Narrative story and analysis on leadership

timer Asked: Apr 13th, 2017

Question description

You will be assessed on the following learning outcomes:

• Identify the key attributes of leaders and their sources of power

• State the difference between management and leadership

• Recognise the critical role of ethics and communication in leadership

• Interpret and analyse leadership issues

• Interpret various leadership issues in different contexts such as work, school or social environment

• Develop feasible solutions to real-life issues

Part 1: Narrative

The case should be about 400 words long. It should have the following features:

1. It should be in the form of a narrative (story). You should write it in past tense.

3. You should state the time period, the organization and the industry so as to provide a context for the narrative.

4. There should be a protagonist who is in a leadership position. The protagonist could be you. There should only be one protagonist.

5. There is a problem that requires a leadership decision and action.

(a) Explain the problem and its cause. Demonstrate that there is a wider context to the situation by discussing how it affects the stakeholders.

(b) Describe the trigger event that brings the problem to the foreground.

6. The story can be about the decision that was already made or yet to be made by the protagonist.

7. You should explain why making a decision would present a dilemma to the protagonist. For example, the decision may result in unfavourable consequences to some of the stakeholders but still be greatly beneficial to others.

8. You can disguise your case.

Part II: Analysis

The analysis should be about 600 words.

Select two theoretical frameworks (ie, two leadership theories) to analyse your case.

Describe the key elements of the theories. Using the selected theories, you should analyze:

1. the good and bad points about the protagonist’s leadership behaviour (or lack thereof);

2. (if the protagonist had made a decision) whether that decision made was a good one. Provide reasons for your views; and

3. (if the protagonist had not made a decision) how the problem should be resolved. Provide reasons for your recommendations.

In your analysis, you should refer to:

(a) the problem which requires a decision from the protagonist;

(b) the impact of the problem (and the decision) on the stakeholders;

(c) the external and internal environment affecting the protagonist and the stakeholders

What is Leadership? More than 65 classification systems Study of leadership has always fascinated people Why? Nature or nurture? What makes a good leader? DISCUSS How would you describe a leader? Who, in your opinion, is a great leader? Why? Conceptualizing Leadership Some definitions view leadership as: The focus of group processes A personality perspective An act or behavior Power relationship between leaders & followers An instrument of goal achievement A skills perspective Key Definition Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Key Factors of Leadership Leadership Is a process Involves influence Occurs within a group context Involves goal attainment Leaders Are not above followers Are not better than followers Rather, an interactive relationship with followers Power of Leaders Assigned vs. Emergent leadership Assigned: Formally selected Emergent: Informal Communication Emergent leader fits the group prototype 5 Bases of Power Referent, Expert, Legitimate, Reward, Coercive • >> see next slide 5 Bases of Power REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader. EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority. REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others. COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others. Leadership versus Management SO WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE? Both entail: Working with People Effective Goal Achievement Leadership - Roots in Aristotle (384BC) Vision, Building committed teams, Motivating, Empowering Management - Beginning 20th Century POSC (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Controlling) Efficiency, Processes, Structure, Budget Kotter – Management and Leadership Management Activities Leadership Activities aa “Produces order “Produces change and consistency” and movement” • Planning & Budgeting • Establishing direction • Organizing & Staffing • Aligning people • Controlling & Problem Solving • Motivating / Inspiring Major activities of management & leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper. Leadership and Ethics Ethical theories in Leadership Leader’s Conduct Actions Consequences (Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism, Altruism) Moral obligation Duty (Is the action good?) Responsibilities to do the right thing Leader’s Character Innate character Values – dignity and respect for others How they lead and their impact on follower Why is Ethics important to Leadership? Influence leadership requires the leader to have an impact on the lives of followers Power and control differences create enormous ethical responsibility for leaders Respect for persons sensitive to followers’ interests and needs help followers deal with conflicting values Impact on organization – creating an ethical climate leaders help to establish and reinforce organizational values Principles of Ethical Leadership Takes into account purposes of everyone in the group. Is tolerant of opposing viewpoints. Is attentive to interests of the community and culture. Mentoring, empowerment, team building. Tell the truth with a balance of openness and candor. Monitor what is appropriate to disclose in a particular situation. All subordinates are treated in an equal manner. In special situations, provide reasons that are clear, reasonable, and based on sound moral values. Empowerment Empowerment is the act of giving power and authority to a person to perform his designated tasks in whatever way he wants, and giving him the power to make decisions. Article Source: Leadership and Communication Positive Leadership Ethos Aristotle – Three persuasive appeals Logos logic of an argument Pathos use of feeling Ethos perceived character of the communicator (trustworthy, integrity?) confident, knowledgeable, with Quote “The orator must not only try to make the argument of his speech demonstrative and worthy of belief; he must also make his own character look right and put his hearers, who are to decide, into the right frame of mind.” The Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle Communication Strategy Establish a clear communication purpose Inform Persuade Instruct Analyze your audience Executive Expert Technical Combination Determine the media Town Hall, Meeting or Video Memo, Email Bulletin, Newsletter Delivery Words Clear Keep it Simple - Avoid Jargon Consistent Sentiments Honest Say It with Passion Context Awareness of Cultural Differences Meaningful Case Study 1. Do you think that Mrs Yang and Bob Tan was a leader or a manager? Why? 2. Did Mrs Yang and Bob Tan exhibit the principles of ethical leadership? 3. Did Bob Tan demonstrate any of Aristotle’s persuasive appeals in improve his communication with Who Calls the Shots? 4. What should Mrs Yang do next? Kamalia? Evolution of Leadership Theories 1. Focus on the LEADER Behavioural Approach (task oriented versus relationship oriented) Focus on leader and FOLLOWERS Situational Approach (leader to look at situation and assess how committed & competent the followers are) 2. Focus on leader, followers and TASK Path-Goal Theory (motivate employees to go along the path to achieve the goals must also look at task characteristics) 3. Focus on INTERACTION AND OUTCOMES Leader-Member Exchange Theory (high quality interaction between leader and follower) 4. New Theories Team Leadership Model (decisions that leaders must make when leading a team) 5. Level 5 Leadership (Humility + Will)
Leadership theories Behavioural Approach (also known as Style Approach) Situational Approach Path-Goal Theory LMX Theory Team Leadership Level 5 Leadership Essence of Level 5 Leadership Many levels - Level 5 and beyond Level 5 –Executive Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical com bination of personal humility plus professional will Level 4 –Effective Leader Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a c lear and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high per formance standards Level 3 –Competent Manager Organizes people and resources toward the effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives Level 2 –Contributing Team Member Contributes to the achievement of group objectives; works effectively with others in a group setting Level 1 –Highly Capable Individual Makes productive contributions through talent, know ledge, skills, and good work habits Characteristics of Level 5 Leadership 5 1 4 2. Take 3 1. Compelling Modesty Humble and modest They do not talk about themselves They would rather talk about the company and the contributions of other executives 2. Take Responsibility Take full responsibility when things go wrong They look out the window They look into the mirror to give credit to others to assign personal responsibility and do not They rarely seek to take blame others credit for things that go right If they cannot find any, they credit their success to good luck 3. Unwavering Resolve Will power to produce sustainable results and change for their organizations They possess inspired standards and will not tolerate mediocrity The idea that “it is good enough” is NOT acceptable 4. Set up Successors for Success Generally, more interested in the success of the organization their own personal success matters less Self-confident enough to routinely hire competent people ensure the organization become even more successful in the next generation 5. Counter-Intuitive Not typical, charismatic, larger-than-life personalities They may not make headlines Do not necessarily become celebrities More of a plow horse, rather than a show horse Conclusion Effective Leader for a Team Behaviour: Keeps the team focused on the goal Maintains a collaborative climate Builds confidence among members Demonstrate technical competence Sets priorities Manages performance LaFasto and Larson (2001) ASSIGNMENTS; − Narrative of the case (400 words) • Organize your facts – date, organization, protagonist, stakeholders, trigger event, dilemma • • Provide enough facts for analysis Logical flow − Analysis of the case (600 words) • Apply 2 theories to the facts of the case. Based on theories: • What did the leader do right / do wrong? • What could the leader have done? Your recommendations should reflect and address the complexities of real-life issues. THANK YOU.

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