Immunology true false exam

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timer Asked: May 3rd, 2017

Question description

answers are true or false

Question I. Your British collaborators have asked you to help in characterizing the immune system of a novel strain of mice that were obtained from an unintended murine colonization of a secret cellar in Buckingham Palace containing a fresh daily supply of Queen Elizabeth II’s favorite beers. You find that macrophages of these mice surprisingly lack both CD14 and TLR 4, i.e., 2 entities critically involved in binding LPS. What phenotype (1-12) would you expect macrophages from these mice to display? Assess the twelve subsequent statements describing the hypothetical phenotypic characteristics of these unique macrophages as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false): 1. A reduced sensitivity to low levels of LPS, but an ability to respond to high levels of LPS. 2. A reduced sensitivity to unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides. 3. An increased sensitivity to unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides. 4. Heightened responses to viral infection due to increased activation of IRF (interferon regulatory factors) genes. 5. Diminished responses to viral infection due to decreased activation of IRF (interferon regulatory factors) genes. 6. A partial inability to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. 7. A total inability to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. 8. A complete failure to produce cytokines in response to LPS. 9. An increased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class I molecules. 10. A decreased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class I molecules. 11. An increased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class II molecules. 12. A decreased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class II molecules. Question II. Table 1 shows the physical and biological characteristics of several different antigenic molecules. Table 1. The following characteristics are likely to be associated with augmenting a molecule’s potential to elicit a strong immune response [assess the following statements (13-18) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false) in the given context]: 13. Higher molecular weight and increased number of epitopes 14. Higher molecular weight and reduced number of epitopes 15. Lower molecular weight and increased number of epitopes 16. Lower molecular weight and reduced number of epitopes 17. Native forms of soluble molecules 18. Particulate forms of denatured molecules Question III. Primate Vg9Vd2 T lymphocytes recognize nonpeptidic products (phosphoantigens) of the mevalonate and DOXP pathways. This antigenic recognition requires presence of both the Vg9 and the Vd2 TCR chain and is present only (as far as we know) in Homo sapiens and non-human primates and completely absent, for example, in rodents. The scientific basis of this absence of phosphoantigenic recognition in rodents is unknown. Nevertheless, one can speculate that [complete the sentence and assess the hypothetic scenarios (19-26) as either incorrect (= false) or potentially factually correct (= true)]: 19. rodent gd T cells may be capable of recognizing phosphoantigens, but the phosphoantigenpresentation molecule may be missing in rodents. 20. only the memory phosphoantigen-specific gd T cells may be present in rodents, but not the effector phosphoantigen-specific gd T cells. 21. rodent phosphoantigen-reactive T lymphocytes may be deleted during negative selection in the thymus. 22. the absence of this interesting lymphocyte reactivity in rodents could be due to the possibility that the recognition of the given phosphoantigens is important for immunosurveillance against pathogens that do not infect rodents; hence this reactivity did not confer a survival advantage and was lost during the phylogenetic evolution. 23. rodent gd T cells may be capable of recognizing phosphoantigens, but the relevant co-stimulatory molecule may be missing in rodents. 24. rodent dendritic cells may not be able to process phosphoantigens. 25. rodents may be tolerant/unresponsive to phosphoantigens. 26. rodent phosphoantigen-reactive T lymphocytes may not be expanded during positive selection in the thymus. axb Question IV. After injecting MHC F1 bone marrow cells into an a irradiated MHC mouse, the bone marrow-derived T cells mature on a thymic epithelium expressing only MHC molecules (see the schematic picture on the left). Nonetheless, the resulting chimeric mice are b tolerant to skin grafts expressing MHC molecules (provided that these grafts do not present skin-specific peptides that differ between the strains a and b). These experimental results imply that [complete the sentence and assess each subsequent statement (27-33) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: 27. B cells play no role in the observed tolerance of skin grafts. 28. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by b MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 29. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by axb MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 30. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by a MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 31. bone marrow cells can induce positive selection, because the axb transplanted MHC F1 bone marrow cells are the only source of b MHC molecules in the thymus. 32. bone marrow-derived cells must be able to mediate negative axb selection, because the transplanted MHC F1 bone marrow cells are b the only source of MHC molecules in the thymus. 33. mast cells are not involved in the observed immunological phenomenon. Question V. Assess subsequent statements (34-53) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: The mechanism of hemolytic disease of the newborn after passively transferred antibodies from the mother react with the neonate's erythrocytes can be described as 34. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 35. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 36. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 37. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of inflammatory reaction in rheumatoid arthritis, in which rheumatoid factor (antibody to the immunoglobulin molecule)–antigen complexes are deposited in the joints can be described as 38. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 39. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 40. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 41. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis appearing two weeks after a streptococcal infection can be described as 42. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 43. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 44. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 45. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of granuloma formation associated with the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be described as 46. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 47. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 48. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 49. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of contact dermatitis caused by nickel-containing jewelry can be described as 50. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 51. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 52. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 53. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. Question VI. You are designing immunotherapeutic agents to treat tuberculosis, a disease that is caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), which resides within endosomal vesicles of macrophages. Which of the following features of the immune response would you want your immunotherapeutic agent(s) to stimulate? Using your immunology knowledge, assess each statement (54-58) as either factually correct (true) or incorrect (false) in the context of the above-given description: 54. Production of acute phase proteins 55. Elevated levels of IFN-g production 56. Induction of TH1 cells 57. Elevated levels of macrophage microbicidal activities 58. Induction of TB-specific, CD8+ CTLs Question VII. Please, assess subsequent statements (59-70) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: 59. Benign tumors can kill their hosts. 60. Benign tumors cannot kill their hosts. 61. Malignant tumors can kill their hosts. 62. Benign tumors are neoplasms. 63. Malignant tumors are neoplasms. 64. Malignant tumors are capable of uncontrolled growth. 65. Benign tumors are capable of uncontrolled growth. 66. Benign tumors are sometimes nonimmunogenic. 67. Malignant tumors are sometimes nonimmunogenic. 68. Benign tumors can be rejected by the immune system. 69. Malignant tumors can be rejected by the immune system. 70. Promising results of therapeutic vaccinations in human tumors support the idea that tumor immunosurveillance is clinically beneficial.
Question I. Your British collaborators have asked you to help in characterizing the immune system of a novel strain of mice that were obtained from an unintended murine colonization of a secret cellar in Buckingham Palace containing a fresh daily supply of Queen Elizabeth II’s favorite beers. You find that macrophages of these mice surprisingly lack both CD14 and TLR 4, i.e., 2 entities critically involved in binding LPS. What phenotype (1-12) would you expect macrophages from these mice to display? Assess the twelve subsequent statements describing the hypothetical phenotypic characteristics of these unique macrophages as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false): 1. A reduced sensitivity to low levels of LPS, but an ability to respond to high levels of LPS. 2. A reduced sensitivity to unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides. 3. An increased sensitivity to unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides. 4. Heightened responses to viral infection due to increased activation of IRF (interferon regulatory factors) genes. 5. Diminished responses to viral infection due to decreased activation of IRF (interferon regulatory factors) genes. 6. A partial inability to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. 7. A total inability to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. 8. A complete failure to produce cytokines in response to LPS. 9. An increased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class I molecules. 10. A decreased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class I molecules. 11. An increased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class II molecules. 12. A decreased ability to present antigens in the context of MHC class II molecules. Question II. Table 1 shows the physical and biological characteristics of several different antigenic molecules. Table 1. The following characteristics are likely to be associated with augmenting a molecule’s potential to elicit a strong immune response [assess the following statements (13-18) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false) in the given context]: 13. Higher molecular weight and increased number of epitopes 14. Higher molecular weight and reduced number of epitopes 15. Lower molecular weight and increased number of epitopes 16. Lower molecular weight and reduced number of epitopes 17. Native forms of soluble molecules 18. Particulate forms of denatured molecules Question III. Primate Vg9Vd2 T lymphocytes recognize nonpeptidic products (phosphoantigens) of the mevalonate and DOXP pathways. This antigenic recognition requires presence of both the Vg9 and the Vd2 TCR chain and is present only (as far as we know) in Homo sapiens and non-human primates and completely absent, for example, in rodents. The scientific basis of this absence of phosphoantigenic recognition in rodents is unknown. Nevertheless, one can speculate that [complete the sentence and assess the hypothetic scenarios (19-26) as either incorrect (= false) or potentially factually correct (= true)]: 19. rodent gd T cells may be capable of recognizing phosphoantigens, but the phosphoantigenpresentation molecule may be missing in rodents. 20. only the memory phosphoantigen-specific gd T cells may be present in rodents, but not the effector phosphoantigen-specific gd T cells. 21. rodent phosphoantigen-reactive T lymphocytes may be deleted during negative selection in the thymus. 22. the absence of this interesting lymphocyte reactivity in rodents could be due to the possibility that the recognition of the given phosphoantigens is important for immunosurveillance against pathogens that do not infect rodents; hence this reactivity did not confer a survival advantage and was lost during the phylogenetic evolution. 23. rodent gd T cells may be capable of recognizing phosphoantigens, but the relevant co-stimulatory molecule may be missing in rodents. 24. rodent dendritic cells may not be able to process phosphoantigens. 25. rodents may be tolerant/unresponsive to phosphoantigens. 26. rodent phosphoantigen-reactive T lymphocytes may not be expanded during positive selection in the thymus. axb Question IV. After injecting MHC F1 bone marrow cells into an a irradiated MHC mouse, the bone marrow-derived T cells mature on a thymic epithelium expressing only MHC molecules (see the schematic picture on the left). Nonetheless, the resulting chimeric mice are b tolerant to skin grafts expressing MHC molecules (provided that these grafts do not present skin-specific peptides that differ between the strains a and b). These experimental results imply that [complete the sentence and assess each subsequent statement (27-33) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: 27. B cells play no role in the observed tolerance of skin grafts. 28. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by b MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 29. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by axb MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 30. the T cells whose receptors recognize self antigens presented by a MHC have been eliminated in the thymus. 31. bone marrow cells can induce positive selection, because the axb transplanted MHC F1 bone marrow cells are the only source of b MHC molecules in the thymus. 32. bone marrow-derived cells must be able to mediate negative axb selection, because the transplanted MHC F1 bone marrow cells are b the only source of MHC molecules in the thymus. 33. mast cells are not involved in the observed immunological phenomenon. Question V. Assess subsequent statements (34-53) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: The mechanism of hemolytic disease of the newborn after passively transferred antibodies from the mother react with the neonate's erythrocytes can be described as 34. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 35. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 36. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 37. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of inflammatory reaction in rheumatoid arthritis, in which rheumatoid factor (antibody to the immunoglobulin molecule)–antigen complexes are deposited in the joints can be described as 38. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 39. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 40. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 41. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis appearing two weeks after a streptococcal infection can be described as 42. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 43. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 44. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 45. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of granuloma formation associated with the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be described as 46. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 47. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 48. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 49. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism of contact dermatitis caused by nickel-containing jewelry can be described as 50. type I hypersensitivity reaction. 51. type II hypersensitivity reaction. 52. type III hypersensitivity reaction. 53. type IV hypersensitivity reaction. Question VI. You are designing immunotherapeutic agents to treat tuberculosis, a disease that is caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), which resides within endosomal vesicles of macrophages. Which of the following features of the immune response would you want your immunotherapeutic agent(s) to stimulate? Using your immunology knowledge, assess each statement (54-58) as either factually correct (true) or incorrect (false) in the context of the above-given description: 54. Production of acute phase proteins 55. Elevated levels of IFN-g production 56. Induction of TH1 cells 57. Elevated levels of macrophage microbicidal activities 58. Induction of TB-specific, CD8+ CTLs Question VII. Please, assess subsequent statements (59-70) as either factually correct (= true) or incorrect (= false)]: 59. Benign tumors can kill their hosts. 60. Benign tumors cannot kill their hosts. 61. Malignant tumors can kill their hosts. 62. Benign tumors are neoplasms. 63. Malignant tumors are neoplasms. 64. Malignant tumors are capable of uncontrolled growth. 65. Benign tumors are capable of uncontrolled growth. 66. Benign tumors are sometimes nonimmunogenic. 67. Malignant tumors are sometimes nonimmunogenic. 68. Benign tumors can be rejected by the immune system. 69. Malignant tumors can be rejected by the immune system. 70. Promising results of therapeutic vaccinations in human tumors support the idea that tumor immunosurveillance is clinically beneficial.

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