Critical Thinking - W1D1

timer Asked: May 4th, 2017

Question description

Critical Thinking

As future educators, we are preparing students for a future that we do not yet know. Their ability to think critically will almost wholly determine whether they fail or succeed. In a recent study noted in the article Academically Adrift, it was found that 45% of college students did not demonstrate any significant improvement in learning during their first two years and 36% fared similarly over four years. Another article published in The Chronicle of Higher Education, points out that a significant percentage of adults living at or below the poverty line have college degrees. Lastly, experts now hypothesize that a ‘bad’ neighborhood does not necessarily lead to a failed public school, but rather that a failing public school drags its neighborhood down with it. Given this, what does it mean to think critically and how will you model it in this course and foster it with your future students?

Academically Adrift -

Another Article -

**Chapter One and Example will be uploaded**

Critical Thinking Critical thinking as defined by Diane Halpern “is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. It is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed—the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions, when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task”(as cited by Schroyens, 2005, p. 163). The above definition is one of many that have been written to define critical thinking and for me it means to know how I think and how I can develop or improve my own metacognitive skills. Metacognition is the way in which I have taught myself or learned how I learn best. For example, starting a new class or a new week here at Ashford, I always plan how to tackle the week. I read the weekly overview and jot down the learning outcomes to have an idea of what I will be learning. I also learn what is expected of me to know in the discussions, journals, or assignments before I read the chapters. One important strategy I use when reading is to make sure that I have very few distractions and have soft music playing in the background. I know that for me half the time when I read something, I forget what I just read. So going back over what I have highlighted or jotted down on my pad of paper is extremely helpful in my comprehension. For my students, I will need to observe and learn how they learn best and deliver instruction to fit their learning needs as I teach them to learn how they think best. May seem like a daunting task, but well worth it as I have seen this is in action as the curriculum has changed and focuses on honing in on the students learning how to think critically. As for the article, it seems to imply that it is time for a hard look at the education system of higher education. The article states the following, “The main culprit for lack of academic progress of students, according to the authors, is a lack of rigor” (Jaschik, 2011). Then my question would be a lack of rigor from whom? What is the big picture? In another article titled “So, Students Don't Learn -- Now What?” that addresses the book Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses and its finding. Clearly states the following, “In general, students aren't studying enough; faculty members aren't demanding enough of students; administrators aren't paying attention to student learning outcomes; and the federal government isn't awarding grant money to figure out why students aren't learning, even as it calls for more completion” (Grasgreen, 2011). However, my thinking is that this was not a study done for all colleges and all students. So is it entirely accurate across the board for all. No, but it does convey that further attention and more research should be done to find out the whole picture and eliminate the opportunity for possibly biased information. References Grasgreen, A. (2011, January 19). So, Students Don't Learn -- Now What? Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed: ys_college_students_aren_t_learning Jaschik, S. (2011, January 18). Academically adrift. Retrieved from Inside Higher Ed: e_students_don_t_learn_much Schroyens, W. (2005). Review of Knowledge and Thought: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. Experimental Psychology, 52(2), 163-164. doi:10.1027/1618-3169.52.2.163
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 How the Brain Works "The brain is a monstrous, beautiful mess. Its billions of nerve cells—called neurons—lie in a tangled web that displays cognitive powers far exceeding any of the silicon machines we have built to mimic it."—William F. Allman We have to consider that the brain and its capacity to recall events and learn are nothing short of a wonder. To understand what we know about learning, it is important to understand how the brain works. The Brain Itself iStockphoto/Thinkstock The four lobes of the brain: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. Each lobe has its unique role, but they all work together to make us function. Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE The brain is a highly complex system. It is divided into three main areas: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Most of what we have learned in school was taught to us through our forebrain, the thinking part of the brain. The forebrain, which is where the cerebral cortex is located, is where most of the learning processes are done. The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that is responsible for thought, perception, and memory. It is also where many of the motor functions, social abilities, languages, and problem-solving abilities are developed. The cortex is divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the occipital lobe. The connections between these structures number in the billions and allow them to communicate. Each lobe is associated with certain processes and functions, as seen in Table 1.1. The frontal lobe • Motor Functions • Personality Expression • Planning • Reasoning • Judgment • Impulse Control • Memory Table 1.1: The Four Lobes of the Brain The temporal lobe The parietal lobe • Auditory • Cognition Perception • Information • Memory Processing • Speech • Pain and Touch • Emotional Sensation Responses • Spatial • Visual Orientation Perception • Speech • Visual Perception The occipital lobe • Visual Perception • Color Recognition The Brain and the Classroom The brain is the thinking and learning organ, and it is important for every teacher to understand how the knowledge of the brain is applied to the classroom, applied to teaching, and applied to learning. Students' cognition will vary depending on their individual life experience, biology, and environment. A classroom with learners at a variety of developmental stages means the teacher must provide a variety of instruction. Research shows that the brain needs something novel, something different and special to be ready to learn and engage (Jensen, 2005). Engagement and learning take place because the brain is sensing something new and interesting. This excitement is translated into a reason to pay attention. There are many reasons to pay attention, but some of the best reasoning comes from challenging situations. When teachers pose challenging situations, students will find they are attracted to things that make them think. The challenge then becomes that of choice and active exploration. Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Comstock/Thinkstock Understanding the needs of your students is key to fostering a healthy student–teacher relationship. How would you build relationships in your classroom? Children start their early elementary years with a desire to engage in active exploration, which is where learning takes place through interaction with people, ideas, and events. This interaction helps create a new understanding and desire to learn (Hohmann & Weikart, 1995). This desire must be facilitated for students to gain understanding about the world around them. The brain is ready for problem solving, learning to read, solving mathematical equations, and writing. This means the teacher must provide developmentally appropriate strategies that meet the needs of a diverse student population. The following are strategies teachers can take to make their classroom engaging. • Anchor learning: In anchor learning, learning is contextualized and provides students with a realistic role that enhances the transfer of knowledge. The term anchor in neurolinguistic programming is the "stimulus or stimuli that elicit a reflex response" (Dilts, 1983). In this strategy, a teacher helps students anchor their learning through active processes. This can include note taking for older students or the use of repetitive Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE • • verbal responses for younger students. This and other learning strategies will be covered in Chapter 3. Flexible environment: The classroom provides an environment that is rich in sensory data. Students of different learning modalities should have avenues to relate their sensory experience to their learning. This environment should be flexible enough to reach students as their learning styles develop. Assessment of learning: Assessment should trigger critical thinking in addition to activating recall. By adding reflective assessment to traditional formative and summative assessment, students will be given an opportunity to make connections while retrieving information. We will cover assessments in more detail in Chapter 4. Video Analysis: Engagement Application: Student Engagement With so many variables, it's not surprising that every student's mind is developing at its own pace along its own dynamic path. Between individual personality and physical development, individual students learn in their own way; whether relying on their highly developed frontal lobe or making up for an underdeveloped occipital lobe, each student will experience learning uniquely. This can be seen through the following example of a classroom filled with a small but diverse student population. At reading time, 10 students break into their "book clubs." April, Dan, and Brooke move to the front of the classroom together unsupervised. LeAnne, Joey, and Carlos sit in a circle with the teacher, while Andrew, Danielle, Molly, and Becca join a reading specialist at the arts and crafts table. A superficial glance shows students in the same developmental stage grouped together to perform the task of reading aloud and answering questions. However, a closer look quickly unveils the truth; it becomes clear that "the same developmental stage" is a fallacy. Dan and April are arguing over the first question and cannot see eye to eye. April understands plot but cannot conceptualize theme. Dan is incapable of verbally explaining it. Their raised voices upset Brooke, and she is on the verge of tears. LeAnne and Carlos are making eye contact with their teacher as he carefully explains the idea of personification. Joey, however, is daydreaming about his future as a rock-'n-roll guitarist. LeAnne's mind is wandering, too, because she already understands the concept. Carlos is trying hard to focus. In the back of the classroom, Andrew, Danielle, and Becca are drawing portraits of characters while Molly reads aloud. Molly is glad that she doesn't have to draw today; Andrew is angry that it's not his turn to read. Through identification of each student's current cognitive, social, emotional, and physical status, the day's lessons can be tailored to enhance learning and maintain engagement. The teacher can provide an environment for his students' individual success through a few changes. Dan and April would benefit from the presence of a "comprehension translator." By shelving the argument and bringing their mutual knowledge to common ground, they may begin to work together to bridge the comprehension divide. Perhaps, then, poor Brooke could get a word in edgewise. Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Imagine how engaged LeAnne would become if she were asked to explain personification to Carlos and Joey. LeAnne's learning would be reinforced; Joey may be more likely to listen to the fresh voice of a peer over the familiar sounds of his teacher. LeAnne may also be more apt to ask Carlos for input, bringing him out of his shell. Finally, Andrew, Danielle, Molly, and Becca could be challenged to activate new parts of their brains. The brain needs something novel, something different, to learn and engage (Jensen, 2005). Utilizing new parts of the brain creates new methods for learning as neurons that "fire together are wired together" (Wesson, 2003). Neurons are the electrically excitable cells that transmit information by electrical and chemical signals. Providing struggling students with new experiential opportunities that get their neurons working can lead to discovery and development of new individual learning methods. In each case, a new individualized experience can lead to better overall learning. This should be an everyday event for students. The brain's neurons are forming cross-lobe junctions, and with repetition of experience, strong connections can be made (Jensen, 2005). This is the foundation for the lifelong ability to learn. Case Study: Angel Rodriguez Part One Angel Rodriguez has been teaching fifth grade for 6 years. He considers himself an enlightened teacher. Colleagues often remark on his classroom-management skills, his ability to relate to all learners, and his drive to know what each learner knows and is able to do. Mr. Rodriguez credits most of his teaching ability to his understanding of how students learn. Each day before class, he prepares for his learners by reflecting on his own teaching practice. As the students enter the room, he asks them to stand and repeat the phrase, "I am here today as an active participant and learner. I will do my very best to collaborate with my peers, give my personal best, and discover new knowledge. Today is a great day to learn something new." 1. Why does Mr. Rodriguez credit his teaching ability to understanding how students learn? 2. What possible benefits come from daily reflection on teaching practice? 3. How does Mr. Rodriguez's use of a daily mantra relate to verbal anchoring? What is its effect? Part Two After direct instruction, Mr. Rodriguez asks students to get into groups. Mr. Rodriguez provides avenues through group work to tap into the individual modalities of learners. He assigns roles to each group member as follows: a speaker, a note taker/visual aid analyst, a public relations reporter, and a timekeeper. 1. How does group work help create a flexible environment and serve as an avenue to tap into students' learning modalities? Part Three Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE After group work, Mr. Rodriguez asks students to return to their seats and answer three questions from the lesson on an exit slip before being excused to lunch. After lunch, he meets with individual students while the rest of the class is reading silently. During the meetings, Mr. Rodriguez works with each individual student and reviews their completed exit slip to determine which concepts were understood and why. He then helps any struggling student understand the concepts. 1. Besides the exit slip, what other informal assessment strategy could be used to identify what students know and are able to do? 2. How is Mr. Rodriguez creating a personalized learning experience? 1.2 Cognitive and Social Development In the case study from Section 1.1, Mr. Rodriguez had to understand how the brain worked to understand his students. Not only that, but he also had to understand how each of his students developed both cognitively and socially. The following three theories within the field of cognitive and social development have helped him understand how students learn. Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Polka Dot/Thinkstock Every learner is different. Knowing more about how students learn will help you determine what is best for individuals in your classroom. 1. Maturationist theory. Based on the work of Arnold Gesell (1880–1961), who believed that children would be developmentally ready for school when they were biologically ready, and the developmental process would occur in stages. This theory instructs educators and parents to rely on the idea that children will acquire knowledge as they mature (Demarest et al., 1993). 2. Environmentalist theory. Coined by John Watson (1878–1958), B. F. Skinner (1904– 1990), and Albert Bandura (born 1925), this theory states that learning takes shape based on stimuli from the child's environment. Environmentalists believe that children who respond well to the classroom environment are developmentally ready to learn. 3. Constructivist theory. Developed by Jean Piaget (1896–1980), Maria Montessori (1870–1952), and Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934), this theory believes that learning takes place from interaction between experiences and previously held ideas. In other words, students are not a blank slate to be written upon by a single influencing factor, but they are thinking machines that can build new knowledge by combining experiences and previously understood ideas. These theories should provide a foundation for any teacher, and according to these theories, if the students come to school ready to learn, are provided the environment in which learning could take place, and are allowed to make meaning for themselves, they will indeed learn. However, not all students come ready to learn. They come to school with varied experiences and therefore are at varying cognitive and social levels. Each person carries their identity and experiences through life. This is true for children as well as adults. This cognitive and social baggage includes influences from the home environment, existential and identity perceptions, natural abilities, and much more. A child's backpack often carries these in addition to schoolwork and lunch. In fact, the analogy of a backpack can be used to look at social and cognitive concerns. Just as you can see the concrete ideas contained in the backpack, you can also be aware of the cognitive and social items and the heavy load each student is carrying with them—things such as family and culture as well as individual goals, aspirations, values, and expectations (Hill & Chao, 2009). Teachers must acknowledge these concerns and understand how they affect learning to help students unpack baggage and utilize the contents to their advantage. Video Analysis: Transforming Education — Part 1 Application: Cognitive and Social Baggage Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Digital Vision/Thinkstock As a teacher, you will learn strategies to help you assess your students' cognitive and social baggage. Why is this important? It is the role of the educator to recognize that children come to school with vast differences in social and cognitive development. From this understanding, we can develop a sense of what is in each child's "backpack." The following list is comprised of strategies that can help a teacher deal with different cognitive and social baggage: 1. Develop relationships: The teacher's job is to find out what individual students have in their backpacks and what makes them who they are. Through interpersonal relationships, teachers become more aware of individual student needs. By employing relationships in a classroom, you not only personally show the students how much you care, but you also allow them the opportunity to open their hearts and minds to learning. 2. Effectively communicate: By effectively communicating with students, both verbally and nonverbally, you set the tone for a learning environment that is open to new thoughts and ideas, which in turn fosters personalized learning. Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE 3. Be consistent: Consistency in your actions and reactions will familiarize students with who you are as an educator. Consistency provides students with something they can count on each and every day. Teachers should be encouraged to use the tool of consistency as a way to develop relationships. 4. Check your ego at the door: When teachers "check their ego at the door," they become actively engaged in the real education that takes place in the classroom. When teachers lose themselves in the passion of helping students, they can lead by example and be the type of mentor who shows students that we are all human and are afforded the luxury of not having to be perfect. Case Study: Maly Seng Consider social development theories, cognitive development, and what you learned about the baggage children carry with them to school as you examine the following case study. Part One Maly Seng is a third-grade student at a small middle school in a rural town. She has been in the same small town since her family emigrated from Cambodia when she was 5 years old. Two days after her arrival in America, Maly started kindergarten. While the other students had developed friendships in the small community prior to the start of school, Maly knew no one. When her kindergarten teacher, Ms. Davis, asked the class to gather at the rug, Maly refused to move or make eye contact with Ms. Davis. 1. What do you think Ms. Davis will need to consider in regard to Maly's reaction? 2. What sociocultural baggage could Maly be carrying? 3. How should Ms. Davis unpack the baggage and advantageously utilize the content? Part Two By the time Maly entered third grade, she had gained confidence in her abilities and had adapted her sociocultural behaviors to achieve success in her new environment. Maly was nominated by her third-grade teacher, Mr. Acton, to attend Kennedy Space Camp. The application for camp provided an option for full scholarship dependent on student need as detailed in a personal reflection essay. While Maly was excited about the opportunity, she declined the nomination. Although Mr. Acton was firm in his belief that Maly was more than capable of excelling at space camp and producing an essay that would qualify her for the full scholarship, Maly was not so sure. The prospect of competing with students from across the country was daunting; she struggled to complete her writing assignments in class and did not want to disappoint her family or Mr. Acton. 1. What do you think Mr. Acton will need to take into consideration in regards to Maly's reaction? 2. What perceptions does Maly carry in her backpack? 3. How could Mr. Acton build on Maly's educational experiences to change her selfperception? Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE 1.3 Generations and Learning in the 21st Century Teachers, as well as a plethora of people in other service-related fields, have spent an amazing amount of time figuring out how to appeal to our current generation and those to come. Students, like all people, can be defined by the era in which they mature and carry these lessons forward in their collective attitudes and behaviors (Howe & Strauss, 2000). Educators need to acknowledge that those attitudes and behaviors impact learning. Look at Table 1.2 and compare the differences between the Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials. Birth Years Influencers Education Work Ethic Technology View of Authority Feedback and Rewards Table 1.2: Generational Differences Chart Baby Boomers Generation X 1946–1964 1965–1980 Civil Rights; Vietnam Watergate; energy crisis; dualWar; Sexual Revolution; income families and single Cold War/Russia; space parents; first generation of travel latchkey kids; Y2K; activism; corporate downsizing; end of Cold War; increased divorce rate A birthright A way to get there Driven Balance Workaholic, 60-hour Work smarter and with greater workweeks output, not work longer hours. Work to establish selfSelf-reliant worth Want structure and direction Quality Acquired Assimilated Originally skeptical of Skeptical of authority figures authority but are Will test authority repeatedly becoming similar to traditionalists—time equals authority Feel rewarded by money Not enamored of public and will often display all recognition awards, certificates, and Want to be rewarded with letters of appreciation for time off public view Prefer regular feedback on Like praise their work Title recognition Need constructive feedback to Enjoy public recognition be more effective Appreciate awards for Are self-sufficient Millennials 1981–2000 Digital media; childfocused world; school An incredible expense Ambitious What's next? Multitasking Tenacity Entrepreneurial Integral Will test authority but often seek out authority figures when looking for guidance Like to be given feedback often, and they will ask for it often Meaningful work Want clear goals and expectations Want recognition for Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE their hard work and the long hours they work Source: their heroes, bosses, and grandparents Fuse/Thinkstock The Net Generation consists of digital natives who use technology both inside and outside the classroom. What are the benefits of tech-savvy learners? The drawbacks? The Net Generation is the generation to which the majority of students currently in our schools belong. They are by definition the digital natives as they have grown up with computers as the norm; they are true 21st-century learners and will be in our schooling systems well into the future. This means that we must begin to think about what learning looks like for this generation and prepare ourselves for the subsequent years of schooling that we, as teachers, will be sharing with them. The Net Generation does not just expect computers to be in the classroom as a learning aid; rather they require them as a source of current information. Table 1.3 briefly describes members of this generation and how they operate as learners, what they need, and what educators need to know about them. Table 1.3: The Net Generation Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Net Generation Needs What Educators Need to Know Facilitation The Net Generation has had information at their fingertips their whole lives; they need to see teachers as facilitators of knowledge and helpers to discern fact from fiction Lifelong learning This generation believes that there is always something to learn A world without They expect to be globally connected; because of e-mail and social boundaries networking sites, students have been communicating worldwide They live in "real time" These students are used to learning in real time; history is what happened a few minutes ago, not centuries ago To be the expert Net Generation students need to provide opportunities to show what they know Value their parents and They connect parents to the school perceive them as cool To embrace technology They will try anything and eagerly anticipate new technological advances Independence The Net Generation spends a lot of time alone surfing the Net, looking for knowledge, and playing video games among other things Source: Tapscott, 2008. Video Analysis: Transforming Education — Part 2 Application: Net Generation Chart Use information from the text, from the video case study, from information on the Internet, or information from library research to fill out the Net Generation column in Table 1.4. Focus on the role of the teacher as a facilitator. Table 1.4: Generational Differences Chart: The Net Generation Baby Boomers Birth Years Influencers 1946–1964 Civil Rights; Vietnam War; Sexual Revolution; Cold War/Russia; Space travel Generation X 1965–1980 Watergate; energy crisis; dual-income families and single parents; first generation of latchkey kids; Y2K; activism; corporate downsizing; end of Millennials 1981–2000 Digital media; childfocused world; school Net Generation 2001+ Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Cold War; increased divorce rate Thoughts on A birthright A way to get there An incredible Education expense Work Ethic Driven Balance Ambitious Workaholic, 60-hour Work smarter and What's next? workweeks with greater output, Multitasking Work to establish not work longer Tenacity self-worth hours Entrepreneurial Quality Self-reliant Want structure and direction Technology Acquired Assimilated Integral View of Originally skeptical Skeptical of authority Will test authority Authority of authority but are figures Will test but often seek out becoming similar to authority repeatedly authority figures traditionalists—Time when looking for equals authority guidance Feedback and Feel rewarded by Not enamored of Like to be given Rewards money and will often public recognition feedback often, and display all awards, Want to be rewarded they will ask for it certificates, and with time off often letters of Prefer regular Meaningful work appreciation for feedback on their Want clear goals and public view work expectations Like praise Need constructive Want recognition for Title recognition feedback to be more their heroes, bosses, Enjoy public effective Are selfand grandparents recognition sufficient Appreciate awards for their hard work and the long hours they work Case Study: Brayden Browne Consider the information that you learned about Net Generation as you examine the following case study. Brayden Browne is a 17-year-old boy just starting his junior year in high school. His parents have spent a great deal of time making sure they provided him with a safe, secure, and full life. They are, however, worried about Brayden's future especially since his plans after high school seem to be only surfing and freedom. Coincidentally, Brayden's home-room teacher has started Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE discussions on college planning with the students. Brayden and many of his classmates exclaim that they do want to attend college, but feel they need to speak to their guidance counselors, their teachers, and their parents in order to plan their futures. The teacher understands her students' needs and begins by giving the students different pamphlets from colleges and trying to lead discussions with the students on what they want for their future. Mr. and Mrs. Browne also decide to speak to Brayden's school counselor to find out what they should do to aid Brayden in the rest of the college planning process. The school counselor explains that as parents, they should take on the role of "facilitator" for this process; by doing so, Brayden would not only become a budding leader, but he would gain a skill set necessary for him to survive in college on his own. He went on to give Mr. and Mrs. Browne tips on how to develop Brayden's capacity for leadership and willingness to recognize that his future is ultimately his to care about. Tip One: Attend a college fair; this will give Brayden an idea about what types of colleges are available and what type of college he might be interested in. Tip Two: Provide him a structured "to-do list" that forces him to research and provide input and then for accountability have a specific time when you go over the list and talk about the completion of items. 1. Why do you think Brayden and his classmates are relying so heavily on authority figures to help plan their college future? 2. What role was the home-room teacher playing when she lead the discussions? What role does his guidance counselor play? What about his parents? 3. If you were Brayden's home-room teacher, what type of role would you play to help the students work through this process? 4. How does the role of facilitator help a Net Generation student to hone his or her capacity for leaderships? 5. Do you think the strategy and tips the school counselor offered Mr. and Mrs. Browne are good ones? Why or why not? What other tips would you add to the list? Chapter 1 Summary Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE iStockphoto/Thinkstock How will you create a learning theory that fits the needs of today's tech-savvy students? . Learning is a complex process that develops differently for each student. The brain, the environment, and many other factors and experiences influence the way learning occurs. It is the teacher, as facilitator, who must provide learning opportunities flexible enough to reach each individual student in a meaningful way. As this chapter closes, consider the history and foundation of education taught in your previous teacher education courses concerning the institution as a construct. Reflect upon the environment, the methods of instruction, and other factors and theories that have been implemented to improve student learning. Think about all we now know and are learning each day about the brain, developmental stages, the process of learning, generational influences, and the impact of nutrition, culture, society, medicine, and environment on education. Ask yourself: • • • Are learning theories outdated or do they still provide the building blocks for instruction? Is it time to abandon the old theories or should we use them as the foundation for new and expanded theories? Will you need to revise your personal philosophy of education? Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. CHAPTER ONE Taking everything into consideration, craft a learning theory that would better suit current classroom environments. Refer to this theory often as you continue in your teacher education learning experience. "You can teach a student a lesson for a day; but if you can teach him to learn by creating curiosity, he will continue the learning process as long as he lives."—Clay P. Bedford Kajitani, A., Lehew, E., Lopez, D., Wahab, N., & Walton, N. (2012). The final step: A capstone in education. A. Shean (Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

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