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answer 4 question on the file word , and the answer take from the power point slide , uploaded 4 file power point to find the answer the question .

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Please read the power point 4 file and answer this 4 question but please full answer 1. In previous class lectures, we discussed using different types of individual assessment methods to measure academic performance (i.e. reading, math, writing), to inform teaching and learning, and to determine eligibility for Specific Learning Disability. Please describe the differences between Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced assessment tests. a. Define each. b. What is the primary purpose of each assessment? c. What are the roles of each assessment in special education? 2. With your knowledge of multitiered support, please define Response to Intervention (RTI). What are the three processes? 3. If a student was having reading difficulties in the classroom and you were assigned to assess their patterns of strengthens and weaknesses, what “Big Five” areas of reading would you assess?What type of assessment would you use to assess the students’ difficulties (e.g. Criterion referenced or Normed referenced) and why? 4. What are the four steps in the Instructional Hierarchy? Please list and describe each of the four steps and identify an effective strategy that would help a student learn at each step.
Introduction to Assessment and Intervention Psychoeducational Assessment January 29, 2015 Questions, Comments, Concerns…  In the article about math difficulties it mentions reading and math skills depending highly on stored knowledge. Is there an assessment that can analyze and measure how much an individual can remember, and how long it takes for them to remember something? After assessing those students and getting the results about their capacity, Is there a way to enhance to a student’s capacity?  The WIAT can be exceedingly lengthy. What are some tips when assessing younger children who are antsy?  In this week's reading a concern I had was that if the content of these curriculum based assessments and measurement are based on the idea that "one should test what one teaches." Curriculum vary across districts and even across schools, so how can it be a direct measurement and evaluation on what is being taught if schools with limited resources or in certain areas are not provided with the same resources as their counterparts in "wealthier" neighborhoods?  How do curriculum based assessments address the discrepancies between school districts when they have different benchmarks, different courses and their own time frames to cover the material?  Are there alternative solutions for schools who do not have the resources or personnel to deliver certain interventions? Is their option to use possibly less effective interventions that are more feasible? Purpose of Academic Assessment  To measure academic performance, especially on basic academic skills (i.e., reading, math, writing)  To inform teaching and learning  To determine eligibility criteria for specific learning disability Types of Individual Assessment Methods   Norm-Referenced Tests  Items sample specific academic skills within a content area  Scores are derived by comparing the student’s performance to that of a same-age/samegrade norm group  Primary purpose: deciding the relative standing of an individual within a peer group  Have the potential to contribute to decisions regarding special education eligibilty Criterion-Referenced Test  Examine mastery of specific skills  Comparison of student’s performance against an absolute standard  May be helpful for screening decisions  Can contribute to identification of target areas for educational intervention Basic Assumptions in Addressing Academic Problems (Lentz & Shapiro, 1985)  Assessment must reflect an evaluation of the behavior in the natural environment.  Assessment should be idiographic rather than nomothetic.  What is taught and expected to be learned should be what is tested.  The results of the assessment should be strongly related to planning interventions.  Assessment methods should be appropriate for continuous monitoring of student progress, so that intervention strategies can be altered as indicated.  Measures used need to be based upon empirical research and have adequate validity.  Measures should be useful in making many types of educational decisions. Curriculum-Based Assessment  Direct assessment of academic skills    Underlying assumption: One should test what one teaches General Outcome Measurement  Use standardized measures with acceptable levels of reliability and validity  Typically presented as brief, timed samples of performance  Primary objective: to index long-term growth in the curriculum and across a wide range of skills Specific Subskill-Mastery Models  Criterion-referenced and usually based on the development of a skills hierarchy  Not standardized because a shift in measurement is required with the teaching of each new objective  Primary objective: to determine whether students are meeting short-term instructional objectives of the curriculum Curriculum Based Assessment vs. NormReferenced Tests Direct Interventions for Academic Problems  Interventions are considered direct if the responses targeted for change are identical to those observed in the natural environment  Derived from three types of empirical research  Relationship of time variables to academic performance    Increased active engaged time (e.g., opportunities to respond) related to increased academic performance Performance models of instruction  Academic enablers – motivation, academic engagement, study skills  Instructional environment – teacher instruction, feedback, reinforcement Effective instructional design  Direct instruction approach Research Supported Characteristics of Effective, Intensive Academic Interventions  Explicit Instruction   Instructional Level or Appropriate Level of Challenge   Characterized by systematic scaffolds including high levels of modeling, guided and independent practice, and structured feedback Match between the required task’s difficulty and the student’s performance Frequent Opportunities to Respond  Practice helps students retain newly learned information  Targeted Based on Student Skill  Feedback Instructional Hierarchy     Acquisition  Student has begun how to complete the target skill correctly, but is not yet accurate or fluent  Intervention goal: improving accuracy Fluency  Student is able to complete the target skill accurately, but works slowly  Intervention goal: increasing speed of responding (fluency) Generalization  Student is accurate and fluent in using the target skill, but does not typically use it in different situations or settings  Intervention goal: using the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations or accurately discriminating between the target skill and similar skills Adaptation  Student is accurate and fluent in the target skill and uses it in different settings, but cannot adapt the skill to fit novel task demands or situations  Intervention goal: identify elements of previously learned skills that can be adapted to new demands or situations Matching Intervention to Student Learning Stage Learning Stage Acquisition Exit goal: The student can perform the skill accurately with little adult support. Student “Look fors” • Is just beginning to learn skill • Not yet able to perform learning task reliably or with a high level of accuracy Effective Strategies • Active demonstration of target skill • “Think-aloud” strategies • Models of correct performance to consult as needed • Feedback about correct performance • Praise and encouragement for effort Matching Intervention to Student Learning Stage Learning Stage Student “Look Fors” Fluency • Gives accurate Exit goal: The student (a) responses to learning has learned skill well task enough to retain, (b) had • Performs learning task learned skill well enough slowly and haltingly to combine with other skills, and (c) is as fluent as peers. Effective Strategies • Structured learning activities to give opportunity for active responding • Frequent opportunities to drill and practice • Feedback on fluency and accuracy of performance • Praise and encouragement for increased fluency Matching Intervention to Student Learning Learning Stage Student “Look Fors” Generalization • Is accurate and fluent Exit goal: The student (a) in responding uses the skill across • May fail to apply new settings and situations skill to new situations and (b) does not confuse and setting target skill with similar • May confuse target skills. skill with similar skills Effective Strategies • Structured academic tasks to use the academic skill regularly in assignments • Encouragement, praise, and reinforcers for using skill in new settings • Identify tasks to do outside of school to practice target skill Matching Intervention to Student Learning Learning Stage Adaptation Exit goal: The adaptation phase is continuous and has no exit criteria. Student “Look Fors” • Is fluent and accurate in skill • Applies skill in novel situations/settings without prompting • Does not yet modify the skill as needed to fit new situations Effective Strategies • Identifying core element(s) of target skill to modify to face novel tasks/situations • Opportunities to practice target skill with modest accommodations in new settings with encouragement, corrective feedback, and praise
Introduction to Curriculum Based Measurement Psychoeducational Assessment April 2, 2015 Activity – KWL Chart  What do you…  Know about curriculum based assessment/measurement?  Want to know about curriculum based assessment/measurement? What is Curriculum Based Assessment (CBA)?  Procedure for determining the instructional needs of students based on the student’s ongoing performance in existing course content  CBA is…  Repeated frequently throughout the year  Used as the basis for educational decision making and student planning CBA is not designed to…  Replace norm-referenced achievement test batteries  Supplant current service delivery models for eligibility  Be the primary means of assessment in the content areas What Can CBA Do?  Serve as effective means for providing evaluation prior to placement in special education programs  Determine whether a student is accurately placed in curriculum materials  Assist in developing strategies for remediation of academic problems  Suggest changes in the instructional environment that may improve the student’s performance  Provide a means for setting IEP short and long term goals for students in special education programs  Provide a method for monitoring progress and performance of students across time What Can CBA Do?  Provide an empirical method for determining when an intervention is effective or not  Make the assessment relevant to what the child has been expected to learn in the curriculum  Provide a potential strategy for screening students  Offer an empirical method for deciding whether a student needs to move to a more restrictive setting  Provide accountability for teachers and psychologists when making eligibility decisions Attributes of CBA/M  Alignment  Technical adequacy  Criterion-referenced measures  Standard procedures  Performance sampling  Decision rules  Repeated measurement  Efficiency Types of Curriculum Based Assessment  General Outcome Measures/CBM  Specific Subskills Mastery Two Models of CBA – General Outcome Measurement  Standardized measures that have acceptable levels of reliability and validity  Standardized administration procedures  Emphasis on basic skill performance  highly correlated to comprehension and higher level skills  Primary objective – progress monitoring Sample Progress Monitoring Data Areas Typically Assessed Using CBA/M  Reading    Spelling    Number of words spelled correctly Number of correct letter sequences Writing    Oral reading fluency (words read/minute) Maze passage fluency (3 minutes; number of maze words correct/minute) Number of words written Correct word sequences Math   Computation fluency (digits correct/minute) Concepts and applications Two Models of CBA – Specific Sub-skills Mastery  Criterion-referenced  Based on the development of a skills hierarchy  Primary objective – suggestions for instructional modification Blankenship’s (1985) Model of CBA  Student performance evaluated on individual instructional objectives  Testing on similar objectives repeated over several days   Done to provide stable indications of student performance  Used to derive instructional objectives Periodic assessment used to determine whether the student has mastered the content Developing a CBA Probe  List the skills presented in the material selected  Examine the list to see if all important skills are presented  Write an objective for each skill on the list  Prepare items to test each listed objective  Prepare testing materials for student use  Plan how the CBA will be given Administering a CBA Probe  Give the CBA immediately prior to beginning instruction on a topic  Study the results to determine…. ◦ ◦ ◦  Re-administer the CBA after instruction and study the results to determine…. ◦ ◦ ◦  Which students have already mastered the skills Which students have the prerequisite skills Which students lack mastery of the prerequisite skills Which students have mastered the skills Which students are making sufficient progress Which students are making insufficient progress Periodically re-administer the CBA throughout the year to assess for long term retention Activity – KWL Chart (revisited)  What did you Learn about curriculum based assessment/measurement? Reading CBM Administration and Scoring Fluency = Automaticity with the Code  What is it?  The ability to quickly and accurately apply letter-sound correspondence to reading connected text.  Automaticity provides an overall indicator of student growth and development in reading skills.  What is it not?  Oral reading fluency will not tell you everything you need to know about student reading performance.  However, there is a strong relationship between oral reading fluency and comprehension. Automaticity with the Code  When should Automaticity with the Code be assessed?  Oral reading fluency in connected text can begin for all students in Winter of first grade.  All students should be assessed a minimum three times per year to ensure adequate progress toward end of year reading goals.  Students who are identified as at risk of reading difficulty should be monitored at least 1x/month to ensure effectiveness of intervention and to allow for timely instructional changes Qualitative Features of Good Reading  Is highly fluent (speed and accuracy)?  Uses effective strategies to decode words?  Adjust pacing (i.e., slows down and speeds up according to level of text difficulty)?  Attends to prosodic features?   Inflection (pause, voice goes up and down)  Punctuation (commas, exclamation points, etc.)  Predicts level of expression according to syntax Possesses prediction-orientation?  Seems to look ahead when reading  Reads at a sentence or paragraph level Qualitative Features of Good Reading  Self-monitors what she/he is reading?    Self-corrects if makes meaning distortion errors Makes only meaning preservation errors?  More errors that preserve meaning (e.g., “house” for “home”)  Fewer meaning distortion errors (e.g., “mouse” for “house.”) Automaticity on reread words.  Words that appear throughout text are read automatically (e.g., become “sight words”) CBM Administration & Scoring Procedures  Materials  Unnumbered copy of passage (student copy)  Numbered copy of passage (examiner copy)  Stopwatch  Tape recorder (optional) Directions 1. Place the unnumbered copy in front of the student. 2. Place the numbered copy in front of you but shielded so the student cannot see what you record. 3. Say these specific directions to the student for the first passage: When I say “begin,” start reading aloud at the top of the page. Read across the page (DEMOSTRATE). Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Directions (continued) 4. Say “Begin” and start your stopwatch when the student says the first word. If the student fails to say the first word of the passage after 3 seconds, tell them the word and mark it as incorrect, then start your stopwatch. 5. Follow along on your copy. Put a slash (/) through words read incorrectly. 6. If a student stops or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark it as incorrect. 7. After 1-minute, place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word and say, “Stop.” Helpful Scoring Hints  If students appear to understand the instructions following the administration of the first passage, the examiner need only point to the first word at the top of the subsequent passage saying “Begin.”  If you completely lose track of where the student is reading, discontinue the reading and begin another passage.  Score reading passages immediately after administration. Sample Passage - Examiner Copy Sample Passage - Student Copy Scoring Reading Passages  What is a “word.” example cat TW = 1 read as: “cat” WRC = 1 example I sat TW = 2 read as: “I sat.” WRC = 2 What is a “correctly read word?”  Rule 1. Correctly Read Words are pronounced correctly. A word must be pronounced correctly given the context of the sentence. Example: The word “r-e-a-d” must be pronounced “reed” when presented in the context of: He will read the book WRC = 5 not as: “He will red the book.”  WRC = 4 Rule 2. Self corrected words are counted as correct. Words misread initially but corrected within 3 seconds are counted as read correctly. What is a “correctly read word?”  Rule 3. Repeated Words are Counted as Correct. Words said over again correctly are ignored. Example: Ted ran swiftly. WRC = 3 read as: “Ted ran...Ted ran swiftly.” WRC = 3 What is a “correctly read word?”  Rule 4. Dialect. Variations in pronunciation that are explainable by local language norms are not errors. Example: They washed the car. WRC = 4 read as: “They warshed the car.” WRC = 4 What is a “correctly read word?”  Rule 5. Inserted words are ignored. When a student adds extra words, they are not counted as correct words nor as reading errors. Example: Sue was happy. WRC = 3 read as: “Sue was very happy.” WRC = 3 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 6. Mispronounced or substituted words are counted as incorrect. Example: The dog ate the bone. WRC = 5 read as: “The dig ate the bone.” WRC = 4 What is an “incorrectly read word?  Rule 7. Omitted words are counted as errors. Example: Mario climbed the oak tree. WRC = 5 read as: “Mario climbed the tree.” WRC = 4 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 8. Hesitations. When a student hesitates or fails to correctly pronounce a word within 3 seconds, the student is told the word and an error is scored. Example: Mark saw an elephant. WRC = 4 read as: “Mark saw an...(sec 3).” WRC = 3 or read as: Mark saw an ell-ee...(3 sec)” WRC = 3 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 9. Reversals. When a student transposes two or more words, those words not read in the correct order are errors. Example: Charlie ran quickly. WRC = 3 read as: “Charlie quickly ran.” WRC = 1 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 10. Numbers. Written as Numerals are counted as words and must be read correctly within the context of the passage. Example: May 5, 1989. WRC = 3 read as: “May five, one nine eight nine.” WRC = 1 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 11a. Hyphenated Words. Each morpheme separated by a hyphen(s) is counted as an individual word if it can stand alone. Example: Fifty-seven. WRC = 2 or: “Daughter-in-law.” WRC = 3 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 11b. Hyphenated Words. If one or more of the morphemes separated by a hyphen(s) cannot stand alone, the entire sequence is counted as one word. Example: co-opt WRC = 1 or: “re-evaluate.” WRC = 1 What is an “incorrectly read word?”  Rule 12. Abbreviations are counted as words, and must be read correctly within the context of the sentence. Example: Dr. Adams received a promotion. WRC = 5 should be read as: “Doctor Adams received a promotion.” WRC = 5 not as: “D-R Adams received a promotion.” WRC = 4 Creating a Reading Fluency Probe Online Resources  Special Connections www.specialconnections.ku.edu  Intervention Central www.interventioncentral.org  National Center on RTI www.rti4success.org  Center on Student Progress Monitoring www.studentprogress.org
Introduction to Response to Intervention RtI and Prevention of Academic Problems January 20, 2015 What is RtI? Response to Intervention Process • Tier 1 • Tier 2 • Tier 3 Core Principles of RtI • Teach all children • Intervene early Legal Foundations Underlying RtI Key Features of RtI “Big Ideas” about RtI Methods RtI Component “Big Idea” High-quality instruction All children deserve effective instruction that leads to the development of functional skills. Frequent assessment Continuous assessment leads to skill improvement. Data-based decision making Adjustments to instruction must be based on data. Approaches to RtI Problem-Solving Model • Emphasis on individualized interventions derived from analysis of instructional/environmental conditions and skill deficits Standard Treatment Protocol • Same intervention for a fixed period of time RtI Process • Tier 1  Comprehensive and universal  About 80% of students respond to Tier I intervention/instruction • Tier 2 • Tier 3
An Overview of Academic Achievement Psychoeducational Assessment January 22, 2015 Test Review Group Project  Presentation of an academic achievement test battery and written review of the test  Demonstration of how to administer portions of the test  Completed test administration protocol  Groups  Oral Language – Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-4) and Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT-3)  Phonological Processing – Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP2)  Written Language – Test of Written Language (TOWL4)  Reading – Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT5)  Mathematics – Key Math Diagnostic Assessment (KeyMath3-DA) Test Name Author Year Published Publisher Purpose Scores Age/Grade Group User Qualifications Norms Reliability Validity Practical Aspects Summary To include, but not limited to: Administration time, Price, Usability Academic Achievement Areas   Reading  Mathematics  Basic Reading Skills  Math Calculation  Reading Fluency Skills  Math Problem Solving  Reading Comprehension Oral Language  Oral Expression  Listening Comprehension  Written Language  Written Expression Cognitive Abilities and Academic Achievement  Reading Achievement   Math Achievement   Crystallized Knowledge, Short-Term Memory, Auditory Processing, Long-Term Storage and Retrieval, Processing Speed Crystallized Knowledge, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, Fluid Reasoning, Visual Processing Writing Achievement  Auditory Processing, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed Other Abilities Related to Academic Achievement   Orthographic Processing  Orthography – the system of marks that make up a printed language  Orthographic knowledge - information that is stored in memory that tells us how to represent spoken language in written form Morphological Awareness  Morphology – the structure of words in terms of morphemes or minimal meaningful elements  Morphological awareness - recognition, understanding, and use of word parts that carry significance Reading Reading   Basic reading skills  Sight-word recognition – ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet and name commonly used words  Word analysis skills – ability to apply structural and phonetic analysis to unfamiliar words Reading comprehension   Involves understanding individual word meanings and using semantic and syntactic clues to obtain meaning Reading fluency  Ability to read text passages with efficiency and comprehension Five Big Ideas in Beginning Reading  Phonemic Awareness   Alphabetic Principle   The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text Vocabulary   The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words Fluency with Text   The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in spoken words The ability to understand and use words to acquire and convey meaning Comprehension  The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning Characteristics of Individuals with Low Reading Achievement  An individual with low basic reading skills  Has poor phonological awareness  Has trouble learning sight words  Has difficulty sounding out words  Has trouble sounding out words  Has trouble applying strategies for word analysis  Overrelies on content clues  Reads slowly  Avoids reading loses place when asked to read aloud  Misreads words Characteristics of Individuals with Low Reading Achievement  An individual with low reading comprehension skills  Has difficulty recalling what is read  Has trouble using syntactic and semantic clues  Has trouble understanding what is read  Becomes easily frustrated with tasks requiring reading  May read well orally but does not comprehend  Has difficulty with all academic tasks involving reading Factors That Can Affect Reading Performance  Possible reasons for low performance in basic reading skills  Poor phonological awareness  Poor orthographic awareness  Slow processing speed  Limited alphabetic knowledge  Trouble pronouncing multisyllabic words  Limited instruction Factors That Can Affect Reading Performance  Possible reasons for low performance in reading comprehension  Poor basic reading skills  Lack of experiences and exposure  Low motivation and interest  Limited oral language  Low vocabulary  Low reasoning ability  Limited self-monitoring  Limited use of strategies  Limited instruction Instructional Implications for Individuals with Low Reading Achievement  Match materials to individual’s reading level  Provide support so individual can succeed while skills are being developed  Match instruction to specific needs of the individual  Provide instruction in phonological awareness and phoneme/grapheme relationships  Provide direct instruction to develop basic reading skills (both sight words and phonic skills)  Develop oral language abilities  Teach comprehension strategies  Teach appropriate strategies and self-monitoring techniques Oral Language Oral Language  Receptive Language   The ability to understand or comprehend language heard or read Expressive Language  The ability to put thoughts into words and sentences, in a way that makes sense and is grammatically accurate Oral Language  Phonology   Semantics   Understanding word order and grammar rules Morphology   The way language conveys meaning Syntax   The basic sound units of language (phonemes) Units of meaning within words; the way words are formed (morphemes) Pragmatics  Appropriate word choice and use in context to communicate effectively Characteristics of Individuals with Low Oral Language Ability  An individual with low receptive language  Asks to have oral information repeated  Has limited experience, simulation, and exposure  Has difficulty understanding what is heard (e.g., lectures, directions, and conversations)  Has poor reasoning, especially with conceptual information  Has difficulty with social interactions Characteristics of Individuals with Low Oral Language Ability  An individual with low expressive language  Has trouble thinking of specific words  Uses simple or immature sentences, vague pronoun referents, and immature vocabulary  Has difficulty formulating sentences  Seems disorganized when speaking (e.g., events out of sequence)  Has trouble expressing him- or herself verbally or participating in discussions Factors That Can Affect Oral Language Performance   Possible reasons for low performance in receptive language  Auditory processing deficits  Attention problems  Lack of experience and opportunity  Limited listening skills  Difficulty with auditory comprehension Possible reasons for low performance in expressive language  Poor receptive language  Difficulty with articulation  Cultural differences  Poor word retrieval (inability to recall words that are known)  Difficulty with formulation of ideas or organization of thoughts Instructional Implications for Individuals with Limited Oral Language  Consider impact on reading, math, and written language performance  Refer the individual to the speech/language pathologist for a comprehensive language evaluation  Develop oral vocabulary and oral language skills prior to or simultaneously with instruction or other academic areas  Use concrete examples  Demonstrate or model what is expected of the individual  Encourage use of gestures  Limit length of instructions Instructional Implications for Individuals with Limited Oral Language  Provide visual, graphic reminders (e.g., outlines, pictures, graphs, story frames)  Provide exposure to language (e.g., read aloud or converse with the individual)  Provide additional time for the individual to respond or speak  Pre-teach important vocabulary words related to assignment  Pair the individual with a peer who will encourage and facilitate verbal communication  Build on individual’s interests and strengths  Exempt him/her from foreign language requirements Mathematics Mathematics  Calculation   Application of math operations and basic axioms to solve math problems Problem Solving  Comprehending the nature of math problems, recognizing relevant information, and identifying and applying appropriate calculations Characteristics of Individuals with Low Math Achievement  An individual with low basic math skills  Appears anxious or resistant to solving math problems  Lacks confidence when presented with math problems  Uses finger counting long after it is developmentally appropriate  Reverses and transposes numbers (e.g., 12 for 21)  Does not attend to signs  Has difficulty aligning numbers when performing calculations  Has difficulty remembering steps in computing or solving problems Characteristics of Individuals with Low Math Achievement  An individual with low math reasoning skills  Has limited math vocabulary  Lacks age-appropriate quantitative concepts  Has trouble with estimation  Has limited strategies for solving math problems  Does not recognize or self-correct errors  Has difficulty recognizing relevant information in word problems  Has difficulty eliminating extraneous information from word problems Factors That Can Affect Math Performance  Possible reasons for low basic math skills  Poor memory  Limited attention  Weak fine-motor skills  Poor visual-spatial abilities  Limited language skills  Limited knowledge of procedures  Limited instruction Factors That Can Affect Math Performance  Possible reasons for low math reasoning  Low basic skills  Low oral language  Limited background knowledge  Poor visual-spatial thinking  Poor reasoning abilities  Limited instruction Instructional Implications for Individuals with Low Math Achievement  Match materials to individual’s instructional level  Provide a high-interest, success-oriented environment  Use manipulatives to help teach concepts  Reduce the number of problems  Provide additional time for completion of assignments  Teach the use of a calculator  Use graph paper to teach alignment and organization of calculation problems Instructional Implications for Individuals with Low Math Achievement  Provide systematic and extended practice to reinforce learning  Be sure the individual understands the task by monitoring performance closely  Use fact charts  Teach meaningful applications of mathematics  Develop math vocabulary  Teach functional mathematics Written Language Written Language  Basic Writing Skills   Fundamental skills required to generate written text Written Expression  Expression of thought through the use of characters, letters, or words Characteristics of Individuals with Low Written Language Achievement  An individual with low basic writing skills  Has poor basic reading skills  Has poor handwriting  Reverses or transposes letters  Has poor spelling  Fails to self-monitor errors  Uses simple vocabulary to avoid misspellings  Does poorly under time constraints  Has limited proofreading skills Characteristics of Individuals with Low Written Language Achievement  An individual with low written expression  Appears to resist writing tasks  Has a poor attitude towards writing tasks  Has limited background knowledge, limited experiences, and low vocabulary  Has low oral language abilities  Has poor organizational skills  Has low reasoning abilities Factors That Can Affect Written Language Performance  Possible reasons for low performance in basic writing skills  Poor phonological awareness  Poor orthographic awareness  Weak fine-motor skills  Weak visual-spatial skills  Limited alphabetic knowledge  Limited instruction Factors That Can Affect Written Language Performance  Possible reasons for low performance in written expression  Weak fine-motor skills  Limited basic writing skills  Limited oral language  Limited reading skills  Lack of experiences and exposure  Low motivation and interest  Low reasoning ability  Limited instruction Instructional Implications for Individuals with Low Written Language Achievement  Match instructions to developmental level  Provide alternatives to writing (e.g., oral responses)  Provide preferential seating for copying tasks, or limit or omit copying tasks  Simplify or shorten spelling lists or other written assignments  Teach high-frequency words  Teach word-study strategies  Teach proofreading skills  Provide extended time for completing written tasks Instructional Implications for Individuals with Low Written Language Achievement  Provide practice activities  Teach sentence structure  Use sentence-combining exercises  Help the individual develop vocabulary and other oral language abilities  Help the individual develop reading skills (vocabulary, comprehension, and strategies)  Use story frames or other graphic organizers

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