Presentations of Project Proposals

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 26th, 2017

Question description

I need you to complete the work and do a PowerPoint with a speaker note.

I attached a table that I want to have the same in the PowerPoint.

I also attached an example of framework result that I need to have the same.

See the helpful lectures that I attached.


choose a specific developing country and food security challenge. The suggested format for this paper is as follows:

  • Overall Summary (1 page) – succinct summary of the food security challenge that the project addresses, the goal and proposed interventions, metrics of success and learning agenda.
  • Problem Analysis (2-3 pages) – description of key problems faced by the country (or specific regions or population groups within the country), both the symptoms as well as root causes. Be sure to include some trend analysis of how the problems have evolved over time and who is most affected.
  • Results Framework (2-3 pages) – Concisely worded goal, strategic objectives and intermediate results of the project including proposed interventions sequenced over a five year period to addresses the key problems.
  • Metrics of Success (1-2 pages) – Proposed indicators that will be tracked and reported to the donor, frequency of measurement and proposed methods for monitoring and evaluation.
  • Learning Agenda (1-2 pages) – What research hypotheses do you propose to test? What methods will you use to carry out this research? How will you incorporate this learning into project implementation?



In your proposal, make sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the food security challenge and what are its symptoms and root causes?
  • What interventions do you propose to help this community improve their food and livelihood security and increase their resilience?
  • How do these interventions relate to the key problems faced by the community and reinforce each other?
  • What organization(s) and/or government institutions will you collaborate with in the country to carry out the interventions?
  • How will you measure the success of these interventions in addressing the key problems?
  • What research hypotheses will you test to obtain rigorous evidence of program effectiveness?

NOTE:

The attached file has all the requirements except for the following:

  • The results framework section needs to be further developed. While you state a very general goal of ensuring food security, there are no specific SOs or IRs to do this. You list a number of interventions in this section, but it is not clear what you are trying to achieve since there are no SOs or IRs listed.
  • The Metrics of success do not include any specific indicators to measure progress achieved. Once you develop your SOs and IRs, you will need to develop indicators that relate to each of these which will allow you to track achievement periodically.
  • The research questions are not clearly defined in the learning agenda.

FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE Food Security Challenge Contents Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE Goals of the program .................................................................................................................................... 5 Problem Analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 5 i. Malnutrition and Relief Dependency ................................................................................................ 5 ii. Climatic Problem ............................................................................................................................... 6 iii. Population Growth ............................................................................................................................ 6 iv. Soil Degradation ................................................................................................................................ 6 v. Polygamous Culture .......................................................................................................................... 6 Trend Analysis of the Problems .................................................................................................................... 7 Results Framework ....................................................................................................................................... 7 Metrics of Success......................................................................................................................................... 9 i. Inter-disciplinary thinking ................................................................................................................. 9 ii. Consensus building ......................................................................................................................... 10 iii. Evidence-based approach ............................................................................................................... 10 iv. Use of Measuring ............................................................................................................................ 10 Research hypotheses .................................................................................................................................. 10 FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE Summary Food security challenge is one of the major problems that affect developing countries. It's a problem that relates to supply of food stuff and the ability of the citizens to get access to it. Food security according to the World Food Conference is the constant availability of supplies related to the basic foodstuff that helps in maintaining an adequate world food supply of food so as to offset variations in prices and production. Niger is one of the developing countries that is facing nutrition and food crisis as a result of composite interconnected problems. The country lies in the Sahel region of West Africa which is prone to drought. The interconnected problems include a significant deficit in production because of the vagaries of nature like drought and infestations by pests like the aphids in the Sahel region and Niger. An early significant steady rise in the prices of cereals is also a problem that attributes to the food security challenge because the prices of foodstuffs keep changing from time to time. There is a marked poor livestock to cereals trade terms which have been linked to degradation of pastures in the region. Significant loss in economic opportunities and a shifting of families which have been associated with the insecurity in the Sahel and Niger have also contributed to the situation. The situation of children in the area is of great concern since most of them have succumbed to malnutrition. The High food prices have made the people of Nigeria live under acute shortages and pressure as they struggle to feed their families when the harvests are reduced. FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE Goals of the program The principal aims of the program are to offer a lasting solution to the food challenge the people of the Sahel region, notably Niger face. Some of the interventions that can avert this situation include initializing programs that support agricultural activities in Niger. This is possible through the provision of resources that focus on the improvement of livelihoods of the populations in the region. There should be improvements in the credit accessibility, diversification of economic activities and improvement of natural resources and the management geared towards the betterment of agriculture and animal production. The success of the program will be accessed by checking the position of the food challenge after all the interventions have been implemented. If the food challenge will have reduced, credit accessibility improved and agricultural activities improved, then the project will have achieved its purpose. Problem Analysis i. Malnutrition and Relief Dependency The main problems faced in the Sahel region are malnutrition and the fact that most people in the region are vulnerable and they have to fully rely on humanitarian organizations for assistance. There is increased food insecurity in Niger and the entire Sahel region which can be attributed to by an increase in the unavailability of food and water supply in the country due to the arid conditions experienced. FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE ii. Climatic Problem Most Nigerians rely on agricultural activities to place food on their tables. However, the country is located in a dry area frequented by drought which reduces yield from livestock and crops leading to acute food shortage. iii. Population Growth There has been significant progress in attempts to achieve the millennial goals which have been set but still, there is a marked increase in the number of hungry people in the nation. The number of underweight children has also continued to increase progressively for the last 20 years. The region has a marked increase in the population growth with an average of 5 children per woman, the rise in population needs an accompanying increase in reproductive health to lower the population to ensure the food needs in the country is under control (Sellefyan, 2006). iv. Soil Degradation Degradation of land caused by the use of intensive farming methods which exhaust soils of all available fertility which leads to reduced harvests from agricultural activities. Most of the land in the Sahel region is degraded, and therefore the country is just able to feed the quarter of its population. The scarcity of food raises the prices of the little food that is available for consumption. v. Polygamous Culture Most of the people in Niger are Muslims who embrace polygamy. Most men are polygamous some of them having four wives. The polygamous natures have made the country to FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE have lots of people, yet there is no accompanying economic growth thus leading to strain in the country's food supply. Trend Analysis of the Problems Famine was experienced in the Sahel region in 2010 shortly after some torrential rains at the end of the year 2009 which was followed by hot conditions. The hot conditions affected Niger among other countries, and these situations remain to change the region to this time. The hot wave that was experienced in 2010 led to the environmental problems like drought, the drying of Lake Chad which is a major lake in the region as it borders Niger, Nigerian, Chad and Cameroon. Famine trend can be said to increase with time as the population increases. Famers have been affected greatly by the drying of Lake Chad leading to the reduction in the volume of products they produce yearly (Sellefyan, 2006). Results Framework The major goals of the proposal are to get ways and means of ensuring that there is enough food stuff supply so that prices of foods can remain constant for a long period. The production and supply of food have been affected by the drought conditions which have reduced the amount of food that is harvested in a season. The drought conditions can be dealt with by designing a plan that copes with it through the adoption of irrigation and other artificial farming strategies. People in the region should be encouraged to adopt agricultural activities in the area through the provision of resources that focus on improving the lives of individuals in the area. FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE There should be plans to provide crops that are resistant to drought so that citizens can benefit from the produce during the hot season. The government and some other organizations can also help in food shortage eradication by providing water to the farmers who could be willing to perform irrigations in their farms. This can be made possible through the provision of water pumps and train them on the best practices that can be used to irrigate crops which would help ease food shortage challenge in Niger and the entire region. The high population in the area leads to strain on the available food stuff, the birth rate has been on the rise all through, and therefore proper plans should be adapted to teach men and women on the best reproductive practices. If proper reproductive health is taught, it would mean that the population of the region would be controlled and therefore the strain on the available food would reduce considerably. The culture of polygamy where a man can have a minimum of two wives and five children per a woman should be discouraged so that every family can have the number of children it can be able to cater for without struggles. The problem of soil degradation in the region has made Niger unproductive even in the rainy season. This situation has been caused by the poor methods of farming that have been in use by most farmers. The farmers should be taught on the best methods of managing soils to ensure that their land remains productive. Soil productivity would mean that enough food will be produced whenever it rains or on adoption of irrigation in the region. The primary goal of all the interventions would be to ensure that there is food security in the region. This will go a long way in ensuring that malnutrition is reduced and controlled in FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE Niger; minimize the vulnerability of people to dependency on humanitarian relief for survival. Some of the intermediate goals of the interventions of the project are ensuring that there is an availability of water and food as well as an increase in the power of purchasing by households. Increased productivity in the agricultural and livestock is also a component of the strategic goal which would help in the achievement of the main goal by providing enough food to people. The households in the country should be encouraged to ensure that they have different sources of income but not agricultural activities only. The households should be taught on the need of ensuring they plant various types of plants so that when one of the fails to endure drought, the homes can benefit from the other. Metrics of Success The success of the project will be measured by considering what have been achieved in phases. After the adoption of a particular strategy, the success achieved is measured by considering what has been made and comparing it with what is expected to be reached in the main goal. Some of the metrics of success that can be used include i. Inter-disciplinary thinking The stakeholders throughout the food system will engage in a dialogue to discuss the main achievements of the project. The speakers will discuss what has been achieved and compare it with the primary goal to come up with way forward on making decisions on how to proceed on FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE ii. Consensus building This is done through designing some participatory approaches in policy development to address the causes of the food security but not the symptoms of a sustainable food system iii. Evidence-based approach Success achieved by the stakeholders is determined by looking at the success that has been achieved by the efforts iv. Use of Measuring Discussions are held focusing on the SMART strategy where the specific measurable achievable and realistic time-bound goals are related to the achievement of targets. Research hypotheses 1. Research hypothesis refers to a statement developed to research in speculating the outcome of investigation. Some of the research hypotheses I would propose to test include Inductive reasoning where the hypothesis is generated through making observations and forming theories on how the problems being experienced can be solved. 2. Deductive reasoning would also be appropriate to use by testing whether the hypothesis at hand is testable, realistic or false. The two research hypothesis will be tested so that an answer can be deduced whether the appropriate solution has been achieved by the efforts brought forward in trying to bring the food security challenge to a stop. The inductive reasoning would use questions that would check what has been achieved against the issues that were to be addressed by the project. The ultimatum will be checking whether the citizens can be able to cope with disasters that arise. FOOD SECURITY CHALLENGE References Agriculture and Food Security | Niger | U.S. Agency for International Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.usaid.gov/niger/agriculture-and-food-security Balluff, D., & Chip Taylor Communications. (2007). Niger 2: Living on the edge of survival. Derry, NH: Chip Taylor Communications. Food & Daily life—Niger—Our Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ourafrica.org/niger/food-daily-life Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge | Agriculture & Food Security | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://agricultureandfoodsecurity.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2048-7010-12 Measuring Success Performance Metrics | Capital Perspectives. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americas.gecapital.com/insight-and-ideas/capital-perspectives/measuringsuccess-making-the-most-of-performance-metrics Organisationtion, W. H. (2012). Evaluation of Certain Food Additives: Seventy-sixth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Geneva: World Health Organization. Sellefyan, K., Lamb, R., Mahamane, L., Mahamane, S., Dev.tv, & Ciné Fête. (2006). Niger. Montreal: Ciné Fête. World Summit on Food Security: The key challenges. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/wsfs/world-summit/wsfs-challenges/en/
ProFrame = Project Framework Source: ProPack I, 2015 31
UNICEF Nutrition Conceptual Framework Source: Unicef, 1990, 2013 9 Questions to ask to verify the problem 1) Extent: What is the incidence or prevalence of the problem? How many people are affected? 2) Duration: How long has the problem been at the observed level? In what ways have levels changed over time? 3) Expected future course: What is likely to happen to the problem if no intervention takes place? 4) Variation: How does the extent of the problem vary across population groups (e.g., age groups) and geographic areas? Does the problem affect some people but not others? What strategies are people using to cope with the problem? 17 What is a problem tree? A problem tree is a visual tool for understanding causeand-effect relationships. • The core Problem statement succinctly summarizes the nature of the problem, who is most affected, where and when it is most severe. • Effects are social, economic, political or environmental conditions that result from a problem. • Immediate and underlying Causes are factors in the household, community, organization or external environment that contribute to the problem. 18 Problem Tree Source: ProPack I, 2015 19 Problem Tree Analysis • The core problem description includes: • What is the core problem? • Who is most affected • Which regions are worst affected (where) • When are people most affected? • How are they affected? (may also be effects) • Analysis of immediate and underlying causes aim to answer WHY questions: • Why are these problems occurring? • Why are some people/areas worst affected than others? Why at some periods more than others? 20 Objectives Tree Source: ProPack I, 2004 21 Group Work – Develop a Problem Tree     Develop a problem tree for the following scenario: There is a major drought that has affected the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Crops have died with no harvest. There is no pastureland for cattle and wells are drying up. Families have no food stocks and they are selling their assets to buy food. Family members have started to migrate to cities to look for work. Children are starting to become malnourished. What is the core problem? What are the effects? What are the immediate and underlying causes? 22 Theory of Change •Makes clear how and why you and others expect or assume that certain actions will produce desired changes in the environment where the problem will be implemented. •Also called the ‘means-to-end’ logic or a development hypothesis. •If we do X then Y, because Z (evidence base) 23 Theory of Change – an example A project promoting farmer adoption of new technology: Agricultural extension and training  farmer adoption of new technology  increased yield/productivity Is this ‘theory of change’ valid? What does the evidence base tell us? 24 Theory of Change – being explicit •Makes for clearer thinking •Avoids choices based on beliefs about what works rather than evidence of what works •Uncovers assumptions “the current strategy is best because it has survived over time” (or worse, “this is what we have always done…”) •Lessens reluctance to try out new strategies 25 Project Strategy A project strategy describes what the project will do and with whom to address identified problems and opportunities and achieve higher level objectives (interventions, approaches, responses) • Service delivery • Social and behavior change • Institution and systems strengthening • Training and capacity building • Facilitation of networks 26 Strategies are Choices The most appropriate strategy depends on many factors such as: • Cost • Sustainability • Effectiveness • Feasibility • Urgency or scale of the problem • Stakeholder views on “what’s best” • Program quality guidelines for such projects • Stakeholder capacities • Gaps not covered by other actors • Other considerations (e.g. donor requirements) 27 Balancing Scope, Scale, Budget and Time 28 Leverage Points • Leverage points are causes that demonstrate significant influence on the problem. • Identifying and addressing leverage points has the potential to bring positive change to multiple aspects of the problem • One intervention can have a multiplier effect • Leverage points can be used to identify potential sectors of themes for the objectives hierarchy (results framework) • What is an example of a leverage point? 29 Results Framework template Goal: SO 2: SO1: IR 1.1: IR 1.2: IR 2.1: SO 3: IR 2.2: IR 3.1: IR 3.2: 30 ProFrame = Project Framework Source: ProPack I, 2015 31 Goal Goal  The Goal describes the longer term, wider change in people’s lives or livelihoods to which the project will contribute  The project is only one among many factors contributing to success at this level (not measured at project level) Example: Improved food security of 70,000 chronically food insecure farm households in five districts of Country X. 32 Strategic Objectives Strategic Objectives  SOs describe the beneficial effects resulting from the positive changes in behaviour or systems observed at IR level  SOs should realistically be achievable by the end of the project (EOP)  SOs ensure project focus, i.e. they provide the central reason why the project is proposed Example: 70,000 farmer households have increased their income from market sales of crops. 33 Intermediate Results  IRs indicate the behavioral or systems change anticipated from the successful delivery of Intermediate Outputs to users Results  IRs focus on the end-users’ (participants, target audience, clients) use of the goods, services and knowledge provided by the project  Adoption, uptake, ‘reach’, coverage, access to, satisfaction with project Outputs  ‘Behavior’ change among people, systems, or organizations Example: 70,000 farmers adopt conservation agriculture practices that increase their production. 34 Outputs Outputs  Outputs represent what the project delivers – goods, services, knowledge, skills, attitudes, policy advice  Outputs arise directly from the successful implementation of activities  There may be multiple outputs for each IR Example: 70,000 farmers increase their knowledge of climate smart agriculture techniques and marketing. 35 Activities Activities  Project Activities describe the functions that need to be undertaken and managed in order to deliver the Outputs  There may be multiple Activities for each Output Example: Project staff train 70,000 farmers in climate smart agriculture techniques and marketing. 36
Session Plan Topics covered: • Proframes – Outputs, Activities, Assumptions and Indicators (group work on results framework) • Learning agendas • Implementation research • Research questions and hypotheses (group work) • Participatory rural appraisal 2 Goal Goal  The Goal describes the longer term, wider change in people’s lives or livelihoods to which the project will contribute  The project is only one among many factors contributing to success at this level (not measured at project level) Example: Improved food security of 70,000 chronically food insecure farm households in five districts of Country X. 3 Strategic Objectives Strategic Objectives  SOs describe the beneficial effects resulting from the positive changes in behaviour or systems observed at IR level  SOs should realistically be achievable by the end of the project (EOP)  SOs ensure project focus, i.e. they provide the central reason why the project is proposed Example: 70,000 farmer households have increased their income from market sales of crops. 4 Intermediate Results  IRs indicate the behavioral or systems change anticipated from the successful delivery of Intermediate Outputs to users Results  IRs focus on the end-users’ (participants, target audience, clients) use of the goods, services and knowledge provided by the project  Adoption, uptake, ‘reach’, coverage, access to, satisfaction with project Outputs  ‘Behavior’ change among people, systems, or organizations Example: 70,000 farmers adopt conservation agriculture practices that increase their production. 5 Outputs Outputs  Outputs represent what the project delivers – goods, services, knowledge, skills, attitudes, policy advice  Outputs arise directly from the successful implementation of activities  There may be multiple outputs for each IR Example: 70,000 farmers increase their knowledge of climate smart agriculture techniques and marketing. 6 Activities Activities  Project Activities describe the functions that need to be undertaken and managed in order to deliver the Outputs  There may be multiple Activities for each Output Example: Project staff train 70,000 farmers in climate smart agriculture techniques and marketing. 7 Planning Down Objectives Statements Performance Measurement Critical Indicator Methods / Data Assumptions Statements Sources Goal Strategic Objectives Intermediate Results Outputs Activities 8 Steps along a pathway A logframe shows a logical and hierarchical relationship among 5 levels: Goal Strategic Objectives Intermediate Results Outputs Activities 9 Definitions Monitoring tracks progress at regular intervals toward achieving program objectives or adhering to accountability requirements. An evaluation is a periodic, systematic assessment of a project’s relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability on a defined population. Indicators are variables that measure changes in a program and demonstrate progress toward achieving program objectives. They serve as benchmarks toward program achievements. Research seeks to answer questions or to test a hypothesis in order to generate new knowledge or understanding that can be generalized to other contexts. Usually involves a formal protocol. 10 ‘If-And-Then’ Logic Objectives Statements Performance Indicator Statements Measurement Methods / Data Sources Critical Assumptions Goal Evaluation & Learning Monitoring & Learning Strategic Objectives Intermediate Results Outputs Then… Activities If… And… 11 SMART Indicators What are SMART indicators? S = specific M = measurable A = achievable R = relevant T = timebound 12 Seven elements of change in indicator statements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nature – what changed? Quantity – what quantity/volume of change? Quality – to what standard will change be achieved? Beneficiary subgroup – who benefited from change? Target – What is the planned improvement by end of project? Timeline – when will the target be achieved? Baseline – how does the target compare with the baseline? 13 Examples of Agriculture/Food Security Indicators • Number and percentage of farmers who are organized in farmers groups by gender, age and type of group • Number and percentage of farmer groups/producer organizations that have improved management and governance practices • Number and percentage of producers who have applied improved technologies or management practices • Area planted with improved seed and other inputs • Increase in yield by crop • Increase in market sales by crop • Gross net income per hectare of farmland • Average household dietary diversity score • Percentage of children 0-5 years old receiving a minimum acceptable diet 14 Project Questions that M&E answers •Was the program implemented as planned? •Did the target population benefit from the program? •At what cost? •Can improved outcomes be attributed to program efforts? •Which program activities were more effective? Which were less effective? Trade-offs in Cost and Rigor of M&E Cost Randomized control trials Indicator selection needs to consider the level of resources available for data collection Existing records (e.g. secondary data) Observation Descriptive statistics Specific sample surveys (i.e. pre-post) Focus groups Key informant interviews The effort expended should match the improvement in decision-making Complexity and rigor
Program Goal: Food insecurity and malnutrition in 50,000 rural households in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger is reduced. Strategic Objective (SO) 1: Households (especially pregnant and lactating women and children under 5) have reduced chronic malnutrition. Intermediate Result 1.1: Households (especially pregnant and lactating women and children under five) have adopted appropriate health and nutrition behaviors. Intermediate Result 1.2: Mother-child units have accessed high quality community and facility-based health and nutrition services. Intermediate Result 1.3: Households practice improved sanitation methods (latrine use). Strategic Objective (SO) 2: Vulnerable households have increased the production and consumption of food for nutrition and income. Intermediate Result 2.1: Farm households have increased and diversified the production of more nutritious foods for consumption and income. Intermediate Result 2.2: Farm households have adopted improved varieties of staple crops for consumption and income. Intermediate Result 2.3: Farm households have adopted environmentally sustainable integrated crop production systems. Intermediate Result 2.4: Vulnerable households have diversified sources of income. Strategic Objective (SO) 3: Targeted communities have improved disaster resilience. Intermediate Result 3.1: Community-based early warning systems function as an integral part of the national early warning system. Intermediate Result 3.2: Targeted communities have increased capacity to respond to disasters.

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