A Food System Analysis of the Food You Eat

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 17th, 2017

Question Description

Assignment: A Food System Analysis of the Food You Eat

The purpose of this assignment is to investigate and research where your food comes from using a food systems lens.

Food systems comprise all aspects of food production (the way the food is grown or raised; the way the food is harvested or slaughtered; and the way the food is processed, packaged, or otherwise prepared for consumer purchase) and food distribution (where and how the food is sold to consumers and how the food is transported).

  • The exercise is to keep a 3-day food system diary. I finished the diary and you need to write a 2 page single space reflection and it must based on the lectures I provided.

  • Consider the following as you trace your foods and as you write your reflection: What kinds of inputs (e.g., labor, energy, agricultural enhancement) might have contributed to the production of this food? What kind of environmental impacts might your food have had on the way? Based on this, what kind of health impacts might you anticipate for yourself individually and those in the community/proximity of where it is being produced?
  • Finally, in a 2 page single-spaced reflection, summarize what you found. Then describe what you learned from this exercise, considering the questions above. An informal yet professional tone is expected.

I already wrote one paragraph. I will upload food diary and my reflection later.

FOOD ANIMALS: HOGS NUTR 302, APRIL 3RD Hogs Reminders ¨ Watch Our Daily Bread by class Monday, April 10th Agenda ¨ ¨ ¨ Assignment 1 American Meat film discussion Lecture: Food Animals: Hogs ¤ Next Lecture: Broilers ¤ Assignment 1. A Food System Analysis of the Food You Eat (100 points) ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Food System Diary (2 days: one weekday, one weekend day) Reflection (2-3 pages, single spaced) Upload both on Canvas by NOON. If you have questions, please reach out to Annie or Greg (TAs) DUE April Wed, 4/17, by 12:00 PM (NOON) Examples A1 USE THE TEMPLATE! Use the template located in Canvas on the Individual Assignment 1 page. Yes, you may make it “pretty” so long as the columns and rows stay the same. A1. Reflection portion ¨ ¨ ¨ Summarize what you found Describe what you learned from this exercise overall and also reflect on the questions asked of you within the assignment Informal yet professional tone American Meat Goals of the film: 1. Explain how the meat industry has changed over time in America 2. Understand how supply and demand affect the lives of farmers 3. Compare commodity farming and sustainable farming, and 4. Make informed decisions about meat and farming. American Meat Thoughts? ¨ Memorable/powerful scenes? ¨ Surprising scenes? ¨ Does anyone know someone who lost their farm or had to downsize? ¨ Make a prediction: Do you think there will be more commodity farms or sustainable farms in 2050? Why? Two Types of Farming “Sustainable” Commodity/Industrial ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Shorter time to raise animals Consistent product Cheaper meat We need to “feed the world” “Efficient” in that it often does not require much farm labor; also for transport to processing/retail ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ More humane Meat might taste better to some Creates more jobs Better for communities Diverse animals in same space complement each other Better for the environment “We need a better way to talk about eating animals. We need a way that brings meat to the center of public discussion in the same way it is often at the center of our plates.” Was the film polarizing and alienating? Explain your answer. Do you think the material in the movie was compelling enough to drive consumer change? Why or why not? Swine: Boars, hogs, gilts, sows 95% raised industrially 60% by 4 companies Hog operations fell by more than 70% while inventory remained stable USDA ERS #52, 2007 Farms with 2000+ head or more accounted for nearly 80% of total in 2004 USDA ERS #52, 2007 The “other white meat” is bred to be more than 64% leaner today than in 1970. Porkretail.org Unlike cows…. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Swine are omnivores – they consume both plants and animals. No rumens. In the wild, leaves, grass, roots, fruits, flowers. On the farm: corn, soy, dried distiller grains, vit/min. The story of hogs is one of… ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Animal health and welfare Stress A big CAFO waste problem Community health and civil rights In general….pigs don’t like to be stressed. ¨ Porcine Stress Syndrome Causes Pale Soft Exudative (PSE) pork, esp. close to slaughter ¤ PSE = abnormal color, consistency, and water holding capacity ¤ Speaking of Stress… Gestating Sows ¨ About 80 percent of sows in the entire U.S. hog industry spend most of their lives in tight stalls. ¤ ¨ “bumping around” can cause them to lose embryos (reduced litter size) Pregnant sows will spend the 16 weeks in a “gestation crate”. Decreased bone density ¤ Feed restricted to prevent excessive wt gain and reduce feed costs ¤ Stressed due to inability to move; often lying in excrement ¤ http://www.startribune.com/business/262257761.html; Eating Animals, J. Safran Foer To 2:02 ¨ http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_e mbedded&v=L_vqIGTKuQE#! There is outrage over this practice (and some new laws) ¤Phasing out of gestation crates in FL, AZ, CA, CO, ME, MI, OH, OR, RI (NJ tried, Christie vetoed, despite 93% support rate for it) ¤But not in Iowa, North Carolina, Minnesota, or Illinois—the four that produce 61 percent of US hogs ¤ Companies working on going crate free – but often long timelines (60 major U.S. companies, including several giant restaurants and retail chains) Cargill to go gestation crate free by 2017 Minnesota, Star Tribune, 2014 *largest privately owned firm *8th largest pork producer *”free” after 2017 http://www.startribune.com/business/262257761.html Group sow housing ¨ ¨ PA Country View Family Farms Progress, but still no straw bedding, sunshine, nothing to root around in etc… http://civileats.com/2015/06/09/a-peek-inside-group-sow-housing/ Can we think of any unintended consequences of going crate free? Unintended consequences? ¨ Contract farmers (about 70% of sow operations are contract vs. Cargill company owned) Installing group housing will cost $20-25 million for Cargill ¤ Other estimates: sow stalls to pens at existing: $200600 per sow ¤ ¨ Hog producers often see group housing as no less humane: fighting and bullying on the pen floor, food hoarding Add more stress….Farrowing: Crate and Pen • Farrowing crates: sows can sometimes crush their piglets. • Cause CVD problems, UTI, weakened bones, reduced muscle mass And more stress….Piglets ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ First 48 hours: teeth clipped, tail docked. Warm environment à lethargic and have fewer social vices. Injected with iron. 90% of piglets will be castrated within 10 days so their meat will stay tender (Americans prefer the taste). Weaned pigs sent to nursery ¨ Weaned at 2-3 weeks (“natural”: 15 weeks) ¨ Fed “solid food” which includes dried blood plasma from slaughterhouses (damages their GI tracts). ¨ Pharmaceuticals to prevent diarrhea (this is a very stressful time for them!) ¨ Cages: burn fewer calories, fatter on less feed Grow-Finishing ¨ ¨ ¨ 6-10 weeks to 5/6 mths 8 sq ft of space per pig Unlimited feed During grow-finishing… ¨ ¨ Fed antibiotics, and other pharmaceuticals to prevent disease and disease spread and so they grow faster 30-70% will develop respiratory infection by slaughter Humid conditions of confinement ¤ Density of animals with stress-weakened immune systems ¤ Toxic gases from accumulating excrement ¤ Swine Practitioner, 1998 Antibiotics ineffective at promoting growth in pigs ¨ Studies from 19501985 suggested that antibiotics increased weight: ¤ ¨ 17% for younger pigs by 4% in older pigs. Similar studies since 2000 found much less dramatic results: ¤ 1% increase for young pigs and no increase for older pigs. http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2015/03/antibiotics-dont-actually-promote-growth-livestock; http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/theme-articles/theme-overview/economics-of-antibiotic-use-in-us-swine-and-poultryproduction During grow-finishing… ¨ Federal law does NOT permit the use of added hormones in poultry or swine (pigs and hogs). Industrial Pork Production cycle: sent to slaughter at 5-6 months 2. Farrowing crates: 2-3 wks 3. Nurseries: 2-3 wks to 6-10 wks 1. Gestation crates: 16 weeks (3 mth/3 wk/3 d) 4. Grow-Finish operations: 6/10 wks – 5/6 mths Processing ¨ ¨ Very similar to beef Rendered unconscious in one of three ways: ¤ ¤ ¤ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ stunning using electric current applied with electrodes, stunning using captive bolt pistol, inhalation of CO2 Sticker Scalder and Torcher (hair removal) Eviscerated, head removal Washed Implications of processing/slaughter on worker health ¨ Musculoskeletal injuries due to high line speeds ¤ ¨ Hormel: 90 hogs/hr to 1,350 hogs/hr from 2002 to 2007, only increased # workers 10-15% The BRAIN MACHINE Pressurized machine to liquefy hog brains (inside skull) ¤ Aerosolizes small amounts of brain tissue ¤ Humans inhale it, immune system attacks foreign cells and then onto its own cells ¤ Results in neurological disorders (nerve, spine, brain damage) ¤ The Chain: Farm, Factory, and the Fate of Our Food, 2014 by Genoways Impacts on industrial production on workers/farmers/families: ¨ An enormous amount of research exists to document the serious negative impacts to swine confinement house workers. ¤ ¨ Effects include respiratory symptoms, reductions in pulmonary function and increased bronchial responsiveness. Researchers in Iowa found a high prevalence of asthma in children living on hog farms, especially farms that added antibiotics to feed 23 Dosman, J.A., Lawson, J.A., Kirychuk, S.P., Cormier, Y., Biem, J., Koehncke, N., 2004. Occupational asthma in newly employed workers in intensive swine confinement facilities. European Respiratory Journal, v. 24:698-702, available at http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/24/4/698. 24 Merchant, J.A., Naleway, A.L., Svendsen, E.R., Kelly, K.M., Burmeister, L.F., Stromquist, A.M., Taylor, C.D., Thorne, P.S., Reynolds, S.J., Snaderson, W.T., Chrischilles, E.A., 2005. Asthma and Farm Exposure in a cohort of rural Iowa children. Envr Health Perspectives, v. 113:350-356, available at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2004/7240/7240.pdf. 25 Chrischilles, E., Ahrens, R., Kuehl, A., Kelly, K., Thorne, P., Burmeister, L., 2004. Journal Allergy Clin.Immunol, v. 113:66-71. Impacts on industrial production on human health: ¨ Antibiotic-resistance: super-bugs Affects the herds ¤ Affects us (CDC: 2 million infected annually, 20K die ¤ from abx resistant bacteria of all types) 11/28/12 2/22/12 MRSA = Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Antibiotic use on swine farms is greater than on chicken and cattle farms ¨ Pig farmers around the world, on average, use nearly four times as much antibiotics as cattle ranchers do, per pound of meat. “…conservatively estimate the total consumption in 2010 at 63,151 tons. We project that antimicrobial consumption will rise by 67% by 2030, and nearly double in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.” – PNAS 2015 http://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5649.abstract, Van Boeckel 2015; http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/03/20/394064680/for-thelove-of-pork-antibiotic-use-on-farms-skyrockets-worldwide Problems: Deadly new viruses ¨ Entire hog populations of entire states have had 100% infection rates of deadly new viruses. ¤ Increasingly infecting humans CDC reports 'big increase' in H3N2 swine influenza cases August 09, 2012|By Eryn Brown | Los Angeles Times J of Virology, 2000, Webby et al Hogs and Waste How much waste? Hogs produce 3x as much excrement as humans. Why is it so bad? ¨ Water and Soil Pollution ¤ ¨ pathogens, antibiotics, heavy metals Air Pollution ¤ anaerobic bacteria produces toxic airborne compounds (ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide, CO2). http://grist.org/article/giant-hog-farms-are-making-people-sickheres-why-its-a-civil-rights-issue/ Why is it so bad? ¨ ¨ Mostly (80%) from it being sprayed aboveground as fertilizer (first six hours being the worst) Inadequately regulated http://grist.org/article/giant-hog-farms-are-making-people-sickheres-why-its-a-civil-rights-issue/ Biggest environmental spill in US history up to this point – 2x the size of Exxon Valdez oil spill 7,000 violations is a plan. ¨ ¨ Paying for pollution is cheaper than giving up factory farming. Fined $12.6 million (largest in U.S. history). ¤ Small for a company that grosses $12.6 million every 10 hours. As reported by the Sierra Club. This is also a community health issue (and a growing civil rights issue) ¨ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5MxvjYS2-E ¤ ¨ ¨ 1:10 Nearby residents more than 1.5 times as likely to be people of color and have higher rates of asthma attacks, bronchitis, runny nose, runny eyes In 2014, Earthjustice filed a complaint against NC Dept of Enviro and Natural Resources alleging the pollution was a civil rights issue in that it disproportionately affected communities of color (under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act) http://civileats.com/2016/03/23/is-north-carolina-the-next-flint-groups-say-the-hog-industry-disproportionate-impacts-on-people-of-color-inthe-state/ Alternatives ¨ Open Pasture and Hoop Barns HOOP BARNS! Tent-like, deep bedding, airflow What is a hoop barn? ¨ ¨ ¨ 4-foot-high sidewalls fitted with steel tubular arches covered with an opaque UVresistant polypropylene tarp 75 to 250 head/hoop Sows can be housed here. Pasture Advantages of alternatives ¨ Bedding, natural ventilation Animals less susceptible to stress ¤ Less tail biting, foot pad lesions, leg problems, respiratory problems ¤ ¨ Dry manure management, natural ventilation ¤ ¨ Low initial investment ¤ ¨ Less pollution/enviro issues & anaerobic bacteria Lower capital costs (40-70% of the cost of conventional systems), but similar gross margins Meat quality ¤ Limited research shows outdoor rearing may improve it Thornton, 1998; Edwards, 1995; Warriss 1983; Barton-Gade and Blaabjerg, 1989; McGlone 1999 Texas Tech University: Impacts on taste and possibly nutrition Muscle fibers from pigs raised indoors Muscle fibers from pigs raised outdoors Outdoor finished had higher scores for initial juiciness and less off-flavor (P<0.05). Texas Tech: Alternative Production Systems report Disadvantages of alternatives ¨ ¨ Hard to scale up? Weather/climate May not be as feasible in cooler climates ¤ However, outdoor pigs grew faster in warm months and slower in cool months than indoor ¤ ¨ Loss of “year-round” pork ¤ In winter, females typically don’t farrow Texas Tech: Alternative Production Systems report At the shelf (Organic) ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Feed (must be organic) Antibiotics (not allowed) Lifestyle (animals must have outdoor access) Pasture rule does not apply here (not a ruminant) Chipotle: “Antibiotic-Free Meat Business Is Booming, Thanks To Chipotle” NPR, Aubrey, 5/31/12 p.s. Hormel bought them in 2015 Organic Hog Production Stds. Pigs are required to have access to the outdoors, but raising pigs on pasture is not required by organic regulations. Pigs and poultry are not ruminant animals, and they may be kept on concrete or dirt lots for all stages of production as long as the living-condition requirements—access to the outdoors, fresh air, direct sunlight, space to exercise, shade, shelter from inclement weather, clean drinking water, and bedding as appropriate—are met. Guide for Organic Livestock Producers By Linda Coffey and Ann H. Baier, NCAT, November 2012 Questions???? Hogs: gestation crates (welfare), stress, new viruses, waste, community health and civil rights
NUTR 302, 2017 Food Studies: Harvest to Health CHRIS VOGLIANO MS, RDN CVOGLIAN@UW.EDU NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES PROGRAM TAS ANNIE BRADSHAW GREG WISONT Agenda • Icebreaker • What’s this course about? • Course logistics Warm-up !"#$ • When it comes to our food supply, what do you care about? (Top 2 things) • What information would you like to see on your food label that is not currently on your food label? (top 2 things) • Top two things a consumer could do to improve our food supply. (Top two things) NUTR 300 (prereq) NUTR 302 (this class) “You are what you eat eats too.” Michael Pollan “You are what you eat eats too.” Organic? Pesticide free? No fertilizers Communities? Workers/Labor? GMO? Fed animal byproducts? Vegetarian diet? Organic? Hormone free? Free of antibiotics? From humanely raised animals? Most of us know very little about how our food is produced…or if it might matter. What you eat eats matters too. Abundant food at low cost. Industrialized food production Finite Resources: Clean water Food and its Water Footprint Source: Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition Diet patterns are changing globally Source: CGIAR Big Facts Declining food quality “apparent median declines of 5% to 40% or more in some minerals in groups of vegetables and perhaps fruits; one study also evaluated vitamins and protein with similar results.” ◦ Feb 2009, Jrnl Hortscience, D.R. Davis Compromised Food Safety CAFO’s (Concentrated animal feeding operations) Water Pollution • 2014 • • Lake Erie is in serious trouble according to several Federal Reports – and it’s getting worse by the year. Nearly a half million Toledo residents were without water for weeks. Multiple reasons: phosphorus from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems. Antibiotic Resistance Soil Erosion and Depletion Loss of farmland • Between 2002-2007, an area roughly the size of Massachusetts (crop, pasture, range, and land formerly enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program) was converted to developed uses… • Losing prime farmland at a rate of 300 acres/day Jon Scholl, President of American Farmland Trust (AFT), 2007 NRI Aging and Declining Farmer Population Problems of food access and food security Food Waste Diet-related illness Labor Issues Loss of crop biodiversity Bill Duesing, Food and Environment Is this class all depressing? Changes… The swift rise of cage-free eggs 15 years (2001) “Americans wanted cheap eggs…and caged birds were the only way to keep prices low.” Today: nearly every major egg buyer (from McD’s to Denny’s to IHOP to Costco) has announced a policy to go cage-free. Landscape shift? Social media, whistleblowing exposes (nightline, PBS) http://qz.com/646561/the-swift-rise-of-cage-free-eggs-revealsamericans-changing-view-of-the-moral-universe/ WHO Sustainable Development Goals Source - WHO, SDG, 2014 Big Questions • How is it affecting my health, the health of the planet, the health of others and our communities? • Can we bring the system back in balance? • Can individuals make a difference? About the course LOGISTICS A little about you? § Eating styles § CSA § Farmers market § Kitchen § Cook § Farm/Garden Course Structure 1. Our Food System: From Production to Consumption to Waste ◦Current system: some examples ◦Industrialization of eating ◦Environment, labor, ethics 2. Generating Solutions ◦Individual, institutional, system ◦Food systems, interface About me Board Member/Advisory Panel Council on Future Practice Second Century Liaison (VN DPG) Employee Arivale – Clinical Research Associate Research Support Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation Speaker’s Bureau Vegetarian Nutrition DPG Hunger and Environmental DPG Meet Your Teaching Assistants • Annie Bradshaw • Greg Wisont Canvas Site • Be SURE to turn on your announcements or check the Canvas site daily. • Finding streaming videos, assignments, reading materials, etc. Films and Readings 6 films required, Canvas readings Grades (Brief description in your syllabus. Detailed descriptions in “Assignments” on Canvas.) • Class participation • Individual Assignments (three of them) 1. Food Production Analysis 2. Food Waste Analysis 3. Humble Feast Reflection • Final Project (culmination of #1, #2, and what you’ve learned in class) 1. Class participation • Guest speakers (around 6) • 8-9 in-class exercises, unannounced • Drop one • No “lates/earlys” Humble Feast Wednesday May 3rd A note on in-class comments! • Respectful • Tactful • Civil • Confidential Meet two people • Hi, my name is.. • My major and year is… • I’m taking this class because… • I’m most excited about… One last thing Athletes ◦ Let us know, 48 hr window for make-ups. Disability Resources for Students ◦ Let us know how we can support you. REMINDER**** › Read the Week 1 readings in the Canvas site. › Wednesday topic: Food Animals Questions?
Food Animals: Beef NUTR 302, March 29, 2016 Chris Vogliano MS, RDN Next week’s Assignments • WATCH: "American Meat" before class on April 3. • Why We Can’t See Inside Poultry Production, and What Might Change if We Could By Maryn McKenna, 1/29/2013: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/01/poultrytransparency/ (Links to an external site.) • Your Chicken Nuggets Are Killing Your Crab Cakes By Tom Philpott, 7/28/2011: http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2011/07/chesapeake-deadzone-agriculture (Links to an external site.) • US Study links drug resistant bacteria with intensive farms, 7/4/2013: http://www.farming.co.uk/news/article/8592 (Links to an external site.) • Documents reveal how poultry firms systematically feed antibiotics to flocks, 9/15/2014: http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/farmaceuticals-thedrugs-fed-to-farm-animals-and-the-risks-posed-to-humans/ (Links to an external site.) Agenda BEEF 1. The opposing sides of Beef 2. Beef Production: The process • • Grain and grass Impact on cattle health 3. Impact on our health 4. Impact on the planet 5. Possible Solutions The opposing sides of BEEF BEEFMagazine.com What are Beef Magazine’s 6 reasons? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It’s healthy. It’s easy. It’s environmentally friendly. It’s affordable. It’s kind. It will make you feel sexy. BEEFMagazine.com The other side… Critiques of Modern Beef Production 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • • • Promotes disease (heart, cancer, etc.) Major climate change contributor / GHG Excess water consumptive Antibiotics Overuse Hormones Misuse Ethical considerations http://www.eatrightpro.org/resource/practice/position-and-practice-papers/position-papers/vegetarian-diets http://www.meatlessmonday.com/about-us/why-meatless/ https://noharm-uscanada.org/content/us-canada/less-meat-better-meat Let’s investigate how beef is produced first… Two main paths of beef production Most production systems differ ONLY in the final finishing phase. USDA LPDM-218-01, April 2013 • On range/pasture for 4-6 months. • 14-16 months old at slaughter. This wasn’t always the case… ▪ 1900s: 4-5 years old at slaughter ▪ 1950s: 2-3 years old at slaughter ▪ Today: 14-16 months old at slaughter The picture we might have in our minds of those two paths. VS. Grain finished 80% Grass finished USDA ERS LDPM 218-01, 2013 Gestating • Beef cattle are still born on thousands of independently owned ranches. • A heifer carries a calf for 9 months before it gives birth. • Can rebreed a cow 3 months after she has given birth. Nursing: Cow-Calf Operations • Nurses for about 4-6 months. • Diet: Mom’s milk and grasses • During this time: branded, castrated, de-horned. Weaning At 6 months, cows separated from calves. • Calves = prone to get sick (stress) • Cows = also stressed Diet: • Mainly forage (plant material) from pasture or hay/silage, mineral supplements, fresh water Backgrounding: “Prep school for feedlot life” Animals confined in a pen “Bunk broken”: Taught to eat from a trough. Increasingly fed higher proportions of grain, until animal reaches approx. 700 pounds. [warm-up ration, creep feeding] What is a RUMEN? ▪ Cows, sheep, and other grazers have rumens (first part of 4-part stomach). ▪ Convert grass into organic acids and high-quality protein via microbial fermentation process. ▪ We can’t do this! ! Feedlot or CAFO: City Life • For 3-6 months: gain between 2.5 and 4 pounds per day (total: 450-750#). • The cattle are fed a scientifically formulated ration that averages 70 - 90 % grain. • On this special diet, cattle will gain about 1 pound for every 6 pounds of feed they consume. What about antibiotics? ▪ Why are they used? ▪ What are the benefits? ▪ What are the risks? Antibiotics: Benefits 1. Animals do grow faster ▪ Cattle fed antibiotics grow to the same weight at approx. 160 days as cattle fed without at approx. 210 days 2. It does reduce disease/death ▪ 53% reduction in morbidity and 27% reduction in mortality from whole group treatment upon arrival at feedlot ▪ Reduced risks of liver abscesses by 8% Morley 2011, USDA ERS April 2013 Antibiotics: Risks 1. Creating “super bugs” - 84% of the Salmonella bacteria in supermarket ground beef were resistant to some antibiotics. 2. Reduces effectiveness for human uses - The problem for humans is that if a person ingests the resistant bacteria via improperly cooked meat and becomes ill, he or she may not respond to antibiotic treatment. NEJM 2001 CAFO Air Quality https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/docs/understanding_cafos_nalboh.pdf Synthetic hormones • Trace amounts of hormones (testosterone, estrogens, progestin, etc.) help animals gain weight faster. • By reaching market weight sooner, there is a reduction in the cost of beef production and lower prices to consumers. American Meat Institute, 2009 Hormones: Benefits and Risks Benefits • Efficiency gains of 17% in average daily gain and 9% in weight-gain-to-feed rations from a single hormonal implant. Risks to humans? ▪ Not sure ▪ Added hormones do show up in beef ▪ Potential cancer risk? Link is not proven ▪ Contributing to early puberty? Link is not proven ▪ Amount of hormone entering a person’s bloodstream after eating treated meat is small compared to what we produce daily USDA ERS April 2013, WebMD 2009 Why do we feed them grain then? ▪ It’s cheaper than grass/pasture (subsidized by the government). ▪ Cattle grow faster and fatter. (Acevedo, 2006) ▪ “Put the proper amount of fat cover on the animals” or marbling. The ”Grading” of Meat A very interesting history: http://meat.tamu.edu/meat-grading-history/ This means meat cuts with higher levels of fats are of higher value Meat Purchasing Tender cuts Exercising muscles are tougher American meat consumption per person (lbs.) Earth Policy Institute graphic using USDA ERS statistics, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/06/27/155527365/visualizing-a-nation-of-meathttp://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/06/27/155527365/visualizing-a-nation-of-meat-eaters eaters USDA Protein Recommendations http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0680e/i0680e.pdf http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/study-urges-moderation-in-red-meat-intake-201203134490 Globally where do we stand? One of the things we worry about… How many beef cattle are on feedlots and how big are these feedlots? - Feedlots with less than 1,000 head of capacity compose the vast majority of U.S. feedlots. - In contrast, feedlots with 1,000 head or more of capacity compose less than 5 percent of total feedlots USDA NASS reports from 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 - However, feedlots with 1,000 head or more of capacity (the <5%) market 80- to 90-percent of fed cattle. - Of those, feedlots with 32,000 head or more of capacity market around 40-percent of fed cattle. USDA NASS reports from 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics http://eatrightfoundation.org/why-it-matters/public-education/future-of-food/farming-101-infographic/ Does the size of the feedlot affect their antibiotic and hormone regime? When feedlot capacity increases to 500+, procedures are used on greater percent of incoming cattle. USDA, APHIS, Oct 2012 As feedlot capacity increases to 1000+, procedures are used on an even greater proportion of incoming cattle. USDA, APHIS, Oct 2012 Four firms control over 80 percent of all the beef from feedlot to slaughter to sale. 25% of U.S. Market Share 19% 21% 11% High Country News, 2009 Okay.. So what? Health Impacts Antibiotics, artificial hormones, and other drugs for growth promotion ▪ Detected as residues in meat (2 violations per plant per year in 2007). ▪ From 2009-2011, 0.12% of beef cattle in scheduled residue samples for antibiotics. ▪ Antibiotics excreted in manure often have long half-lives ▪ Contaminate water ▪ Alter soil microbes ▪ Antibiotic resistance in microbes Do these differences between grainfinished and grassfinished matter? Grass-finished is lower in total fat than grainfinished and lower in kcal by about 50 kcal per 3 oz. serving (and create unique cooking qualities) Daley 2010, Nutrition Journal; Fukumoto, 1995, J Nutr Sci Vitaminol Omega 3 Fatty Acids are higher in grass-finished compared with grain-finished beef Daley 2010, Nutrition Journal; Fukumoto, 1995, J Nutr Sci Vitaminol http://raw-horizons.typepad.com/my_weblog/grass-fed-vs-grain-fed-animal-diet.html But much of this is not enough to impact your diet…. ▪ These studies are comparing them to their nonorganic varieties ▪ So….if omega-3 levels in regular beef are around 43 milligrams per 100 grams, a 47% higher level in grass-fed beef would be 63 mg per 100 grams……. ▪ This pales in comparison to say tilapia (134 mg) or king salmon (1,270 mg) Corn vs Grain: Taste? ▪ Consumer Reports taste test (2002) ▪ Grass-finished: Milder and less tender, but not that much different ▪ Result of fat content AND aging Ribeye Nutrition Impacts on the planet " Dark (side of) Meat (mostly beef) 1 2 Land Use 80% of global agricultural lands are used to produce animals either for pasture or to grow food for them. 4 Inefficient Calories 5 Land Degradation Greenhouse Gasses Livestock accounts for over 15 % of ALL greenhouse-gas emissions. That’s as much as our auto-industry. 3 Over Consumption The average American consumes 198-245 pounds of meat per person per year. An increase of 40% from the 1970’s 6 It takes significantly more energy to produce a pound of meat than it does to produce a pound of plant protein. Beef is at an 8:1 ratio. We use eight times more land to feed animals in the U.S. than we use to feed humans. Water Use Growing food for livestock alone takes 20% of our fresh water consumption alone. Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2010, Livestock and Fish Primary Equivalent, 02 June 2010, FAOSTAT on-line statistical service, FAO, Rome J.L. Capper, Journal of Animal Science, December, 2011. Baroni, Luciana, et al. "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61.2 (2007): 279-286. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika, and Alejandro D. González. "Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change." The American journal of clinical nutrition 89.5 (2009): “A kilogram of beef is responsible for m greenhouse gas emissions and other pollut than driving for 3 hours while leaving all the lig on back hom Ogino, Akifumi, et al. "Evaluating environmental impacts of the Japanese beef cow–calf system by the life cycl method." Animal Science Journal 78.4 (20 Meat can be good, too! Enter Allan Savory: Holistic Mgmt. ▪ Argues that properly managed herds of ungulates - cows - can bury huge quantities of carbon and restore our topsoil at the same time. ▪ “There is only one option, I repeat to you, only one option left to climatologists and scientists, and that is to do the unthinkable, and to use livestock, bunched and moving, as a proxy for former herds and predators and mimic nature. There is no other alternative left to mankind.” Meat Reduction Policy around the World A UK B US Australia's Dietary Guidelines “We must help people consume food in a manner more consistent with sustainable development focus on matters such as avoiding overconsumption, eating less processed food, and eating food produced locally and in season.” British Dietetic Association “Dietitians should emphasize need to reduce red meat for health and greenhouse gasses." Dietary Guidelines for Brazil “Reduced consumption and thus production of animal foods will reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases responsible for global warming, deforestation and of intensive use of water” USDA Dietary Guidelines No mention of sustainability L People are surprisingly open to a "meat tax" to combat climate change ▪ UK Chatham House report of surveys in 12 countries, including US ▪ Determined that there was an interest in meat tax (no info on how much). ▪ Suggested that any “backlash” to unpopular policies would be short-lived. ▪ Believe it is the role of the government to address unsustainable consumption of meat ▪ Only 21 of the 120 national plans submitted to the Paris Climate Summit Conference had commitments to reducing emissions from the livestock sector. Quartz, 2015, http://bit.ly/1T1vpvq, https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/changingclimate-changing-diets China • China now consumes 28% of the world’s meat, including half of its pork. However, China still lags behind more than a dozen countries in per capita meat consumption • The average American or Australian consuming twice as much meat per person compared to China. • Recently, Chinese companies have been buying farms in the United States and Australia to provide feed for the country’s dairy and beef industries. • “From a climate perspective, the methane will still be created, but will be shifted to the United States.” China’s new Policy • Meat has gone from luxury to staple… x 1.3 billion • In 1982, the average Chinese person ate just 13kg of meat a year • Now the average is 63kg per year • Predicted to rise another 30kg per year by 2030 without policy shifts & education campaigns • China’s health ministry now recommends 40g to 75g of meat per person each day. • 1.4 – 2.4 ounces per day • This shift could reduce yearly output of CO2 by 1 billion tons http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-based-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/china/en/ Visualizing 1 billion tons CO2 or 291 Coal Plants or 946,604,255 acres of forest 147,666,864 home’s electricity (annually) China’s unusual partners Hasta la vista, meat Recap of Pros v. Cons • Livelihood for many farmers • Saturated fats and heart disease • Nutrition • Foodborne pathogens (E. coli) • Quality source of Protein • Antibiotics/growth hormones • Vitamin B12 • Climate change methane • Iron • Zinc • CAFO pollution (water, air, soil) • Taste • Animal welfare (ethics) emissions) Possible Solutions Lab Grown Meat Churchill 1931 – “Fifty years hence, we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium.” Photo credit: Churchill. http://www.publicdomainpictures Petri dish grown meat: David Parry / PA Wire Opportunities & Challenges-In Vitro1-2 Reduce livestock production environmental impact Address animal welfare issues High cost Potential lack of essential nutrients for good health Decrease food waste Sterile environment w/specific equipment & technical skills Control nutrient content Not panacea for world hunger Address hunger issues Intellectual property rights of original researchers Promote Sustainable Proteins Sustainably sourced fish https://pixabay.com/ Legumes as Nitrogen Fixers https://pixabay.com/ Insects as protein? http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3253e/i3253e.pdf Plant-based substitutes http://www.impossiblefoods.com/ Questions???? Reminders ▪ WATCH: Watch film “American Meat” by Tuesday ▪ NEXT WEEK: Pigs, Broiler Chickens Thanks!!
Reminders ¨ ¨ Assignment #1 due Monday April 17th by Noon (before class!) Monday: ¤ Bring 2 food labels to class (can be anything!) n Beverages, cereal, chips, etc. Note taker ¨ ¨ ¨ Disability Resources for Students is looking for at least two note takers to assist a student with a documented disability. Please consider notetaking as it will help your peer gain access to material from class. Note takers will receive a letter of recommendation for their service from the Director of Disability Resources for Students when the quarter is complete. If you take accurate and legible notes, please see me after class! UW's Indigenous Foods Symposium: May 5-6, 2017 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Call for Volunteers The coordinators of the Indigenous Foods and Ecological Knowledge Symposium are recruiting volunteers for our annual Symposium scheduled for May 5-6, 2017 in the (Intellectual House) at the University of Washington (UW). Volunteer at: https://catalyst.uw.edu/webq/survey/clarita/328139 FREE tickets for UW Students here http://www.brownpapertickets.com/event/2811951 Back to Swine… There is outrage over this practice (and some new laws) ¤Phasing out of gestation crates in FL, AZ, CA, CO, ME, MI, OH, OR, RI (NJ tried, Christie vetoed, despite 93% support rate for it) ¤But not in Iowa, North Carolina, Minnesota, or Illinois—the four that produce 61 percent of US hogs ¤ Companies working on going crate free – but often long timelines (60 major U.S. companies, including several giant restaurants and retail chains) Can we think of any unintended consequences of going crate free? Unintended consequences? ¨ Contract farmers (about 70% of sow operations are contract vs. Cargill company owned) Installing group housing will cost $20-25 million for Cargill ¤ Other estimates: sow stalls to pens at existing: $200600 per sow ¤ ¨ ¨ Some Hog producers see group housing as no less humane: fighting and bullying on the pen floor, food hoarding What about Low-income populations? Add more stress….Farrowing: Crate and Pen • Farrowing crates: sows can sometimes crush their piglets. • Cause CVD problems, UTI, weakened bones, reduced muscle mass And more stress….Piglets ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ First 48 hours: teeth clipped, tail docked. Warm environment à lethargic and have fewer social vices. Injected with iron. 90% of piglets will be castrated within 10 days so their meat will stay tender (Americans prefer the taste). Weaned pigs sent to nursery ¨ ¨ Weaned at 2-3 weeks (“natural”: 15 weeks) Fed “solid food” which includes dried blood plasma from slaughterhouses (damages their GI tracts). ¨ Pharmaceuticals to prevent diarrhea (this is a very stressful time for them!) ¨ Cages: burn fewer calories, fatter on less feed Grow-Finishing ¨ ¨ ¨ 6-10 weeks to 5/6 mths 8 sq ft of space per pig Unlimited feed During grow-finishing… ¨ ¨ Fed antibiotics, and other pharmaceuticals to prevent disease and disease spread and so they grow faster 30-70% will develop respiratory infection by slaughter Humid conditions of confinement ¤ Density of animals with stress-weakened immune systems ¤ Toxic gases from accumulating excrement ¤ Swine Practitioner, 1998 During grow-finishing… ¨ Federal law does NOT permit the use of added hormones in poultry or swine (pigs and hogs). Industrial Pork Production cycle: sent to slaughter at 5-6 months 2. Farrowing crates: 2-3 wks 3. Nurseries: 2-3 wks to 6-10 wks 1. Gestation crates: 16 weeks (3 mth/3 wk/3 d) 4. Grow-Finish operations: 6/10 wks – 5/6 mths Impacts on industrial production on human health: ¨ Antibiotic-resistance: super-bugs Affects the herds ¤ Affects us (CDC: 2 million infected annually, 20K die ¤ from abx resistant bacteria of all types) 11/28/12 2/22/12 MRSA = Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Antibiotic use on swine farms is greater than on chicken and cattle farms ¨ Pig farmers around the world, on average, use nearly four times as much antibiotics as cattle ranchers do, per pound of meat. “…conservatively estimate the total consumption in 2010 at 63,151 tons. We project that antimicrobial consumption will rise by 67% by 2030, and nearly double in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.” – PNAS 2015 http://www.pnas.org/content/112/18/5649.abstract, Van Boeckel 2015; http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/03/20/394064680/for-thelove-of-pork-antibiotic-use-on-farms-skyrockets-worldwide Hogs and Waste How much waste? Hogs produce 3x as much excrement as humans. Why is it so bad? ¨ Water and Soil Pollution ¤ ¨ pathogens, antibiotics, heavy metals Air Pollution ¤ anaerobic bacteria produces toxic airborne compounds (ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide, CO2). http://grist.org/article/giant-hog-farms-are-making-people-sickheres-why-its-a-civil-rights-issue/ Why is it so bad? ¨ ¨ Mostly (80%) from it being sprayed aboveground as fertilizer (first six hours being the worst) Inadequately regulated http://grist.org/article/giant-hog-farms-are-making-people-sickheres-why-its-a-civil-rights-issue/ Biggest environmental spill in US history up to this point – 2x the size of Exxon Valdez oil spill 7,000 violations... ¨ ¨ Paying for pollution is cheaper than giving up factory farming. Fined $12.6 million (largest in U.S. history). ¤ Small for a company that grosses $12.6 million every 10 hours. As reported by the Sierra Club. This is also a community health issue (and a growing civil rights issue) ¨ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5MxvjYS2-E ¤ ¨ ¨ 1:10 Nearby residents more than 1.5 times as likely to be people of color and have higher rates of asthma attacks, bronchitis, runny nose, runny eyes In 2014, Earthjustice filed a complaint against NC Dept of Enviro and Natural Resources alleging the pollution was a civil rights issue in that it disproportionately affected communities of color (under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act) http://civileats.com/2016/03/23/is-north-carolina-the-next-flint-groups-say-the-hog-industry-disproportionate-impacts-on-people-of-color-inthe-state/ Alternatives ¨ Open Pasture and Hoop Barns Advantages of alternatives ¨ Bedding, natural ventilation Animals less susceptible to stress ¤ Less tail biting, foot pad lesions, leg problems, respiratory problems ¤ ¨ Dry manure management, natural ventilation ¤ ¨ Low initial investment ¤ ¨ Less pollution/enviro issues & anaerobic bacteria Lower capital costs (40-70% of the cost of conventional systems), but similar gross margins Meat quality ¤ Limited research shows outdoor rearing may improve it Thornton, 1998; Edwards, 1995; Warriss 1983; Barton-Gade and Blaabjerg, 1989; McGlone 1999 Texas Tech University: Impacts on taste and possibly nutrition Muscle fibers from pigs raised indoors Muscle fibers from pigs raised outdoors Outdoor finished had higher scores for initial juiciness and less off-flavor (P<0.05). Texas Tech: Alternative Production Systems report Disadvantages of alternatives ¨ ¨ Hard to scale up? Weather/climate May not be as feasible in cooler climates ¤ However, outdoor pigs grew faster in warm months and slower in cool months than indoor ¤ ¨ Loss of “year-round” pork ¤ In winter, females typically don’t farrow Texas Tech: Alternative Production Systems report At the shelf (Organic) ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Feed (must be organic) Antibiotics (not allowed) Lifestyle (animals must have outdoor access) Pasture rule does not apply here (not a ruminant) Chipotle: “Antibiotic-Free Meat Business Is Booming, Thanks To Chipotle” NPR, Aubrey, 5/31/12 p.s. Hormel bought them in 2015 Organic Hog Production Stds. Pigs are required to have access to the outdoors, but raising pigs on pasture is not required by organic regulations. Pigs and poultry are not ruminant animals, and they may be kept on concrete or dirt lots for all stages of production as long as the living-condition requirements—access to the outdoors, fresh air, direct sunlight, space to exercise, shade, shelter from inclement weather, clean drinking water, and bedding as appropriate—are met. Guide for Organic Livestock Producers By Linda Coffey and Ann H. Baier, NCAT, November 2012 Questions???? Hogs: gestation crates (welfare), stress, new viruses, waste, community health and civil rights FOOD ANIMALS NUTR 302, APRIL 5TH Broiler Chickens WHAT ABOUT BROILERS? 99.9% raised in industrial manner The story of chickens is one of… ¨ Animal and human welfare ¨ Multi-drug resistant bacteria ¨ Waste and community health ¨ Tricky regulations (and companies) ¨ And, label confusion! U.S. meat consumption per person per year, in pounds Earth Policy Institute graphic using USDA ERS statistics, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/06/27/155527365/visualizing-a-nation-of-meateaters Pork: 95% Beef: 80% The vast majority of our food animals are raised on FACTORY FARMS or CAFO’s, Laying hens: 95% Broilers: 99.9% Rise of industrial broiler production has been rapid: From 580 million to 9 BILLION today (1400% increase). Number of producers plummeted by 98%. From 1.6 million to just over 27,000. Tyson Foods, 2012 Fact Book National Broiler Industry website Production: How were we able to increase supply so much? USDA ERS statistics, http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/06/27/155527365/visualizing-a-nation-of-meat-eaters First, find a chicken breed(s) that will grow big fast on as little feed as possible. “Imagine human children growing to 300 lbs. in ten years, while eating only granola bars and Flintstone vitamins.” J. Safran Foer Broiler Chickens at 55 days 1957 1977 2007 J. Safran Foer, Eating Animals; US EPA Ag 101 Poultry Production How radical is this change? ¨ From 1935-1995 (60 years) Avg wt increased by 65% ¤ Time to market dropped by 60% ¤ Feed required dropped by 57% ¤ J. Safran Foer, Eating Animals Average lifespan: 39-45 days Notice: Not in crates/cages (like laying hens) Fed: mostly corn/soy, vit/min Results in chronic pain for the broiler "Broilers are the only livestock that are in chronic pain for the last 20% of their lives. They don't move around, not because they are overstocked, but because it hurts their joints so much." - Prof. John Webster, University of Bristol School of Veterinary Science. (The Guardian, 10/14/1991). European Food Safety Authority, Journal 2010; 8 (7):1666; Eating Animals, Safran Foer In fact…. “They stagger a few steps, often on misshapen legs, and then collapse onto the excrement of tens of thousands of previous birds.” 25-75% will have some degree of walking impairment ¨ ¼ of these will be significant http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/04/opinion/nicholaskristof-abusing-chickens-we-eat.html Chicken factory farmer speaks out ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 0:29-4:34 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YE9l94b3x9U Farmer (Watts) spoke out “They will try to force him into submission by cutting his pay and, uh, and they will come in and they will start nit-picking him and his chicken houses. They will start harassing him and making his life miserable.” Watts filed a lawsuit in Feb 2015 accusing Perdue Farms of intimidation after he publicized animal welfare concerns. http://fusion.net/story/51418/whistle-blowing-chickenfarmer-sues-perdue-for-retaliation/; http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/04/opinion/nicholaskristof-abusing-chickens-we-eat.html Perdue responded to NYT columnist ¨ ¨ Perdue says the disturbing conditions at one of its poultry farms reported by the New York Times are not representative of the humane handling standards touted by the company in labels and advertisements. "All of the issues raised in this article and video are cases of mismanagement that could have been easily and humanely addressed to prevent bird suffering," said Tom Super, an National Chicken Council spokesman. http://www.wired.com/2014/12/cwif-craigwatts-perdue/ Bad news: Their living conditions impact farmers and broilers. ¨ ¨ Litter is not cleaned during their lives pollutes the air with ammonia, dust, bacteria and fungal spores (pathogens). Health problems (farmer and chicken): respiratory ¤ Skin problems (chicken): breast and hock burns, bruising, eyes, sudden death especially near term, foot pad lesion and ulceration. ¤ Univ of Kentucky, Poultry Production Manual, http://www2.ca.uky.edu/poultryprofitability/Production_manual/Chapter7_Ventilation_principles/Chapter7_air_quality.html Some “good” news ¤ Efficient at feed conversion USDA FSIS, EPA: http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/ag101/printpoultry.html Of three major protein species, chicken is the most efficient converter of grain to meat. EPA: http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/ag101/print poultry.html Some more “good” news ¤ Federal regulations prohibit the use of hormones in chicken! (like pork) USDA FSIS, EPA: http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/ag101/printpoultry.html We don’t we use hormones in chicken? Univ of Georgia, College of Ag and Enviro Sciences, extension, Poultry Housing tips, April 2012 We don’t we use hormones in chicken? 1. Difficult to administer 2. Does not appear to enhance growth ¤ Negative impact on chicken performance: “the modern broiler lives literally on the edge of its metabolic maximum.” Cost: 3. q “If 1 mg were to be administered to a broiler, the cost would be far in excess of the value of the chicken itself. Obviously, this makes no commercial sense.” Univ of Georgia, College of Ag and Enviro Sciences, extension, Poultry Housing tips, April 2012 Deceptive advertising… ….also, because all animals produce hormones. Back to broiler production…. Because they are packed so tight (“city life”), disease spreads and they are fed antibiotics in their feed. ¨ ¨ Prevents Disease/death Promotes growth Non-therapeutic antibiotic use is on the rise. Pew Report, 2009 The “big deal” with antibiotic use in animals: known to contribute to antibiotic resistance in humans. “Recent outbreaks in 2011, 2011-2012, and 2013 of multi-resistant Salmonella [bacteria] traced to ground beef and poultry show how animal and human health are linked.” CDC 2013 The World Health Organization describes it as “a problem so serious it threatens the achievements of modern medicine”. http://www.cdc.gov/narms/faq.html Antibiotic resistant: Salmonella Heidelberg 1 in 10 you eat from Foster Farms 416 cases (11/2013) 1st outbreak: June2012-Apr 2013 (NO alert issued) 2nd outbreak began in March 2013 CDC, http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/heidelberg-10-13/map.html 634 cases (7/2014) 1st outbreak: June2012-Apr 2013 (NO alert issued) 2nd outbreak began in March 2013 CDC, http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/heidelberg-10-13/map.html Details ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Rate of hospitalizations 2x the norm Higher # of blood poisonings Cooking to 165 degrees was not “killing” it. Costco recalled the product ¤ Found on rotisseries after cooking to 180 degrees CDC 2013 outbreak timeline of events, Zaitchik, Salon 1/12/14 USDA FSIS did not recall the product ¨ ¨ ¨ Tolerance for “whole” chickens (7.5% or <) vs. chicken parts Cooking “kill step” USDA does not have recall authority! Wilde, Food policy blog 10/21/13; Wash Post 12/18/13 Incident spurred Consumer Reports investigation Incident spurred Consumer Reports investigation ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Of 326 samples, 97% had bacteria that could make you sick More than ½ contained fecal contaminants (blood & UTI infections) ½ contained multi-drug resistant bacteria Regardless of type (conventional, organic, no abx) Wash Post 12/18/13; Consumer Reports 2013 IN fact… CDC says more deaths (1998-2000) from pathogen tainted food attributed to poultry than any other commodity. FDA testing found superbugs on the rise http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/farmaceuticals-the-drugsfed-to-farm-animals-and-the-risks-posed-to-humans/ What’s to be done about antibiotic use? ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Producers say: antibiotics are essential to feeding the world at an affordable price Other countries have successfully regulated with benefits (Denmark) Costs: National Academy of Sciences estimates reforms in the US would cost consumers $5-10 annually FDA? Thus far, voluntary.. Zaitchik, Salon 1/12/14 Why voluntary?? The real reasons. ¨ ¨ F.D.A.’s process for revoking approved drug uses is lengthy and cumbersome. The last time the F.D.A. banned an agricultural use of a medically important antibiotic, legal appeals took five years (drug maker sued). ¤ In this case, hundreds of drugs are involved. “You and I and our children would be long dead before F.D.A. could restrict all of these uses on its own.” NY TIMES, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/12/us/antibiotics-forlivestock-will-require-prescription-fdasays.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=antibiotics&st=cse& Voluntary Reductions by Industry: National Food Policy Conference, 4/16 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ James MacDonald, a branch chief with the USDA Economic Research Service, said he believes antibiotic use in poultry has been declining, but added that the information for hogs is "much messier." Tyson Foods, the largest chicken processor in the U.S., reduced the use of medically important antibiotics in its broiler chickens by 80 percent since 2011. The company said it is committed to transparency and publicly reporting progress toward goals for reducing antibiotics. Perdue (2015, NYT), says roughly half its chicken can be labeled “no antibiotics ever”, a first for a major company http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/01/business/perdue-and-the-race-to-end-antibiotic-use-in-chickens.html?_r=0; http://consumerfed.org/cfa_events/national-food-policy-conference/ More than lack of transparency http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/farmaceuticals-the-drugsfed-to-farm-animals-and-the-risks-posed-to-humans/ More than lack of transparency ¨ ¨ ¨ Pilgrims: low doses to every flock grown last year George’s Inc, abx critically important” to human medicine Foster farms: drugs from same classes as pencillin and chlorotetracycline http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/farmaceuticals-the-drugsfed-to-farm-animals-and-the-risks-posed-to-humans/ One positive: poultry parts standards! ¨ USDA’s FSIS announced final standards in Feb. 2016 to limit the maximum amount of salmonella allowed in chicken parts at 15.4 percent. (double whole?) ¤ Industry avg? currently 25% http://supermarketnews.com/meat/usda-finalizes-pathogen-standards-poultry One negative: still voluntary ….when federal limits are breached, and officials believe that a recall is necessary, their only option is to ask the producer to remove the product voluntarily. Even then, officials may only request a recall when they have proof that the meat is already making customers sick. http://www.vox.com/2015/1/28/79290 07/food-safety-salmonella-recall What about impacts of factory broilers on the community and environment? Impacts on the community: Chesapeake Bay ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ 2000: ag runoff chicken manure from 300+million Pfiesteria outbreak: large fish kills Human exposure (recreational/occupational) resulted in profound memory loss What was it from? What did they do? Am J Epi, 2001, Sommer Reduce chickens, chicken farmers, or….? ¨ Final negotiated settlement: State subsidized shipment of chicken-derived “fertilizer” elsewhere for alternative uses Am J Epi, 2001, Sommer It continues today…. ¨ 3/12/15: US Geological Survey: “Eastern Shore Contributes Excess Nutrients to Chesapeake Bay” Found that fertilizer and chicken manure applied on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay was exceeding the needs of crops and causing poor water quality in tributaries and the bay. We’ve raised our broilers…let’s process them Step 1: Transport to the slaughterhouse can add stress. ¨ 105 chickens crated by a single worker in 3.5 minutes! ¨ ¨ ¨ ~30% of all live birds arrive for slaughter with broken bones (genetics, crating) No water/feed during transport. Bacteria can spread between flocks here. Eating Animals, Safran Foer Welcome to the processing plant! ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Step 1: Stun bath 1 in 8 Spreads bacteria. Transport and stunning stress = 30% tough meat due to “stress response” Chicken by Striffler, 2005Grashorn, British Poultry Science 2010; Barbut 1997, Zhang and Barbut, 2005 Processing can impact workers too. One chicken per second on the line. Annual turnover rate of workers is 75% 5.9% are injured every year (50% more than national average). http://www.storkfoodsystems.com/ for photos; Stats from Chicken by Steven Striffler, 2005 and Southern Poverty Law Center report “Unsafe at these speeds”, Image sources: Getty, The Guardian, Oxfam Women working in poultry processing plant circa 1963, getty images. This was poised to get worse…for the workers. ….allows companies to speed up production lines from 35 birds per minute per inspector to 175 per minute, a five-fold increase… n “Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection” (77 Fed Reg 4408.) http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/12/17/177684/new-usda-rule-would-speed-poultry.html#storylink=cpy; Food Safety Modernization Act USDA FSIS webpage; Philpott in Mother Jones 4/24/13 And…worse for food safety. ¨ ¨ Cuts federal inspector jobs, replacing them with plant employees Pilots: higher positive rates of Salmonella ¨ 2 plants failed stds “Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection” (77 Fed Reg 4408.); FSIS Evaluation HACCP HIMP, 2011; Philpott in Mother Jones, 2013 These are cost-saving measures at the expense of worker health and food safety. ¨ ¨ USDA: $90 million over 3 years (firing inspectors) Poultry industry savings per year: $257 million USDA statement: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentidonly=true&contentid=2012/01/0018.xml BUT….. ¨ ¨ Line speeds held! (although the final rule is moving forward in other ways) Activists won this one for now (as did workers/consumers). http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2014/08/a-victory-foractivism-worker-safety-and-line-speed/#.VEkDVRahHaI Processing impacts bacteria levels on animals. Photos from http://www.storkfoodsystems.com/ Why do we water chill instead of air chill? Carol Tucker Foreman, Former USDA Undersecretary of Agriculture "Chickens are very absorbent animals. When you put them into the water bath to chill them, they gain a little weight. Since chicken is sold by the pound, over a period of time it's a substantial financial difference to the company. The average broiler is about four pounds. If you can add a quarter of a pound or an eighth of a pound in water pick-up, that's very important to the economics of the industry.” Fecal soup! What I’ve described is not the exception. It is the rule….and more than 99% of all chickens sold for meat in America live and die like this. J. Safran Foer, Eating Animals Fecal Soup “USDA knows this [about the fecal soup]….after all, the poultry processors are, as so many factory farmers like to say, simply doing their best to “feed the world”.” § J. Safran Foer, Eating Animals “According to the USDA reports, raw chicken headed for chilling tanks was smeared with feces.” http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/farmaceuticals-the-drugsfed-to-farm-animals-and-the-risks-posed-to-humans/ Luckily…we don’t taste the difference We inject them with “broths” and salty solutions to give them the chicken look, smell, and taste WAIT….you say! Organic is the only “reliable” label. Free-Range ¨ ¨ Allowed access to the outdoors. But access? Outdoors? Is not defined. Pastured ¨ ¨ ¨ Often more in line with what people think of freerange Not a legal term, no official meaning But, generally means kept in coops at night, pasture day Natural ¨ ¨ ¨ Means nothing about how they are raised Simply means nothing added to the bird after slaughter: no flavoring, brines, coloring USDA requires processors to add detail to this No hormones; no antibiotics ¨ ¨ ¨ Hormones banned by law Plus, all animals produce hormones Antibiotics? No official label although companies supposedly provide documentation. Air-chilled ¨ ¨ ¨ Chicken skips the “fecal soup” Less energy-efficient Some debate about pathogen load Irradiation ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Food irradiation is the process of exposing foodstuffs to a source of energy capable of stripping electrons from individual atoms (ionizing radiation). some or all of the microorganisms, bacteria, and viruses present are destroyed, slowed down, or rendered incapable of reproduction. Sterilized. This reduces or eliminates the risk of food borne illnesses. “Cold pasteurization” Organic Wing-to-wing density is impossible without antibiotics so this does say “something” about husbandry ¨ By law, has to be “free range” (time or size of area is not specified) ¨ Fatty acid content: Organic vs. Conventional vs. Free Range Iowa State Univ 2007 Organic, Free-Range, and Conventional Broilers for Cooked Meat Yields, Meat Composition, and Relative Value ¨ ¨ ¨ Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Retail prices (US): $3.19, $2.78, and $1.29 per pound for organic, free-range, and conventional **diets and production environments within the study were not controlled, http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/content/87/11/2367.short, Husak et al, 2008 Impact on the planet ¨ ¨ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1sX8xR4L2Y& feature=player_embedded#! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zCE08GpBtLg& feature=player_embedded Ok. But should I eat chicken? ¨ ¨ Great source of protein, low in sat fat If you want to avoid: GMOs ¤ Antibiotics ¤ ¨ If you want less impact on: Environment ¤ Communities ¤ ¨ Animal or human welfare? But you aren’t going to be able to avoid the pathogens (fecal soup!). ¨ ¨ Cook it properly (165) Handle it properly Wash your hands ¤ Dedicated cutting board ¤ Don’t rinse it in the sink ¤ Avoid cross-contamination ¤ Questions????

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