Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Annotated Bibliography Piske, T., MacKay, I., & Flege, J. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191-215. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY In this article, Piske, MacKay and Flege first review previous studies examining the influence of first language (L1) on second language (L2) pronunciation. The review mainly focuses on issues such as age of learning, length of residence, gender and motivation, and analyzes their role on mastering native-like L2 speech. The authors argue that studies so far have neglected effect of L1 when analyzing the phenomena of foreign accents, and they aim to fill this gap with the current study. The current study was conducted with a group of Italian-English bilingual speakers. The study mainly investigated the frequency of L1 use in an L2 environment and its effect on the degree of foreign accent. Additionally, the influence of individual characteristics on the participants’ accent were analyzed. All in all, the article provides valuable findings on a rarely studied variable and makes a significant contribution to the field of L2 acquisition. It also provides good support for why the age of learning is a significant factor that may prevent native-like L2 speech. 2

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