Thermo Dynamics

timer Asked: Nov 22nd, 2016

Question description

Can you please do everything that is requested apart from part A.

Do NOT do section A 

EMEC320 (Maximum 4 Pages) Sort yourselves in to groups of four or fewer today, and provide one report per group. Your report can be handwritten (neatly) or typed You must contribute to the analysis and the report or it is dishonest to attach your name to the report A) FIRE SYRINGE Earlier in the semester we compressed a piston/cylinder in class to set a piece of paper on fire. A picture is shown below and you can estimate dimensions from the picture. I. II. Describe how to you would get: i. - An adiabatic compression process ii. - An isothermal compression process iii. Which one of these processes will light the paper on fire. Think about the speed at which you push down the piston Show that a normal person can light a 1 cm2 piece of tissue paper on fire with this device. i. Consider that the work done by the person must provide enough energy to heat the air and the paper to the combustion point of tissue paper (630 K). You will need to use the specific heat capacity of paper and estimate the thickness of tissue paper. You will also need to consider the pressure a person can apply and the distance the piston is moved. B) MSU Heating Plant Q Boiler 3 Boiler 2 Boiler 1 W Pre-Heater Pumps W replacement water To Campus From Campus Heat Rooms contaminated water Autoclaves Q Above is a schematic for the MSU heating plant. The plant serves three purposes: the primary purposes are to heat buildings and provides steam to the autoclaves, but the plant also generates power (co-gen system) to recoup some costs. The throttle is used if the steam production is greater than the turbine can handle. Three boilers are available and can be used individually or in combination based on seasonal needs. Water that has been used in the autoclaves cannot be reused and must be replaced with clean water. We’ll see the heating plant in action during the scheduled tour. I. II. III. IV. V. Show the power claimed for the turbine seems valid. Show the pump power input is insignificant. Show how much heating is roughly required by campus. Calculate an approximate efficiency for the heating plant steam cycle. NOTE: You will probably get a very low efficiency (a few percent) for the heating plant, as its main output is the heat to campus. The turbine power generation is just a bonus. Calculate the entropy generated in the cycle. You’ll need to think about what the appropriate temperature of the source and surroundings are for each step in the cycle. Water/Steam Pressures and Temperatures Steam to campus is 150oC and 300kPa (about 45 psig) Condensate returning from campus is 50oC and 275kPa Boiler Parameters Water into boiler is 50oC and 2000 kPa Steam out of Boiler is 250oC and 2000 kPa (about 280 psig) Fuel burned per year is about 300 000 Dkt of natural gas Steam Production Steam produced per year is 300 000 000 lbs This is an average of 34000 lbs/hr (4.3 kg/s). Maximum production is 100000 lbs/hr (12.6 kg/s), minimum production is 10000 lbs/hr (1.26 kg/s) Water loss per cycle About 4% of the water is lost during the cycle and needs to be replaced. Turbine (Co-Gen system) Handles up to 47 000 lbs/hr (5.9 kg/s) Produces up to 800 kW Parameters for a typical day in November: 34.5 kilo lbs/hr 500 kW produced by turbine Heating Plant FACTS • • • The Central Heating Plant consumes 350,000+Dkt of natural gas (enough to heat 3,800 average homes) and generates 300,000,000+ pounds of steam annually. The current Heating Plant is the third steam plant on campus. Construction began in 1922 and commissioned on February 20, 1923. The original fuel source for the boilers was coal. Circa 1950 the burners were converted to natural gas. • The Heating Plant operates twenty four hours a day, seven days a week, nine months out of the year and operates 4:30 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., three months a year. • Twenty four hour operation requires a staff of four qualified operators. • Heating Plant operations staff is required to hold a First Class Boiler Operations License issued by the state of Montana. • In 1995, an in-depth structural analysis confirmed the original brick stack could only withstand 25% of the seismic forces required by the Uniform Building Code and the stack was removed to the roof line in 2003. Picture: MSU Heating Plant Circa 1923 Heating Plant Function Montana State University’s Central Heating Plant provides steam to the core of the university buildings, approximately 3.08 million square feet. The steam generated by the boilers supplies the necessary heat source for office spaces, teaching and research labs, dormitories, domestic hot water, autoclaves, kitchen steam kettles, and the swimming pool at H&PE. The inner workings of the heating plant • The steam generation system in the plant is comprised of three natural gas fired high pressure boilers. Cumulatively, these three boilers are capable of generating 250,000 pounds of steam per hour. The MSU Heating Plant is one of the largest consumers of natural gas in Montana. • The utility natural gas system’s delivery capacity can become constrained during periods of extreme cold weather or temporary outage of system components. MSU’s heating plant contains a propane emergency fuel system that fuels the boilers in the event that the natural gas service is disrupted or curtailed. In an emergency, the propane system can fuel the heating plant for about 24 hours. • The high pressure steam (280 psig) passes through a single stage turbine that extracts energy from the steam while functioning as a pressure reducer. Medium pressure steam (45 psig) exiting the turbine then is distributed throughout the campus via a 1.8 mile utility tunnel. • Coupled to the steam turbine is a 900 horsepower electrical generator. This generator produces, on an average, 2.7 million kilowatt hours annually equating to 6% of campus electrical needs on a cost basis, or enough electricity to power 3300 average Montana homes. • An emergency electrical generator resides in the plant. In the event that electrical power is lost to the Heating Plant a diesel fuel generator is started to provide power for the boiler room. • Three seventy-five horsepower rotary screw compressors provide instrument air for pneumatic campus building controls.
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