Farah is a 28-year-old manager of a fast food restaurant. She was an athlete in high school, but rarely finds time for exercise now. She’s been going to a community college part-time for the past four years while working hard to become a restaurant manager. With her studies and long shifts, exercise just hasn’t been a priority in her life.
Farah almost always eats meals at her fast food restaurant due to convenience and low cost. She now finds herself weighing 230 pounds at 5 feet 9 inches tall. Her doctor warned her that she’s “pre-diabetic,” has high blood pressure, and has too much “bad” LDL cholesterol in her blood. She recently took a class on nutrition at her community college—which really opened her eyes—and vows to make better decisions with her dietary choices immediately. She looks at the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to use as a reference.
1. One of the first things that Farah becomes familiar with when studying nutrition was the concept of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Which of the following comprise the DRI?
a. Recommended Daily Allotment (RDA), Allowable Intakes (AI), Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Energy Average Requirements (EAR), Acceptable Minimal Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
b. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
c. Reliable Dietary Average (RDA), Allowable Intakes (AI), Upper Intakes (UL), Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
d. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), Allowable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Acceptable Minimal Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
e. Recommended Daily Allotment (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), Upper Intakes (UL), Energy Average Requirements (EAR), Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
2. Fanny wasn't surprised to learn that the amount of fat she consumed on a daily basis was way above recommendations. According to the DRI, what is the recommended proportion of fat intake to allow a proper balance with the other two macronutrients (carbohydrates and protein)?
a. 5-10% of daily calories from fat
b. 10-15% of daily calories from fat
c. 15-25% of daily calories from fat
d. 20-35% of daily calories from fat
e. 35-50% of daily calories from fat
3. When reading the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Farah learned that Americans over-consume a few nutrients, while being deficient in many others. What are two over-consumed nutrients?
a. unsaturated fat and potassium
b. saturated fat and calcium
c. saturated fat and sodium
d. protein and starch
e. protein and sodium
4. While reading the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Farah realized she's in the same boat as most Americans in terms of under-consuming certain foods. What improvements are needed in the average U.S. diet to meet intake goals?
a. less whole grains, more vegetables, and more fat
b. less refined grains, more vegetables, and more protein
c. more whole grains, less fruit, and less milk
d. more refined grains, more fruit, and more protein
e. more whole grains, more fruit, and more milk
5. Farah vows to eat more vegetables each day, but learns that she should limit which of the following due to high solid fat and/or added sugar content?
a. baked beans, potato salad, and coleslaw
b. kidney beans, coleslaw, and pumpkin
c. refried beans, tomatoes, and soybeans
d. baked potato, French fries, and artichokes
e. eggplant, French fries, and mushrooms
6. Farah starts planning her new diet by trying to figure out how many calories she's allowed each day. She plans on becoming active (instead of staying sedentary), so based on her age of 28, what is her estimated calorie need per day once she becomes active?
a. 2,800 calories
b. 2,400 calories
c. 2,200 calories
d. 2,000 calories
e. 1,800 calories
7. Farah is starting to read food labels and wonders why the ingredients are printed in a certain order. What determines the order of ingredients on food labels?
a. descending order by cost
b. descending order by calories
c. descending order by weight
d. alphabetical order
e. reverse alphabetical order
8. Farah is learning that some statements on food labels are more reliable than others. Which type of claim on food labels is the least reliable and should often be ignored?
a. nutrient claims
b. health claims
c. calorie claims
d. structure-function claims
e. cost claims