Introduction to Critical thinking (Argument digramming)

timer Asked: Apr 24th, 2017

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This excercise should take you about an hour at the most to finish if you know what basic philosophy is. I just want to make sure I have got the right answer and double check with you. Please take a look at the attachment


Exercise 3.9 Argument digramming. () Diagram the following arguments using the procedure discussed in the text. 1. I shouldn’t take physics this semester. My course load is already too heavy. There’s no room for the course in my schedule. And I don’t like physics. 2. The president is soft on the environment. He has weakened clean-air regulations and lifted restrictions on logging in the West. 3. Congressman Porkbarrel is either dishonest or incompetent. He’s not in- competent, though, because he’s expert at getting self-serving legislation through Congress. I guess he’s just dishonest. 4. If an individual in a coma is no longer a person, then giving him a drug to kill him is not murder. Such an individual is in fact not a person. Therefore, giving him the drug is not murder. 5. “The City Council deserves the gratitude of all New Yorkers for in- troducing a bill to ban the use of cell phones in places of public performance. . . . These rules may be hard to enforce, but so are bans on littering, auto horn honking and other quality-of-life offenses. By chang- ing the law, the city will send a clear message that cell phone abuse is not just an etiquette issue but robs audience members of their right to enjoy the performance they paid for.” [Letter to the editor, New York Times, November 28, 2002] * 6.If Marla buys the house in the suburbs, she will be happier and healthier. She is buying the house in the suburbs. So she will be happier and healthier. 7. If you gain too much weight, your blood pressure will increase. If your blood pressure increases, your risk of stroke or heart attack rises. There- fore, gaining too much weight can increase your risk of stroke and heart attack. 8. “Grow accustomed to the belief that death is nothing to us, since every good and evil lie in sensation. However, death is the deprivation of sensa- tion. Therefore . . . death is nothing to us.” [Epicurus] 9. “A cause-and-effect relationship is drawn [by those opposed to pornogra- phy] between men viewing pornography and men attacking women, especially in the form of rape. But studies and experts disagree as to whether any relationship exists between pornography and violence, be- tween images and behavior. Even the pro-censorship Meese Commission Report admitted that the data connecting pornography to violence was unreliable.” [Free Inquiry, Fall 1997] * 10.The existence of planets outside our solar system is a myth. There is no reliable empirical evidence at all showing that planets exist outside our solar system. 11. If Li Yang gets a high score on her test, she will have a perfect grade point average. If she gets a low score, she will drop out of school. She will get a high score on the test, so she will have a perfect grade point average. 12. Most atheists are liberals, and George is an atheist. Therefore, George is probably a liberal. Therefore, George is probably in favor of increased welfare benefits because most liberals are in favor of increased welfare benefits. 13. Bill is a student at Yale. No student at Yale has won the Nobel Prize. Therefore, Bill has not won the Nobel Prize. 14. “An international agreement proscribes the use of gas and so germ war- fare must be developed.” [Germaine Greer, The Female Eunuch] 15. The only valid reasons for dishonorably discharging someone from the Army are health problems and violations of Army regulations. So if Amal says that he was dishonorably discharged for simply being gay, he is lying or is mistaken. He is not lying. So he is mistaken. 16. “It is clear that archaeologists have not yet come to terms with dowsing [the alleged ability to detect underground water or treasure by paranor- mal means]. Where it has been the subject of tests, the tests have been so poorly designed and executed that any conclusion whatsoever could have been drawn from them. The fact that such tests are usually carried out only by researchers with a prior positive view of dowsing means that the conclusions will likely also be positive. The normal processes of peer review and scholarly discussion have also failed to uncover the lack of properly controlled test conditions in such studies as those of Bailey * 17. et al. and Locock, causing a generation of students and general readers in the United Kingdom, at least, to remain under the impression that the reality of archaeological dowsing had been all but confirmed by science.” [Skeptical Inquirer, March/April 1999] There are at least two main views regarding the morality of war. Pacifism is the view that no war is ever justified because it involves the taking of human life. Just-war theory is the view that some wars are justified for various reasons—mostly because they help prevent great evils (such as massacres, “ethnic cleansing,” or world domination by a madman like Hitler) or because they are a means of self-defense. I think that our own moral sense tells us that sometimes (in the case of World War II, for ex- ample) violence is occasionally morally justified. It would be hard for anyone to deny that a war to prevent something like the Holocaust is morally right. 18. Some say that those without strong religious beliefs—nonbelievers in one form or another— cannot be moral. But millions upon millions of people have been nonbelievers or nontheists and yet have produced some of the most noble and most morally principled civilizations in history. Consider the Buddhists of Asia and the Confucianists of China. Consider also the great secular philosophers from the ancient Greeks to the likes of Bertrand Russell and John Searle of the twentieth century. 19. Either Maggie, Jose, or Ling broke the window. Jose couldn’t have done it because he was studying in his room and was observed the whole time. Maggie couldn’t have done it because she was out of town at the time and has witnesses to prove it. So the thief had to be Ling. * 20. The picnic will probably be spoiled because there is a 90 percent probabil- ity of rain. 21. The Golden Gate Bridge will probably be attacked by terrorists within the next two years. The latest intelligence reports from the Justice Depart- ment confirm this prediction. Plus terrorists have already stated publicly that they intend to destroy various symbolic structures or monuments in the United States, including Mount Rushmore and the Golden Gate. 22. We shouldn’t pay Edward an allowance because he never does any work around the house, and he will probably just waste the money because he has no conception of the value of anything.

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