​I needed help to construct Climograph​ in physical Geography

timer Asked: Apr 30th, 2017

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I needed help to construct Climograph in physical Geography

Please use the below instruction to construct Climographs Project. thanks project Guide – Constructing Climographs As you have learned this unit, climographs are very effective ways of illustrating the variations of temperature and precipitation patterns. In this project guide, you will learn how simple it is to construct a climograph using Microsoft Excel. Before you begin, however, you will want to be sure you review the examples of climographs that are used in chapter 8. Look, for example, at the climograph for Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, on p. 273. Notice how temperature values are given on one side of the graph and that a line-graph is used to indicate the typical month-to-month average temperature values. Precipitation values are given on the other side of the graph and a bar-graph is constructed in order to illustrate average month-tomonth amounts. Reading this climograph, one can quickly see that average “winter” (Dec. – Feb.) temperatures for Columbia are around 45°F and “summer” (June – Aug.) temperatures average around 80°F. Also, one can quickly see that Columbia receives an average of at least 7.5 inches of precipitation every month of the year, except November. Based on this information, we can easily see that Columbia’s average temperature and precipitation patterns are very typical of the humid subtropical climate region (specifically, Cfa: C = moderate/warm year-round temp., f = year-round precip., a = hot summer [above 72°F]). First, you need to get the required data—specifically the average monthly precipitation (in inches) and daily (i.e., 24-hour) average temperature values for a location. For practice, we will use the Park University main campus as an example. An easy place to access this type of data for many places around the world is the World Climate website at www.climate-charts.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. As you will see, you can simply click on the “USA Climate” or the “World Climate” link, then select the state or region, and finally select the nearest town or city as each page appears. You may find more than one data set for your city, but they will be similar so it shouldn’t matter which you choose. For our purposes, just click on “USA Climate” and then “Missouri”. We will look at “KANSAS CITY INTL AP” (i.e., KC International Airport) for this exercise. The cities are listed in a column on the left side of the table. Once a city is selected you should see that there are charts of data provided, but there is also data in table format if you scroll to the bottom of the page. We need “Precipitation Mean Monthly Value” (in inches) and “Temperature Mean Value” (in °F) to construct our climograph. Click on first “Precipitation Mean Monthly Value” under this listing. Right-click and hold while dragging your mouse over the precipitation line of information in the table to highlight it. Then, place your cursor over a part of the highlighted text and left-click. Select “copy” from the menu you get. At this point you are going to paste the info you just copied into Microsoft Excel. However, we will return to this website to copy more info in a few minutes, so be sure to keep your web browser open. Now, open Microsoft Excel. Right-click on cell A-1 (upper left cell) and then left-click and select “paste” from the menu. Label the months in Excel and double-check to make sure the months line up with the correct precipitation values. You should also notice that the data we copied included the yearly average (the info that should be in the last column on the right labeled “Average”). Since a climograph only contains monthly averages, we don’t need this column. Simply click on this column and delete it. You should be ready to insert the temperature data. Be sure to save your work at this point and keep Excel open. Now, go back to the web browser window. This time just highlight the row of temperature mean values in *F and copy it. Switch back to Excel and click on the cell immediately below your precipitation info. Paste the temperature info you just copied. You will need to delete the yearly average at the end of the temperature row, as well. You should now have a simple spreadsheet with a row showing average monthly precipitation values (in inches) and a row showing average monthly temperature values (in *F). You will not need the “Units” column so if you copied it to your Excel you can delete this column. Again, be sure to save your work before continuing. Now we are ready to make your climograph. Click on a cell that falls somewhere in your spreadsheet information (cell A1 should work), and select Insert > Chart from the main menu. Choose a simple 2-D column chart to begin with. The Data Range we want should have been automatically selected so that all of the cells in your spreadsheet from cells A1 to M3 are included in the chart. If not, you may need to highlight all cells from A1 to M3 before you select a chart type. The chart you have made will need several alterations before it will look like a climograph from your textbook. Start by selecting one of the temperature data columns (this should automatically select all of the temperature data). Select the “Design” tab found under the “Chart Tools” tab at the top of the page. Toward the left side of this tool bar, select the “change chart type” button and select the Line chart type. This will change your temperature data into a line graph that is now above the precipitation columns. Now we need to create a new vertical axis for temperature so it is on the right side of the graph. Select the temperature data line once more by clicking on any location on the line (make sure that all points become selected). Under the “Chart Tools” tab select “Layout”. Click on “Format Selection” on the left side of the toolbar. A tool box will pop up and you will be able to select “Secondary Axis” for the series options. Close the box and you should now see the precipitation columns have expanded since they now have their own axis on the left side and a new temperature axis should now be on the right side. Finalize the chart by adding titles for every axis. Under the “Chart Tools” tab, click on “Layout” again and then find a button for “Axis Titles”. A drop-down menu will open and you will need to add a title for the Primary Horizontal Axis, the Primary Vertical Axis, and the Secondary Vertical Axis. A “rotated title” type will be best for a vertical axis. Click in the axis title box to change the text to the title you want. Enter “Month” for x-axis category, “Average Precipitation (inches)” for the first vertical axis value, and “Average Temperature (*F)” for the second vertical axis value. Go back up to the “Layout” tool bar and click on the “Chart Title” button and enter “Climograph for Kansas City, MO (USA)” for the chart title. Next, click on the Gridlines button and click on the boxes to turn on the major gridlines for the primary horizontal and the primary vertical axes. Finally, click on the Legend button and click on the box to turn off the show legend feature. Congratulations, you have just constructed a climograph! If you compare this climograph with the ones in the textbook, however, you will notice that the precipitation data appears more substantial in the one you constructed than it does for places that actually have greater monthly precipitation averages. This is because the ranges of the vertical axes in your climograph are not the same as those in the textbook. Notice that the ones in the textbook are all standardized with 35 inches of precipitation as the maximum left horizontal axis value and 100*F for the right horizontal axis. Let’s set yours to the same values so that you can compare your climograph with those in the text. To do this, simply move your cursor so that it is directly over the left horizontal axis and double-click. You should get a Format Axis box. Change the maximum value to a “Fixed” value of 35. While we’re at it, make a “fixed” major unit value of 2.5 (which will match what is used in the textbook climographs). Now click on the “Close” button. The bar graph lines should be much shorter now. Adjust the value for the right horizontal axis now. Just double-click on the right horizontal axis to get the Format Axis box for it and change the maximum value to 100. The last adjustment we will make is to make the climograph taller and more narrow (again so that it looks more like those in the text). Simply click on any white space in the graph. You should see a gray box around the outside of the graph with small dots in the corners and on the edges. Move your cursor over one of the dotted areas in a corner so that you can click and hold to resize the graph window. You should now have a climograph that looks like the following: Follow these directions to produce a climograph for your final project location and save it. Place this climograph into your final project PowerPoint. Briefly discuss how your location’s climograph compares with those in the textbook. In particular, you should discuss which one it appears most like, and what kind of climate that location has according to the textbook. Also, what factors influencing temperature and precipitation that you have learned about thus far appear to contribute to your location’s annual climate patterns?

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