Grade this MLA Essay According to the Rubric

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Grade my 14pg paper according to the rubric uploaded.

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The regime of Bashar Al-Assad has been increasingly conflicted in terms of re-occupying the divided nation of Syria as result of a complex, political stream of ideological differences in the country. While the majority of the country is sparsely populated, numerous rebel groups and Kurdish forces have control over Northeastern areas where as ISIL controls various cities that are distributed amongst the center of Syria. Consequently, millions of Syrians have resulted in becoming displaced in-between the regions in which these forces occupy, as well as countless citizens dying. This situation has lead for surviving Syrians to seek asylum in neighboring countries, various parts of Europe, and even the United States. In the United States, while most Americans are for assisting Syrian refugees, others are not. Following a series of coordinated attacks in Europe, including Paris, London, Brussels, Nice, and Munich; these events, plus incidents in America, i.e. San Bernardino, Orlando, and Boston, have caused Americans to become alarming of terrorists potentially disguising themselves as refugees. Thus, it is a controversial subject that is rooted from fear and a mixture of prejudice towards Muslim. However, despite most Americans having been murdered by gun-violence in comparison to Muslim Jihadists since the September 11th attacks, the risk of Syrian refugees possibly posing themselves as terrorists is not only a link that is relatively low according to several studies, but is primarily a fear that is rooted from loathe and stereotypes. To clearly know why the world is now looking at one of the biggest humanitarian crisis in our generation, one must first briefly understand the civil war conflict in Syria that has pushed millions to become ousted or hundreds of thousands to be dead. One of the perspectives out there is that Syrian refugees should simply go back to where they came from, which is incredibly unlikely considering the devastating state that Syria is currently plunged into. Few Americans understand the severity of how big the situation is over there. It is very important for one to first gain comprehension of what initiated all of this from the beginning, in a series of demonstrations in the Arab Springs. Equipped with restrictions of freedom and economic hardships, such as a “severe drought” that “plagued Syria from 2007-10, spurring as many as 1.5 million people to migrate from countryside into sides”, as stated by Al Jazeera News, according to an article titled “Syria: The story of the conflict” from BBC.com, the start of the Syrian Civil War we see today first originated as pro-democracy protests that started in March of 2011, with security forces opening fire on protesters, killing several; which resulted in a nation-wide protest demanding the resignation of President Bashar Al-Assad (Rodgers, Gritten, Offer, & Asare, 2016). Al-Assad had utilized measures of eliminating the opposition to his power through severe actions such as arresting, shooting, and torturing protesters in order to fully maintain his grip on power of the country. The outcome then became an armed rebellion as more citizens took to the streets to fight back. Initially, the primary forces behind the rebellion consisted of government forces and rebels, groups of individuals that opposed Bashar Al-Assad’s methods of crushing the protests. As the war raged on, even portions of Al-Assad’s army had defected to merge with rebel groups, which came to be known as “the Free Syrian Army”, says Ezra Klein, a contributor to MSNBC. The uprising now, is officially a civil war. As the war raged on, various extremists and Jihadists travelled to Syria to become a part of the rebels group. “Now Assad actually encourages this, by releasing Jihadist prisoners to tinge the rebellion with extremism, and make it harder for foreign backers to support them” (Klein). Regional powers entered to back up their own assets in the country; for example, Russia’s support of Bashar Al-Assad, and Iran as well by sending the Lebanese militia known “Hezbollah” to intervene. On the other hand, numerous countries such as Turkey, Jordan, the U.S., and Gulf States backing up different rebel groups. “By 2013, the Middle East is divided by mostly Sunni powers generally supporting the rebels, and Shia’s generally supporting Assad” (Klein). The emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant, ISIL, from al-Qaeda changes the dynamics of the war as it begins to spread from both countries Iraq and Syria with the ultimate goal of establishing a caliphate. Dictionary.com states that a caliphate is that of “the rank, jurisdiction, and government of a caliph”, a caliph being a “spiritual leader of Islam claiming succession from Muhammed” (Dictionary.com). In this case, ISIL establishes the leader of the group, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The rapid increase of ISIL in Iraq and Syria quickly gains the attention of the United States through how the group conducts itself by the manner in which it attacks rebel groups that are supported by the U.S. Consequently, the United States initiates a series of airstrikes targeting ISIL positions in Syria, ultimately involving the U.S. even more than before. The brutality of ISIL also catches the attention of the Russians, who now having been using airstrikes against the terrorist organization. For these very reasons, millions of Syrian civilians resulted in becoming displaced from their country, creating a humanitarian crisis we see now. From the escalation of the war itself in 2011, many have fled the nation and settled in neighboring states such as Lebanon, Egypt, Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt. Currently, there are four million Syria enlisted areas. In 2012, the refugees who fled to Turkey received a warm reception, unlike now that they have joined the rest in resisting them from coming to their country. At the moment, Turkey holds up to 2 million evacuees, which has increased the countries’ spending by far much on them. Most evacuees cannot accommodate themselves due to financial challenges, which are why some are moving away to the other countries, including that of the United States, for refuge. In 2014, more than 200,000 Syrians fled to seek refuge in Europe. According to the same statistics, 3.5 million suffocated while two thousand did not make it. From the State Department, Europe generally does not welcome anymore Syrian refugees, which is why Hungary has been attempting to fence itself off from Syrians in entering their country. Thus, many Syrians were stopped by the approach forcing them to settle in various refugee camps situated across Europe and nearby the borders of Syria. There are no active movement arrangements that have been set up to manage the settlement issue as for this moment each country that decides what number of refugees it will take in. Countries such as Denmark for instance, decline to acknowledge any number of Syrians, while on the other hand, the United Kingdom expanding on the number of displaced people they will acknowledge. Following the Paris Attacks of 2015, most of the U.S. governors reported that they will no longer be permitting Syrian displaced civilians (Owen 2017). A national poll conducted by The Associated Press found that 52% of Americans see refugees as a sufficient risk, a risk high enough to restrict their entry into the United States. Most participants suggested that the vetting process was not up-to-par, and “may be one of perception in an age of religious and politically inspired violence” (Kellman & Swanson, 2017). One of these very perceptions that the United States as a whole remembers are the September 11 , 2001 th attacks, a series of four coordinated attacks carried out by nineteen perpetrators affiliated with alQaeda, instructed by Osama bin Laden, on U.S. soil. This was the first major foreign attack to the United States since Pearl Harbor in 1941, and consequently the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City suffered the most substantial damage from two hijacked passenger airliners impacting each one of them, subsequently collapsing completely into the streets of Lower Manhattan after burning for as little as two hours, resulting in the deaths of thousands in the complex. While thousands more were injured and lost loved ones, millions of Americans nationwide were absolutely shocked at what had unfolded on their television screen that Tuesday morning. For the first time, America and its people found itself troubled with battling an ideology after September 11th when it was released by the FBI that the nineteen perpetrators responsible were a part of an extremist organization that is Muslim. The emotional repercussions varied from every person, but for the most part it was felt that a sense of retribution was needed inside the U.S. “First though, it cannot be emphasized enough that the anger in America at the time was palpable, and anger needs to have an outlet” says Jeffrey Kaplan, in his scholarly article “Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime”. From judging by their mistaken appearance as Arab Muslims, many innocent people, including that of American citizen Balbir Singh Sodi, fell victim to a series of several hate crimes that occurred the week of the attacks, carried out by other Americans who wanted to retaliate against Islam and its followers; merely because the hijackers who destroyed the World Trade Center and Pentagon were also Muslim, but not primarily considering as well that they were extremists. Balbir however, was a Sikh-American, not of Muslim faith, and was shot five times in cold-blood due to his similar appearance with his beard and turban. “For many Americans, there is genuine confusion over what a Muslim might look like” (Kapalan 2007). According to Oxford Dictionaries, the term “terrorist” is defined as a person who uses unlawful violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. A terrorist cannot necessarily be pointed out by only taking into observation the qualities that make-up their physical appearance and shape, let alone their ethnicity or religious affiliation. “Could it be a stereotypical Arab sheikh in flowing robes or a turbaned Turk?” asks Kaplan, “Could a local doctor, lawyer, businessman, or cab driver perhaps be a terrorist? Or are the terms Middle Eastern, Arab, and terrorist synonymous?” (Kaplan 2007). This raises an important ethical question in the U.S. of both why and how Middle Eastern identities, including refugees, are often thrown in together as being terrorists, a stereotype that has become very strong and common in a Western perspective amongst the public not only as a result of the September 11th attacks or anything prior to that, but also of additional extremist Islamic attacks that were and continue to be carried out on U.S. ground over the years. In Massachusetts on April 15th, 2013, a pair of two homemade bombs at the annual Boston Marathon were placed and detonated by Chechen-American brothers Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, resulting in not only the injury of hundreds and three deaths, but also a day’s worth of an extensive manhunt and shooting while gaining massive media attention nationwide. Two years later, married couple Syed Rizwan Farook and Ttashfeen Malik killed fourteen individuals on December 2nd, 2015 in San Bernardino in what would be known as the deadliest terrorist attack on the U.S. ground since September 11th; only until then on June 12th, 2016, home-born radicalized Omar Mateen murdered forty-nine people, injuring another fiftythree, at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida. Despite these being notable instances, amongst dozens of other ones of much smaller scale, of Islamic terrorist attacks that have occurred in the United States, it cannot be highly stressed enough that these attacks were the consequences of radicalized Muslims already residing on American soil, either through having been born in the country or having acquired legal residency – none of which the result of a refugee. On the other hand, there is no major implication in which refugees granted in the U.S., either from Syria or elsewhere, of an attack since the Refugee Act of 1980, according to an analysis of terrorism and immigration by Alex Nowrasteh from the Cato Institute in Washington, DC. Nowrasteh stated that of a total of 3,252,493 refugees that were admitted from 1975 until 2015, only twenty individuals were actually terrorists. Yet, while that not all of them were even successful in their own attacks, three “were Cubans who committed their attacks in the 1970s and were admitted before the Refugee Act of 1980 created the modern rigorous refugeescreening procedures currently in place” (Nowrasteh 2016). However, CNN Author Eric Levenson writes that since Nowrasteh’s publication of his analysis, a refugee from Somalia, named Abdul Razak Ali Artan, knifed thirteen people at Ohio University, ruled as a terrorist attack. Nonetheless, Levenson still agrees with the analysis and says that “the primary perpetrators of the major terror attacks have mostly been US-born citizens or permanent legal residents” (Levenson 2017). Thousands of miles away however, there would be a backfiring question to the safety of letting in refugees. Starting November 13th, 2015, Paris had endured a series of terrorist attacks from the north extending towards south of the region, claimed responsibility for by ISIS, which left 130 civilians dead. One of the most shocking aspects of it all was when French authorities had uncovered to be a Syrian passport pocketed in the body of one of the deceased assailants, sparking more controversy into the debate of the admittance of refugees through the paranoia question if terrorists could be acting as refugees to accomplish their goals in designated nations. “The prospect of Islamist infiltration through the current refugee influx in Europe has spooked politicians on both sides of the Atlantic, with a slate of Republican governors and presidential candidates in the United States pointing to the terror attacks as reason to bar entry to all Syrian refugees” says Ishaan Door, for the Washington Post. However, it was later revealed momentarily after that the password was indeed a fake, utilized under the name of “Ahmad Almohammad”, a deceased soldier who apparently was a fighter for President Bashar Al-Assad’s government. The passport was utilized as a means to simply get into the country. Still, sense of uncertainty about Syrian refugees still heavily lingered into many people, including in the United States. It’s what Ben Emmerson, the “Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and CounterTerrorism” (OHCHR) addresses to the UN General Assembly in NY reporting his findings that while acknowledging the connection between the two, there were was too little evidence to go off on between the link of refugees and terrorists, specifically that ISIL "and other terror groups use refugee flows” says Independent Writer Lizzie Dearden. Revisiting Alex Nowrasteh’s analysis, “In other words, one terrorist entered as a refugee for every 162,625 refugees who were not terrorists” (Nowrasteh 2016). Another important point addressed is that terrorists will usually approach alternative methods to get inside a targeted country, because while disguising oneself as a refugee is certainly possible, the general frame for an ordinary refugee to be admitted into a country is heavy process that is time consuming. Anne Speckhard, the director of International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism, asks Wired Magazine, “Why would an ISIS terrorist sit and wait to be a refugee for three years to get into the U.S., when they could get a radicalized European citizen and fly here on a visa waiver and then live here under the radar?” (Posner 2015). According to Alex Nwrasteh, 94% of the perpetrators of September 11th had utilized tourist visas, and that the nineteenth was on a student visa. The most common tactic for one is to simply act as an ordinary citizen by going through the legal process in such a country, as did the nineteen perpetrators of the September 11th, 2001 attacks. Americans have become so focused and narrow minded of foreigners threatening to bring about violence into the U.S. when there is already domestic terrorism by home-born individuals and American radical organizations throughout the country. The form of violence Americans are most likely susceptible to is to, aside from various other incidences, is gun-violence instead of terrorism, as the US Department of Justice and Council on Foreign Affairs suggests. Their statistics stated that some 11,385 from 2001 to 2011 on average died annually as a result of firearms, whereas 517 individuals perished from terrorism. Comparing this to present day, 13,286 people were murdered in the U.S. by firearms in 2015 alone, according Gun Violence Archive. In 2012 however, 60% of nationwide deaths were due to a firearm, and on July 20th of this year, James E. Holmes had carried out one of the deadliest shooting rampages in Colorado where twelve people fell victim and seventy others sustained significant injuries. The verdict was ultimately decided life in person, but the term “mentally ill” was deemed reason for his actions – not exactly domestic terrorism. This refers back to what the definition of terrorism is, similar to “terrorist”; the point is still to pursue a political aim. While James Holmes did not exactly have a political agenda to pursue, despite his extensive planning, he still did commit acts of terror that resulted in fear nonetheless. Clifford Jackson highlights this distinction in his published article called “Terrorism vs mental illness” by how “the Middle East couple in San Bernardino, are linked to ISIS and radical Islam and are defined as terrorists. But the terrorist label has not been attached to Dylann Roof, the white male responsible for the slaughter of nine African-Americans in a church in South Carolina” (Jackson 2015). This has raised the question for how some Caucasian perpetrators are labeled in the media for their deadly actions when juxtaposed to Arab perpetrators. It can be agreed that practically any person, either through radicalization or otherwise, is considered to be mentally ill, because after all, anybody that murders innocent civilians regardless of any cause must be troubled in their morals. . “If James Holmes had instead been named Jalal and was Muslim, the response by the media and most Americans would be different. The presumption would be that he’s a terrorist” says writer Dean Obeidallah. The double standard if an extremist Muslim, carrying out an attack just as similar as an extremist Christian exists and both ultimately are no different than the other as they terrorize in the name of a higher power. The war in Syria is seemingly one that will never have an end to it for an undesignated period of time as variety of nations, including that of the United States of America, have been pulled into the conflict; in what is essentially an ideological war. As millions of Syrians are dispersed, with no choice to escape their blood-soaked homes, Americans have also become troubled with the admittance of allowing them in; built off of the alarming fear that Islamic terrorist attacks will rise. Not only does such a risk have hardly much evidence to go off on to be distraught about, but Americans hardly begin realize that they are more susceptible to gunviolence and domestic terrorism than threats by Muslim Jihadists. Nonetheless, it is primarily a fear that has so much attention because it is rooted from media coverage and stereotypes dating back from September 11th, 2001 attacks. While it is important to realize this double standard, it is even more important to focus on the individuals stranded from the Syrian Civil War and our moral obligation in setting aside differences and assisting them, or leaving them for dead merely because of American paranoia. Works Cited Byman, D., and Speakman, S. "The Syrian Refugee Crisis: Bad and Worse Options." The Washington Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 2, 25 Jul. 2016, pp. 45-60. Auraria Library, doi:10.1080/0163660X.2016.1204352 Daniels, Owen. "4 Reasons the US Should Support the Resettlement of Syrian Refugees." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 23 Nov. 2015. Web. 13 Feb. 2017. Dearden, Lizzie. "UN Report Finds No Evidence Migration Causes Terror Attacks and Warns Anti-refugee Laws Could Worsen Risk." The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 24 Oct. 2016. Web. 13 Feb. 2017. Holmes, S., and Casteñada, H. (2016). “Representing the ‘European refugee crisis’ in Germany and beyond: Deservingness and difference, life and death.” American Ethnologist, 43, 1224. Google Scholar. doi: 10.1111/amet.12259 Ianchovichina, Elena, and Ivanic, Maros. “The Economic Impact of the Syrian War and the Spread of ISIS.” World Bank Group, no. 140. Jan. 2015, pp. 1-3. Google Scholar. Accessed 11 Feb 2017. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10986/22586 Jabbar, Sinaria A., and Zaza Haidar I. "Impact of conflict in Syria on Syrian children at the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan." Early Child Development and Care, vol. 184, no. 9-10, 27 Mar. 2014, pp. 1507-1530. Auraria Library, doi:10.1080/03004430.2014.916074 Jackson, Clifford. “Terrorism vs mental illness.” USA Today. USA Today, 16 Dec. 2015. Web. 29 Mar. 2017. Kaplan, Jeffrey. "Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime." Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 18, no. 1, 25 Jan. 2007, pp. 1-33. Google Scholar, doi: 10.1080/09546550500383209 Posner, Liz. “How Many Refugees Have Been Linked To Terrorism? The Numbers Will Surprise You.” Bustle. BDG Media, Inc, 18 Nov. 2015. Web. Salam Neighbor. Dir. Zach Ingrasci and Chris Temple. Perf. Zach Ingrasci and Chris Temple. Netflix, June 2016. Web. Nov. 2016 Scarborough, Rowan. "Islamic State Finds Success Infiltrating Its Terrorists into Refugee Flows to West." The Washington Times. The Washington Times, 29 Jan. 2017. Web. 14 Feb. 2017. "State Department: U.S. Should Welcome Syrian Refugees." Time. Time, 18 Nov. 2015. Web. 13 Feb. 2017. Warren, Rossalyn. "Here Is The Long Route Many Refugees Take To Travel From Syria To Germany." BuzzFeed. Buzz Feed, 14 Sept. 2015. Web. 14 Feb. 2017.
Purpose (30 pts) Exemplary - The writer's central purpose or argument is readily apparent to the reader. ____ Good - The writing has a clear purpose or argument, but may sometimes digress from it. ____ Needs Improvement - The central purpose or argument is not consistently clear throughout the paper. ____ Unacceptable - The purpose or argument is generally unclear. ____ Content (30 pts) Exemplary - Presentation of relevant and legitimate information clearly supports a central purpose or argument and shows a thoughtful, in-depth analysis of a significant topic. Reader gains important insights. ____ Good - Information provides reasonable support for a central purpose or argument and displays evidence of a basic analysis of a significant topic. Reader gains some insights. ____ Needs Improvement - Information supports a central purpose or argument at times. Analysis is basic or general. Reader gains few insights. ____ Unacceptable - Central purpose or argument is not clearly identified. Analysis is vague or not evident. Reader is confused or may feel misinformed. ____ Balance (30 pts) Exemplary – The author’s stance is clear, but various sides of the issue are explored in a fair and reasonable manner. ____ Good – The author’s stance is clear, and while one side of the issue may be focused on more than the other, counterarguments and opposing views are still addressed in a fair and reasonable manner. ____ Needs Improvement – The author sometimes neglects important counterarguments and alternate views. ____ Unacceptable – The author displays open bias and neglects counterarguments and alternate views entirely. ____ Organization (20 pts) Exemplary - The ideas are arranged logically to support the purpose or argument. They flow smoothly from one to another and are clearly linked to each other. The reader can follow the line of reasoning. ____ Good - The ideas are arranged logically to support the central purpose or argument. They are usually clearly linked to each other. For the most part, the reader can follow the line of reasoning. ____ Needs Improvement - In general, the writing is arranged logically, although occasionally ideas fail to make sense together. The reader is somewhat but not entirely clear about what writer intends. ____ Unacceptable - The writing is not logically organized. Frequently, ideas fail to make sense together. The reader cannot identify a line of reasoning and loses interest. ____ Voice (10 pts) Exemplary - The writing is compelling. It hooks the reader and sustains interest throughout. ____ Good - The writing is generally engaging, but has some dry or dull spots. In general, it is focused and keeps the reader's attention. ____ Needs Improvement - The writing is dull and does not engage the reader. Though the paper has some interesting parts, the reader finds it difficult to maintain interest. ____ Unacceptable - The writing has little personality. The reader quickly loses interest and stops reading. ____ Tone (10 pts) Exemplary - The tone is consistently professional and is fully appropriate for an academic research paper. ____ Good - The tone is generally professional. It may sound informal in spots, but for the most part it is appropriate for an academic research paper. ____ Needs Improvement - The tone is not consistently professional or appropriate for an academic paper. ____ Unacceptable - The tone is unprofessional. It is not appropriate for an academic research paper. ____ Sentence Structure (10 pts) Exemplary - Sentences are well-phrased and varied in length and structure. They flow smoothly from one to another. ____ Good - Sentences are well-phrased and there is some variety in length and structure. The flow from sentence to sentence is generally smooth. ____ Needs Improvement - Some sentences are awkwardly constructed so that the reader is occasionally distracted. ____ Unacceptable - Errors in sentence structure are frequent enough to be a major distraction to the reader. ____ Word Choice (10 pts) Exemplary - Word choice is consistently precise and accurate. ____ Good - Word choice is generally good. The writer often goes beyond the generic word to find one more precise and effective. ____ Needs Improvement - Word choice is merely adequate, and the range of words is limited. Some words are used inappropriately or repetitively. ____ Unacceptable - Many words are used inappropriately, confusing the reader. ____ Grammar, Spelling, Writing Mechanics (punctuation, syntax, capitalization, etc.) (20 pts) Exemplary - The writing is free or almost free of errors. ____ Good - There are occasional errors, but they don't represent a major distraction or obscure meaning. ____ Needs Improvement - The writing has many errors, and the reader is distracted by them. ____ Unacceptable - There are so many errors that meaning is obscured. The reader is confused and stops reading. ____ Use of References (30 pts) Exemplary - Compelling evidence from professionally legitimate sources is given to support claims. Attribution is clear and fairly represented. ____ Good - Professionally legitimate sources that support claims are generally present and attribution is, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. ____ Needs Improvement - Although attributions are occasionally given, many statements seem unsubstantiated. The reader is confused about the source of information and ideas. ____ Unacceptable - References are seldom cited to support statements. ____ Quality and Variety of References (20 pts) Exemplary – References are primarily peer-reviewed professional journals and/or other approved sources (e.g., government documents, agency manuals, valid websites, scholarly journals, primary sources, etc). The reader is confident that the information and ideas can be trusted. ____ Good - Although most of the references are professionally legitimate, the writer may rely too much on general and/or anonymous internet sources, but the reader generally trusts the reliability of most sources. ____ Needs Improvement - Most of the references are from sources that are not peer-reviewed and have uncertain reliability. The reader doubts the accuracy of much of the material presented. ____ Unacceptable - There are virtually no sources that are professionally reliable. The reader seriously doubts the value of the material and stops reading. ___ Use of Most Recent Edition of MLA or APA documentation (30 pts) Exemplary – MLA/APA format is used accurately and consistently in the paper and on the "Works Cited" page. ____ Good – MLA/APA format is used with very few errors. ____ Needs Improvement - There are frequent errors in MLA/APA format. ____ Unacceptable - Format of the document is not recognizable as MLA/APA. ___ Total (out of 250):

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