Peer Reviewed Article

timer Asked: Nov 22nd, 2016

Question description

Go To choose an article from Art and Science Collection it must have the following things in it below 4 pages . I will upload a example of how it should be.

Review a peer-reviewed article from a professional journal in the social sciences. This review of 4 pages must contain specific details about the article: author(s); title of the study; date of publication; journal; research questions or goal of the study; a brief synopsis of the literature review; methodology (what specific techniques were used); results or the study (specific outcome); implication and conclusions outlined by the author(s); and your overall critique or observations about this study.

Jane Jones Article Review Article: 2007. Kwasniewska, Magdalena, Dorota Kaleta, Elzbieta Dziankowska- Zaborszczyk, Wojciech Drygas and Teresa Makowiec-Dabrowska. “Lifestyle Index and Self-Related Health Status” in the International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 2007, Vol. 20, No. 4. Article Summary: Adolescent obesity can be linked and attributed to many sources including but not limited to race, ethnicity, genetics and environment. Recognizing the increasing physical and emotional issues associated with adolescent obesity, the researchers decided to study the independent effects, if any, of community on the weight of youth. The following four hypotheses were developed for testing: 1. The higher the level of community poverty, the higher will be the prevalence of adolescent obesity after controlling for race/ethnicity and family poverty. 2. Minority status will positively influence adolescent obesity. That is, the prevalence rate of obesity is higher among minority adolescents than among White adolescents. 3. The influence of community poverty on adolescent obesity will be stronger for White adolescents than minority adolescents. 4. We hypothesize similar influences of community and race/ethnicity on adolescents being overweight. In reviewing related literature, the researchers noted community poverty, race/ethnicity, race/ethnicity and gender, family poverty, and race/ethnicity and community as considerable factors or in some instances, combinations of factors which influence adolescent obesity. Community poverty appears to influence not only dietary decisions, but weight loss responses and activity choices for adolescents. Fast food restaurants may be more prevalent in or surrounding poorer communities denying access to healthier nutritional choices. These same 1 Jane Jones Article Review communities also may not endorse or offer weight maintenance options such as organized physical activities or promote healthy nutritional choices via the behavior of adults in the community. Additional literature provided documentation of higher rates of obesity in minorities and other general physical trends including lack of access to medical and educational agencies. With respect to race/ethnicity and gender, females tended to be more obese than males, with the exception of Asians. Community poverty appeared to affect minorities more than Whites. Family poverty also affected adolescent obesity in that lower income families passed on poor nutritional and physical exercise habits to younger family members and single parent families showed unhealthy eating. Family poverty, therefore, was designated as a control variable for the study. The independent variables were established as race/ethnicities of Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/American Indian, all Hispanics and African American. White was the reference population. Gender was the second independent variable. Family poverty was divided into five categories dependent upon level of hardship with respect to government provided aid and community poverty was established as the final independent variable according to 1990 census indicators. The dependent variable of obesity was based upon the calculated body mass index of each adolescent. The data used in the study came from the 1995 portion of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The 20,500 students used in the study were from United States high schools with class sizes of at least thirty in the eleventh grade. Eighty schools were randomly sampled and categorized into region of the country, urban status, ethnic breakdown and school size. Individual adolescents were selected from the school rosters and interviewed. An additional 2 Jane Jones Article Review sample of minority students was added to the primary sample of students. The study also analyzed the interviews of the adolescents’ parents. The results are presents in four tables which provide levels of correlation and prevalence between variables. The first table of results presented positive correlations between the majority of the variables with a negative correlation (as already indicated in reviewed literature) between Asians and obesity. Community poverty appeared to be positively correlated to all variables excepting education of the mother and Asian. The second table presented a distribution of racial/ethnic groups and community poverty. A higher percentage of the minority sampled lived in poor communities than majority ethnicities. The percentage of obese minorities was also higher than the percentage of obese Whites. Table three presented the prevalence of obesity among adolescents by race/ethnicity and community poverty. Table four present a multilevel model for the effects of individual to community demographics on adolescent obesity. The sole figure in the article shows the correlation between obesity and community poverty by race/ethnicity. While community poverty effectively influenced White adolescents, they still showed the lowest rate of obesity. Community poverty did not appear to influence minority adolescents even though minority groups showed the highest rates of obesity. The discussion portion of the article further explains the data results as well as proposing areas of focus for future studies. No particular surprise findings were presented with respect to the reviewed literature and proposed findings. While each hypothesis was not individually referenced in the discussion, more careful reading of this sections reveals that each of the hypotheses was shown to be true. 3 Jane Jones Article Review Evaluation: Overall, this reader found the article to be well developed and articulated. This appeared to be a solid initial study into effects of community on adolescent obesity. However, other than the discussion that body mass index was calculated for each participating student, no specific information was given regarding the nature of the conducted interviews. A transcript or list of interview questions and description of students would have be useful in determining how students and families perceived community poverty with respect to the guidelines set by the researchers (level of government subsidization within the community). Tables II and III were the most readable of the tables for the layperson with raw data and percentages presented in addition to ratios. The section of the article devoted to limitations of the study also revealed apparent “contamination” of data with individual responses and lack of full participation of parents. A more in depth discussion of the definition of community would also have been useful given the mobility of modern day adolescents. Even with this perceived lack of data by the reader and acknowledged study limitations by the researchers, the article and study appear to show a strong correlation between community poverty and adolescent obesity. 4

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