Cryptography Final Paper

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 10th, 2017

Question Description

1. This is a research paper of a math course, thus the background of math is required.

2. It must contains the basic mathematical analysis, as well as the explanation of some tech concepts.

3. The detail information is on the file attached.

*There are many topics allowed on this paper, once you decide the one you want, please tell me and I need to verify with my instructor if there is space for the topic. And since there need to be some calculation, you can leave spaces and handwrite it on the space.

This document concerns the writing assignment. The paper should be between 8-10 pages, including bibliography. A hard copy must be turned in by this deadline. Papers that are late or are electronically submitted will be subject to a significant grade penalty. First, some general guidelines. It should consist of a clear discussion of some aspect of cryptography that you have researched. Possible projects are discussed below, and you are welcome to propose your own. The paper should consist of typewritten double-spaced pages, should be well organized, written in complete English sentences, and should appropriately cite any writings by others that you consulted. Include a bibliography citing your sources, and keep in mind that the bibliography is included in the page count. The mathematics should be explained clearly, and any calculations you make should be described in enough detail so that others may reproduce them. Since it is difficult to type mathematics, it is acceptable to submit a few handwritten pages as an appendix, so long as the text clearly refers to places in the appendix it draws from. It is also acceptable to leave space in the document to write in hand-written formulas later. The paper should give a thorough exposition of its subject. Once you have selected your project, begin researching it in the library or on the Internet. The projects involve differing amounts of technical background - for example you should not choose a project involving quantum mechanics without some understanding of the physics involved. Nevertheless, there should be enough topics for everybody to go around. One you have chosen your topic, email me to reserve it, and you may discuss with me leads for further research. I will allow 2 students per topic. If your topic is already reserved, I may give you a slightly modified one so that it does not overlap with one already chosen. The goal of the project is that each of you gets to learn a new topic, and can master it enough to explain the basics of it to others. The grading of the project will be based on the degree to which the paper satisfies the following criteria: • General qualities as a term paper Are accurate citations provided, is the paper legible, and is the writing your own with proper acknowledgment of sources? • Quality of writing Are the basic rules of English composition followed, and are all new terms explained adequately? • Quality of analysis Is the paper organized into a coherent whole with a beginning, an end, and a clear explanation of the topic without unexplained gaps? • Quality of the technical explanations Does the paper convince the reader, is the mathematics well explained and correct, and are sufficient details provided that the reader can follow the technical points and arguments? • Overall impression given by the term paper Does the paper explain the topic and leave the reader with the impression that the author understands the topic, does the paper tell the story in an interesting fashion, and is it correct? Suggested topics Here are some examples of interesting projects; of course you are welcome and encouraged to submit your own. Note this list is at least 3 years old, so bear this in mind when you see the word “recently” in the description. I’ve added some newer topics at the end (which are not necessarily better for your research, since less has been written about them). 1. Quantum cryptography. It recently became possible to use quantum mechanics to perform secure key exchanges, although only using a miniscule number of bits. This involves two parties creating a shared quantum state, and communicating the key over it. Because of the principles of quantum mechanics, if an eavesdropper observes the key, the shared state will be destroyed, and hence the two parties would find out. 2. Quantum computation attacks. I have mentioned in class that quantum computers -- if they can be built -- would be able to run algorithms to factor large integers and to compute discrete logarithms. Thus, for example, they would break the RSA and Diffie-Hellman systems. 3. The Enigma Cipher in WWII. The Allied crack of the German Enigma encryption scheme was crucial to victory in World War II. Early computers were invented by Alan Turing in England to do this, as well as daring military operations. Recently a German message from WWII was finally decrypted after many years, showing that their encryption scheme could be very effected. How, then, was it broken? 4. Cryptography on smart cards. How do systems which rely on electronic cash mechanisms protect against fraud? For example, you could try to contact agencies and organizations which use them to find out what methods they employ. 5. Broken NIST standard Random number generator: It It's been alleged in the press (related to the Snowden documents) that this RNG has a NSA-designed backdoor. It seems related to the DIffieHellman key exchange protocol. a good mathematical explanation by Thomas Hales is here: http://jiggerwit.wordpress.com/2013/09/25/thensa-back-door-to-nist/ 6. Google Chrome fails to protect sensitive personal data: The article below demonstrates a large company essentially having a deliberate policy that goes against security practices http://securitywatch.pcmag.com/security-software/316743- googlechrome-fails-to-protect-sensitivepersonal-data Understand the details of what the loopholes area and what could be done to fix them. 7. Did healthcare.gov violate HIPAA?: HIPAA is an important law that enforces privacy of medical information. There are some articles suggesting that the design of the site made it easy for an eavesdropper to get information. Perhaps the paper could be about what could be done differently to protect the privacy. 8. What are bitcoins and how do they work?: It should make for a very interesting project and there is a good bit of public key cryptography involved. 9. TWINKLE and TWIRL. Adi Shamir has proposed a fast optical enhancement to computer factoring algorithms, using a large array of LEDs. This uses a different model of computation, and raises many intriguing possibilities. 10. Security on Dual Core machines. Recently attacks have been discovered on dual core machines, which let the attacker find out nontrivial information about what another chip is doing by measuring how long it takes to do a supposedly "secret" computation. That information is enough, in practice, to completely compromise the secret. How do these attacks work, and what are manufacturers doing to stop them? 11. Digital Watermarking. It is currently unknown whether or not one can effectively "watermark" an electronic image without significantly altering how it looks, but at the same time making it impossible for an attacker to remove the cryptographic aspects of the watermark. This has implications to multimedia security and steganography, the practice of encoding information in images. 12. How to common protocols work. Pick a cryptographic protocol that your computer uses, and write a report on how it works (e.g. AES, SSL,...). 13. Attacks on secure hash functions: recently the security of many common hash functions, e.g. SHA-0 and MD5, were called into question after "collisions" were found in them. Does this mean that they should not be used now, and/or is it instead a "canary in a coal mine" warning about their imminent failure? 14. Stream ciphers in action: e.g. RC-4 -- how are they used? 15. NDS's use of the Fiat-Shamir algorithm. 16. How are DVDs encrypted, in particular high definition DVDs? What are the commercial interests behind it? 17. History of factoring algorithms. 18. History of primality testing algorithms. (These topics can be divided up into several smaller topics.) 19. Zero-knowledge proofs. 20. How do Pseudorandom generators work? 21. Digital Signature Schemes and product IDs -- what mechanisms to software companies use to prove authenticity of their products, and conversely to prevent piracy and unauthorized use? 22. Biological methods in cryptography, i.e. authentication based on biometrics, and "DNA encryption". 23. Diebold. Is the voting machine manufacturer telling the truth with its claims? Does it have strong existing political ties to parties which have adopted its machines? Are its rivals any better? 24. RFID (Radio Frequency ID) in passports or credit cards -- what risks does this involve? Will RFID tags be implanted into humans? 25. Pay-as-you-go computing -- being introduced now in Brazil, relies on cryptography to keep people from stealing computers (by disabling them). 26. Big agencies losing laptops and along with them lots of private data. What systematic things can be done to protect this? 27. GSM Cell phones - do they encrypt your conversations? Can an eavesdropper hear everything you say (if they want to)? 28. Traffic light remote controls - recently a rogue driver obtained the remote ambulances use to switch red lights to green, and did this on his own. What cryptography is in place to prevent this from happening? 29. Cracking the lottery - a Toronto man recently discovered the system used to create scratch-and-win lottery tickets, and a system to beat them. What should have been done to prevent this? Newer topics 1. The top headline on the New York Times yesterday! 2. Hacking instances during the 2016 election 3. Dispute between Apple and the FBI last year 4. Maybe you can find something here: https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/computers_math/encryption/

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