passed, many countries followed the UN steps, and increased the surveillance and the power of the government's. This bill was a great news to the countries with poor human rights, such as Iran, Syria and many other countries. For example, Iran has executed thousands of innocents because of terrorism suspicion. Literally, Iran can detain anyone and execute them because of terror charges. For example, Iran recently executed Reyhaneh Jabbari because of terror charges. Reyhaneh has been known for her opinions against the government, she was later detained, and then she was executed after only one trail. While the goal of the resolution is great and can not be disagreed upon, it can give countries with less personal freedom an excuse to suppress its citizens even much more. For example, a Saudi woman human right activist, Lujain Al Hathlol, was charged of terror charges because she drove her car in Saudi Arabia where it is illegal for women to drive cars. Later, and after much of attention from around the world, these charges were dropped, and she pledged she will never drive her car in Saudi Arabia. This example give us another insight of how privacy laws can be used for dictator’s agendas. Almutairi 4 Two major concern were raised after the Resolution of 1373. First, the resolution did not give any proper definition of terrorism. Many countries in the world define it by their desire to do their agendas. Middle-east specifically has suffered the most from it. Now, in Syria, the killing machine Bashar Al Asad has killed 500,000 people since the Arab Spring, his only excuse is that he is fighting terror. The world accepted his excuse, and sat back to watch the massacres. In the modern world however, these laws give governments a substantial access to the individual’s personal information. However, governments have limited to zero access to the personal health records, which we might even argue that it is not as important as other types of information. For example, the only way that the governments can access the personal health records is after a personal authorization from the individual. In the middle east, it is different story. Many countries were globally known for their poor human rights, and after 9/11, these countries practice a tremendous suppress to their citizens. As a result, privacy issues- as if they have ever been concerns in this region- started to completely diminish. Prior to 9/11, many countries in the region were practicing a very high level of control and censorship. After 9/11, some countries stepped their control further, while some countries maintained the same high level. Social media came to the middle-east and it brought an unseen environment for many Arabs. Young people in the middle-east can get anonymous accounts and criticize the governments without any limits. This new freedom of speech in the middle-east eventually will result in the Arab Spring. Governments in the middle-east have not had any respect to its citizens before 2011, and the arab spring happened and shaked a lot of governments. Arab Spring started as a consequence of the poor human rights, the poor wealth distribution, and the massive corruption that covers all the middle-eastern countries. The spark of the Arab spring was in Almutairi 5 Tunisia, after the police seized Bu Azizi’s cart. Mohammed Bu Azizi ,who is unemployed and holds a law degree, was selling vegetables on the streets when the police women came, seized his weight scale, and threw away his commodities. He went to the police to demand his scale since it was the only moneymaker for his family. The police refused, and the woman who seized his scale humiliated and slapped his face, which is the worst insult in the Arabic culture. He went to the governor’s office to complain, but he was refused to enter the governor's office. He left to the street, suffering from deep humiliation and losses of his basic right as human. He set himself in fire in After that, He was rushed to the hospital with over ninety percent of his body suffering burns. The protests spread all over the country, and within ten days, the President was forced to flee the country . After that, the protests moved to Egypt, and millions protested on the streets, which resulted in forcing the President to give up his presidency within twenty days. The Arab Spring moved to Libya after throwing away the president of Tunisia and Egypt. Gadhafi, who had been President of Libya for more than four decades, faced the protests with all his weapons, which resulted in a severe destruction to Libya, and many innocent deaths. In addition, Gadhafi even opened the weapon’s storages to his supporters, he even imported soldiers from neighboring poor African countries such as Niger and Mali. The Washington Post has stated: “Military leaders, they said, are depending on the foreign fighters because many Libyan soldiers are conflicted about fighting their countrymen and have lost faith in the country’s longtime ruler. In interviews conducted separately at the rebel-run jail in Ziltan, the detainees said that as many as half the forces deployed by the Gaddafi regime to the front lines come from countries such as Niger and Mali.” (Londono, Page 2) Almutairi 6 After almost a year, Gadhafi has surrendered to the free soldier's, weeks later, Gadhafi was killed, and became the first Arab president to be killed by his own people. In Syria, the revolution started after school boys watched what happened to Libya, Tunisia, and Egypt. These school boys took their gravity cans and wrote freedom slogans around their neighborhood, such as “The people want to topple the regime”. Soon later, these kids were arrested by the local police. CBS has reported the ways that kids have been tortured , they mentioned “In a gloomy interrogation room the children were beaten and bloodied, burned and had their fingernails pulled out by grown men working for a regime whose unchecked brutality appears increasingly to be sowing the seeds of its undoing.” (Global Post, page 1). Hundreds of protesters gathered in Deraa, protesting against the brutality that the police practiced against the innocent kids. The police indiscriminately shot the protesters, resulting in many deaths including kids, women, and elders. That week was the bloodiest week of the uprising of the Syrian revolution. After this vicious act from the government, Deraa strongly announced the start of the Syrian revolution. Unlike what the regime thought after using violence in Deraa, The Syrian revolution rapidly spread all over Syria, and Al Asad increased the violence. The regime thought the amount of violence that had been used was not enough and that he needs to be more violent to stop the revolution from happening, and to keep Al Assad in power. Many deaths have been the result in many different cities, and the government’s only excuse was fighting terrorism in Syria. BBC news has stated “By June 2013, the UN said 90,000 people had been killed in the conflict. However, by August 2014 that figure had more than doubled to 191,000” (BBC). The violence also caused many refugees living in neighboring countries to come under inhumane conditions. The Syrian protesters stayed in a peaceful track for the first six months trying to give the Almutairi 7 government a chance to stop its brutal acts against civilians, however the government did not stop, nor decrease the violence. Many of the soldiers broke from the regime simply because they did not want to kill their innocent fellows. The protesters were peaceful, and they did not take any violent position in the Syrian revolution, however, the regime did. In describing how peaceful the protests were, Faisal Al Gasem, a Syrian host has stated that the Syrian regime was wishing and hoping to see a protester with a knife, so they could find an excuse for their violence, but they couldn’t find any ( pg 4). Even though weapons are accessible to many Syrians, they never chose it as a solution in the first six months. Syrians aimed to topple the regime peacefully, however the regime aimed to topple both the country and the people. The government bombs indiscriminately every city that has any sign of the revolution or protesting.“ We are just living on the edge of life, we are always nervous, we are always afraid” (mother of nine, Mariam Akash, whose husband was killed by a sniper, BBC). The regime continue the violence without any sort of mercy. Due to the bad position that Syrians have, they need help from the world, as urgently as possible, to overthrow the Al Assad regime. They needed experienced military officials who could manage and guide the rebels. They also needed an urgent no-fly act to the regime, since the regime was throwing bombing barrels that resulted in the killing of many innocent civilians; and to definitively stop whoever is supporting the regime. The world remains silent toward the Al Asad regime. On the other hand, Iran and Russia continued aiding Al Asad with many weapons because Al Assad was losing his power. The regime also used Hezbollah which is a pro-Iran terrorist group, located in the south of Lebanon, owing to the fact that both Al Assad and Hezbollah are influenced by Iran. Due to all of this support, the regime is savagely continuing the violence, using horrible methods of terrifying Almutairi 8 Syrians to stop the revolution. Today, years after the Arab Spring swung into Syria, the violation of human rights is still existed both in Syria and the region. Many people have died and many people are dying now. Refugees were forced to leave into poor refugee camps in poor countries like Lebanon and Jordan. Thousands of refugees have sunken in the mediterranean sea trying to find a safe home in the western world, where citizens enjoy safety and then basic rights, while Bashar Al Asad is claiming to fight terror. Bashar Al Assad is using the same concept the western countries are using, however, he has his own way of using it. Politics did not only affect privacy, but it also affected human rights.

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