Proofreading or Modify the Essay Assignment

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timer Asked: Nov 20th, 2016

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I need someone in Economic field to help me modify my essay assignment. The essay topic is 

The past few decades have seen the development of several new approaches to policing including hot spots policing, zero tolerance policing and pulling levers policing.

Evaluate the merits and drawbacks of one or more of these three alternatives to the “standard” model of policing.

Not just the grammar mistakes, but also includes the arguments and all things that you think are not good, suitable. 

Thank you

1990s, the most innovative period for the policing. Since the policing methods in traditional ways limited the development of policing and unsuitable for the crime situation of society due to the lower level of focus and lower diversity of approaches, the dramatic changes appeared in Policing. A huge number of police approaches emerged in that period and some of them were widely adopted by police agencies, such as hot-spot policing and zero tolerance policing, are essentially applying criminology theories in policing. Nonetheless, these novel strategies brought a broad array of benefits, followed by disadvantages. In the following essay, I would like to introduce the definition of hot-spot policing and zero tolerance policing and the merits and demerits of these approaches. Definition of American Policing Strategies Hot-spot policing, a strategy with different operating models than traditional method, which motivated the innovation in American policing. According to the results of technical and data research, it is easy to identify the areas with high occurrences of crime. Through hot spots, limited resources can be used in small and target areas in order to prevent offenders at these high-activity crime areas, which can mainly reduce the total number of criminals in the city. Zero tolerance policing, a strategy emerged from and based on brokenwindows policing. This approach believes all sever criminals are causing by minor offences, if the policing agencies let minor offences go, it will create a psychological suggestion for people that offences are allowed in this area. In term of this, zero tolerance posits a strict police enforcement for minor transgression, helping offenders realize any offences will not be tolerated, eliminating the number of serious criminals. Merits of New Policing Strategies Due to the invalid conventional methods, the most important advantage that hot-spot policing and zero tolerance policing brought to the society is decreased the total number of criminals. For the hot-spot policing, an academic research asserts only 3% and 6% of small geographic units committed more than half of all crime for a city (Weisburd D., Telep WC., and Lawton AB). For instance, three percent of Minneapolis’ addresses placed for 50 percent of police’s calls and four percent of intersection areas in Jersey City accounted for 42 percent of the disorders (National Institute of Justice). If police agencies can keep these areas are certainty safe, and then the offenders will drop immediately. The result showed by Braga AA (2014), twenty of the 25 tests in 19 eligible studies noted significant crime control gains through hot-spots policing approach. At the same time, from the research done by David Weisburd in 1995, the crime rate had a noteworthy reduction through more polices in hot spots areas. More importantly, no any diffusion happened during that period, which means the crime rate of rest areas did not increase. Zero tolerance policing, the method contributed to majority reduction in crime rates, puts emphasis on “quality-of-life” issues. A broad array of police leaders of the New York City Police Department in the 1990s drawn to the success of adoption of zero tolerance policing (Scott SM., 2009) The data (1993-1997) from the office of New York Mayer is the strongest evidence to back up this, the number of murders and nonnegligent homicides slumped 60.2 percent, forcible rape dropped 12.4 percent, a 48.4 percent decrease in robbery and the total amount of burglary declined 45.7 percent. The noteworthy declines not only happened in New York, but also for the nationwide. According to the National Crime Victimization Survey data, from 1991 to 1996, sixty percent slumped in rapes, robberies declined seventeen percent and aggravated assaults decreased by 27 percent during these years. All of these decreases in criminals were attributed by zero tolerance strategy (Greene AJ., 1999). Meaningful reductions in crimes and disorders than standard policing methods is not the only advantage new policing created. For hot spot policing, comparing with traditional policing methods, it is a way to improve the effectiveness of police agencies. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the empirical research indicates that more than half of the offenders committed in only three percent intersections or street blocks, instead, spread evenly in wide area. Police can use various devices to target the small geographic units with high probability of offences, then assign limited number of patrol polices to these areas and rest of them can answer emergency call rapidly, instead of spreading more police officers in large area for wasting (Skogan W and Frydl K, 2004). Hot sports policing is a method, which takes the full advantages of advanced technologies, using the minimum resources to create the better recourses than before. Excluding significant declines in number of criminals, the creation of lawgoverned society and more sense of security are benefits of zero tolerance policing. Comparing with conventional policing model, zero tolerance policing was built upon or related with deterrence effect. In terms of this policy, getting on crime became tough. Zero tolerance approach sent a “message” directly to all people that any crimes will not be tolerated, even some misdemeanors, which eliminates the probability for the potential offences. As the police agencies act stricter rules, the more sense of safety the residences will have. Since all citizens know once a criminal happened in this areas, the only thing the offenders need to face is serve punishment, no matter the offence is serve or minor. The policing method provides a safety guaranty or psychological comfort for people. Demerits of New Policing Strategies Nothing is absolute in this world, same with the hot spots and zero tolerance policing. They lead the meaningful reductions in the number of crimes and disorders, improved the effectiveness of policing agencies and raise the residence’s felling of safety. At the same time, unintended negative consequences follow in the long run. The main concern that caused by hot spots approach is the policecommunity relations, or even more serve, the racial discrimination. Weitzer and Tuch asserts there are differences in police treatment of minority citizens, where the police officers have various attitude when they face different racial groups (Peter KB. And Jean St., 2008). According to the result conducted by national survey of 1791 citizens, compering 2 percent of whites, around 40 percent of black people reported they were treated unequally during the police stops (Weiburd D., Telep CW., and Lawton BA., 2014) Damaged police-citizen relations is more likely to cause more serious crime problems, which warn the police agencies focus more on treatment justice when applying the hot spots policing. At the same time, zero tolerance policing also face the serious damaged police-community relation issue. A huge number of academic researches prove zero tolerance approach leads popular dissatisfaction, in terms of the police misconduct and abuse. According to the New York Civil Liberties Union, African Americans claimed more than 45 percent for the total CCRB complaints, who only make up 29 percent for the total population (Greene JA., 1999). Moreover, resources attribution is a persistent issue of zero tolerance policing that government or agencies need to solve rapidly, but difficult to solve. From the data conducted by Bureau of Justice Statistics (1998), there was a 13.4 percent increase in prison population during 1992 to 1997. Crowded prison pollution implies a greater strain in management, labors and investment. Police agencies need put more investments and hire more officers, in order to keep the prisons in normal operation. Also, more police officers are needed for patrol area to satisfy the requirements of strategy; to detect criminals and disorders. During the period of zero tolerance approach, seven thousand extra officers are taking away to patrol areas from elsewhere (Burke, 1998). Inefficient usage of police resources was produced by this result, which will lead an unbalanced situation that the majority of officers going to patrol areas and no one do the control and coordination jobs. Conclusion A same coin has two different sides. Comparing with conventional strategies, both hot spots policing and zero tolerance policing were produced advantages and disadvantages. A huge reduction in number of criminals were produced by hot spots policing, which is the merits that traditional one cannot bring to the society. At the same time, hot spots methods took the advantages of advanced technologies to maximize the utility of police agencies. Moreover, zero tolerance efficiently use the deterrence effect to prevent the future criminals. Nevertheless, damaged police - community relation is the downside of these novel strategies. An increasing arrested number of black man will arise the conflicts in long term. Besides of this, more police officers were attracted to patrol areas due to the zero tolerance policing, followed by an unbalanced and costly work situation for police department. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.1086/592520.pdf Hot-spots: http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research- evidence-review/hot-spots-policing/ http://www.nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/strategies/hot-spotpolicing/Pages/welcome.aspx#note5 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07418825.2012.673632?need Access=true http://library.college.police.uk/docs/what-works/What-works-briefinghotspot-policing-2013.pdf file:///Users/Jocelyn/Downloads/217-251.pdf https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1049870.pdf
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