Peer Review Paper

timer Asked: Jun 2nd, 2017

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I need a peer review paper. One paper of 350 words, no double space. The research paper is attached.

Table of Contents MNE OVERVIEW AND KEY STRATEGIC BACKGROUND 1 STRATEGY TRIPOD PART ONE: INDUSTRY CONDITIONS (OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS) 3 STRATEGY TRIPOD PART TWO: INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES (STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES) 5 STRATEGY TRIPOD PART THREE: INSTITUTIONAL AND CULTURAL CONDITIONS 6 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INTERNATIONALIZING THE FIRM 7 INTERNATIONALIZATION: WHERE, WHEN, WHY, AND HOW 8 INTERNATIONALIZATION: STRATEGY, STRUCTURE, AND LEARNING 10 STRATEGIZING GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 11 REFERENCE: 13 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam MNE Overview and Key Strategic Background Nike is an American based company that is a global leader in the footwear industry. The Corporation develops designs and promotes athletic apparel, footwear, accessories, and sports equipment. The company was founded in 1962 under the name Blue Ribbon Sport but later was changed to, Nike in 1978; Mark Parker is the current CEO and President of the corporation, Nike (Larson, 2011). The corporation’s foremost commercial activity is the development, design, and international promotion of excellent sport accessory products including their main production, footwear. Most of Nike's products are manufactured by independent contractors mostly outside the United States (footwear); other products like the apparels are manufactured also abroad as well as in the United States (Locke et al., 2007). The designs of the Nike footwear are precisely for use in the athletics, employing significant importance on the high-quality manufacture and original designs. Nevertheless, most individuals purchase the products for the leisure and casual purposes. The corporation manufactures, promotes and sells an extensive range of products, they include footwear for basketball, running, cross training, and for all types of people. All their products are presently on the most bought products list (Larson, 2011). The corporation also markets footwear for outdoor activities like golf, tennis, bicycling, auto racing and soccer, among many other recreational activities. The Nike brand also has much other performance equipment under their production branding; they consist of timepieces, sports balls, bats and skates among others. The company also vends accessories for women, men, and children including a line of dresses. These are under a fully owned company subsidiary brand, ‘Cole Haan Holdings Incorporated’. The corporation promotes other products like headwear that are registered under another subsidiary also fully owned by Nike, ‘Nike Team Sports’. The company has also diversified to the selling of several plastic products to other producers via the ‘Nike IHM, Inc.’ that is also fully owned by the Nike Corporation (Larson, 2011). In the past years, the corporation has been able to beat the predicted revenue and earnings estimates. Conversely, the stock price has reduced by a significant 20% since 2016 August high (Grant, 2016). The corporation has lately been hit with augmented competition from a growing Adidas corporation their major rivals in the global footwear industry and is under huge pressure from Under Armour Company in its basketball company section in the North America market. This has influenced negatively the corporation’s revenue development over the last 1 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam several quarters. The future products orders in the several years were less than the anticipated year over year. This has significantly influenced the stockholder's sentiment. Overall, the company the despite being the market leader is facing a tough competition from rivals (Doorey, 2011). Nike sells their products to more than 20,000 sales facilities in the United States and in about 160 countries globally. Nike operates more than twenty-one distribution facilities worldwide in all the continents. They have their headquarters in Oregon, United States. The corporation had more than 70,700 workers by end of 2016, with total global revenue of $33 billion. The corporation has arrangements with the Internet based corporation and affiliates. Nike, Inc. has numerous retail channels around the globe, comprising of their renowned "NIKETOWN" that are positioned in major global cities. The "NIKETOWN" provides the consumers with an educative experience concerning the corporation’s objectives and strategies for their products (Grant, 2016). Nike has established a customer-centric strategy, pioneering products, and vigorous assortment; these makes Nike Inc. maintain a leading spot in the athletic apparel and footwear industry. In addition, the corporation seeks prospects for growing its international existence and market share through massive procurements, agreements to supply sports-associated collections, along with the expansion of its recent direct-to-consumer and e-Commerce corporate model (Morgan et al., 2009). The corporation’s strong assortment of internationally accepted brands such as NIKE and Converse among others, combined with its emphasis on innovation have additionally reinforced its market leadership position. Other strategic initiatives include market development, diversification, product development and market penetration. Under Armour is the United States based Sportswear Company, they have a great brand assessment due to their great sales in the United States market, and they have a brand value of four billion dollars. Under Armour, provide the official uniforms for the American basketball, football, and Soccer. Besides this, they have an extensive product assortment encompassing Tshirts, athletic shoes, pants, sports protective gear and hoodies among others. They have a premium brand image as well as being present in 50 countries. They give Nike the biggest completion in mostly North America. Adidas provides global competition to Nike. Currently, Nike is losing the market share to the corporation; the brand has company its position and appears on revitalization. The general Adidas brand contends closely and straightly with Nike's value strategy. They have a global revenue of $16billion. One of the most significant benefits of Adidas is that it functions 2 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam through two strong brands namely Reebok which is a subsidiary and the main Adidas brand. The mixture of both brands gives a robust valuation to the corporation as a main global competitor of Nike. Adidas competes with Nike in all its accessories including clothing, sports apparels and footwear (Morgan et al., 2009). Strategy Tripod Part One: Industry Conditions (Opportunities and Threats) Nike’s extensive growth in the first quarter of 2017 is attributed to the robust performances in its global markets. Greater China and Japan territories performed the best and documented a revenue growth of 14% and 26% year-over-year (YoY), correspondingly. In the year 2015, the Western Europe recorded Nike's income from the footwear section that summed to $3.88 billion. Western Europe made it to be the second biggest market for Nike's footwear section after North America. The $5.88 billion produced in Western Europe, added to the corporation’s international revenue amounting to $32.38 billion in the year 2016 (Verbeke, 2013). In 2015, Nike's income in Central and Eastern Europe from the footwear section amounted to approximately $827 million. In the same year, the corporation’s revenue in the Greater China amounted to about $2.02 billion and $2.64 billion in emerging markets. Numerous factors affect the global functionality of Nike. They include Political factors that factor the foreign government laws and policies concerning the locations of different nations and area economies. For instance, the EU has protocols that warrant privileged trade management for member nations. The Economic factors also greatly affect the industry; the economic growth rates affect the levels of demand for the Nike products in the global markets. Nevertheless, rates of economic growth may vary from one country to another. For instance, during the Eurozone debt crisis in 2011, decelerated growth in many European nations economically was experienced as contrasting to other global nations. Environmental factors are also critical to the strategic development of the corporation’s strategies. Different nations have different terrains and climate systems hence their attire differ (Doorey, 2011). Technological Factors affect the MNE’s greatly; the technological framework and technical capabilities define the affluence of Nike Corporation in the host nations. Dynamics such as internet connectivity and training capabilities become indispensable elements of prosperous processes in the contemporary business industries (Doorey, 2011). Furthermore, the advancements of technological growths in a specific nation define the range of technical accepting among its residents. Social Factors also influence different international markets, the demographic aspects like culture and religion influence the quality, types and demand 3 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam intensities of Nike’s products in the different global markets. Cultures attribute diverse implications to attitudes, objects, color, and time. Hence, Nike management must have the capability of interpreting and comprehending changeable ethnic indications and forms that are distinctive of the global business setting (Locke et al., 2007). Nikes product development, this is the main competitiveness function of the corporation and it entails key thorough growth strategy. This intensive approach encompasses the development of new products in the market to enhance the sales revenues. The products maintain their attractiveness consumer preferences variations (Verbeke, 2013). Therefore, this intensive approach encourages the corporation’s diversity universal competitive strategy through the product revolution. Market Penetration where the company develops by growing their sales incomes in the existing markets. For instance, Nike creates more retailers and stores in the United States to sells more products to the American consumer. The price control generic competitive approach enables the corporation to enter markets because of the affordability of the products. A tactical approach related to market penetration is to grow the corporation’s market existence by growing accredited retailers (Morgan et al., 2009). For Nike to be successful in the industry, they must perform the market Development. This approach enables the corporation’s development by pursuing the venturing into new markets or gaining more market sections. For instance, the corporation ventures into new markets in the Middle East to capture a new section of consumers due to recent developments. Together with the product development, Nike employs the market development through development approach by advancing their technologies to enter new market sections. A considered financial aim under this rigorous growth approach is to escalate Nike’s productivity through venturing into developing markets like in Africa. Diversification of the product portfolio also puts Nike in a strategic fit. This tactic encompasses developing new productions to attain the corporation’s growth. Nike employed this thorough approach in its formative years, such as when it started manufacturing other products such as apparel and sports equipment (Larson, 2011). Originally, they only dealt with footwear. The diversification has reinforced the corporation’s general competitive approach of differentiation through innovative dealings that source resources for product innovation in the industry. 4 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam Strategy Tripod Part Two: International Resources and Capabilities (Strengths and Weaknesses) Value, Nike’s has the capabilities and resources to support it in reacting to environmental opportunities and threats. The considerable vertically integrated format that the corporation has implemented has permitted them to follow very new markets as the first (e.g. Cole Haan) or come into established markets and manage to beat the competition due to their superior products. Using their advanced knowledge base, the corporation can use their capabilities and resources to reach many market prospects. Rarity, Nike’s capability to reinvent and invent their full product assortment for superiority is incomparable in the industry. Some companies may do better in some sections but Nike’s capabilities and resources enable the corporation to move in promptly to manufacture enhanced products than the competitive company’s effort at competitive equivalence. Imitability, the inventiveness of Nike’s products encompasses true and tried understanding established based on wide-ranging development and research labs contained within the corporation that is very costly to duplicate. Even though a competitor may effectively imitate Nike, they must go through the market dominance in terms of perception that Nike has over the consumers in the industry (Verbeke, 2013). The organization, the corporation’s leadership has structured the corporation in the manner that is naturally innovative with a reliable production of supporting profitable outcomes within the industry. Constant competitive advantages will carry on if the corporation implements the effective organization (Locke et al., 2007). Assessing Nike’s financial resources, the corporation has had a constant growth in its shares and the fact that the corporation has lately publicized a stock re-acquisition program, there is a conclusion that the corporation has enough resources for the projected future growth. This is through the development approaches, procurements, technology enhancements, and product expansion (Larson, 2011). Even though numerous profitable corporations are in the industry, none has the same economic and financial power as Nike. It is very difficult for the competitors as well as the new entrants in the market to build up and imitate a financial environment that is so healthy. The corporation also has a very strong supply chain that has enabled it to beat existing corporations in new markets such as Asia. It enables the corporation to enjoy huge profitability as well as market leading margins (Morgan et al., 2009). The company should be more centered in the production of their innovative products in a greener way. More individuals are starting to purchase products not based solely on their quality but also based on the method of production. Most footwear is made using processes 5 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam that lead to carbon being emitted to the atmosphere, this leads to subsequent global warming that is a modern-day issue being faced. New markets are also emerging and Nike needs to capture the population before their competitors get there first. This will increase their future sustainability and enable them to sustain their global leadership status quo beating the upcoming competition (Verbeke, 2013). The outsourcing methodology has been the driving success factor for Nike, hence growing it to a billion-dollar corporation currently. Outsourcing has also made Nike a global leader in the footwear industry. The corporation is currently to numerous countries comprising of Philippines, Vietnam, China, Indonesia and Taiwan among others. The process will cut the costs that may have been associated with the processes by reducing their budget, this will save production costs hence causing them to sell the products at a lower competitive price. They are also able to evade some taxes that are imposed in the United States and reduce the risks involved in the production processes (Andreff, 2009). Strategy Tripod Part Three: Institutional and Cultural Conditions The Informal institutions are customs, religious beliefs, moral values, and traditions, as well as other customs of behavior that have, are classic. The Informal institutions develop rules of the game often named the ancient ethos, among others. They represent the society’s predominant opinions about the Nike products and all the products in the industry, the collective understanding of the history, and a contemporary set of standards. Many people believe in the superiority of the Nike products hence giving them a huge competitive advantage over the competitors worldwide (Verbeke, 2013). The formal institutions include the statutes, constitutions and other administrative protocols. They regulate the political system, the economic system, and the implementation system. Governmental establishments administer the formal rules through sanctions like fines. When the corporation is venturing into a foreign market, it is subject to the countries guidelines of launching a business. Each nation has discrete rules on how to control the entry of new companies. The development of new firms requires money, time as well as start-up techniques (Larson, 2011). The precise amount will vary extensively. New establishments must go with definite start-up processes for the establishment of their business. The measures differ across nations, but typically include attaining verifications, licenses, permits, and statements to begin the operations. The power distance in the United States is 40, it is well-defined as the degree to which the members of the society who are powerful accept and expect that power is disseminated 6 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam unevenly. It also deals with the circumstance that the followers as much as by the leaders endorse a society’s inequality. Individualism has a huge score of 91, in the individualist civilization’s individuals are only made to look after their family and themselves. In the opposite societies, individuals fit into groups according to loyalties. The masculinity is 62, and this is clearly identified in the characteristic American interactive patterns. The mixture of a high Masculinity determination combined with the high Individualism can expound this. The citizens show individual masculinity. The uncertainty avoidance is low being 46; there is a good acceptance of innovative ideas in the market and the drive to try new things among the citizens. The long-term orientation is very low, they scrutinize new information to determine their truth, and they measure the performance of their companies on a short basis. The indulgence score is 68, this implies that most Americans work hard and spend time having fun. The greatest concern is the institutional distance between the domestic country that is the United States and the other countries. There is a huge dissimilarity between the different countries hence leading to huge changes to be made whenever the corporation wants to venture into a new market (Larson, 2011). The corporation should strive to venture into more markets that are international; they should conduct thorough research on these markets to determine the suitability of establishing stores and the acceptability of their products by the citizens of the country. The informal institution makes the basis for acceptance by the citizens, making attires that are suitable for a culture or according to the host country religious beliefs. They should also make sure that they go through the right formal institutions to ensure that they are legal and that the country governance is on their side. This will boost their productivity in the future and help them avoid possible clashes with the administration that may lead to expensive lawsuits (Verbeke, 2013). Entrepreneurship and Internationalizing the Firm Price, Nike uses the vertical integration technique in their pricing where they own contributors at divergent network stages or involve in more than a single channel level process. This is also an effort to regulate the prices and inspire the pricing practices. Nike’s value is intended to be reasonable to the other competitors in the industry. The pricing is established upon exceptional section as target consumers. Nike brand directs very extraordinary dividends. Place, Nike products are supported by stores, retails that are branded differently, and the highclass Nike stores all over the world. They vend the products all over the world. In the global markets, Nike sells their products through self-regulating licensees, subsidiaries, and distributors (Locke et al., 2007). 7 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam Promotion, Nike has contracted celebrated sports persons to generate a boundless deal of responsiveness to their products. They include top footballers like Cristiano Ronaldo among others. Websites are a pronounced advertising contrivance as they take into consideration events consisting of Hoop it up among others. Products, the corporation has a huge assortment of products including footwear, sports equipment, and apparel. This mix has enabled them to capture the attention on numerous users all over the world who purchase their products despite the costs imposed (Verbeke, 2013). The importance and role of the market are very significant for the growth of the entrepreneurship. The fact is that the perspective of the market institutes the foremost determining factor of possible recompenses from entrepreneurial purpose. The composition and size of the market both affect entrepreneurship in the different methods. Social factors can also inspire entrepreneurship. A connected feature to these is the assertiveness of the society in a location towards entrepreneurship. Certain cultures inspire novelty and innovation and thus support entrepreneurs’ activities and payments like incomes (Grant, 2016). Other societies do not by any way support variations and in such conditions, there is very little growth in entrepreneurship. Internationalization: Where, When, Why, and How Nike has overwhelming resources from institution-based view; ethics is one of the informal institutions. Currently, supportable products are very significant. Different governments make the citizens conscious of sustainability and consequently, it becomes more significant for individuals in their selections for products daily. This is a chance for Nike Inc. They could manufacture footwear that is sustainable. Another informal institution is culture; individuals take celebrities they like from their culture as a model. Therefore, Nike hired well-known individuals in the sports industry to be representatives in their promotions. Nike Corporation is known to contract people like Ronaldinho and Mike Jordan (Doorey, 2011). Additional prospect for Nike could be that the media and the government are supportive of different sports that they sponsor so that they will have more population to purchase products. In the resource-based view, Nike is very capable of offsetting liabilities in foreignness. Nike has a massive competitive advantage because they have a considerable quantity of valuable capabilities and resources that are exceptional to the general industry as presented in their exceptional product line. An example is the “Air Jordan”; it is an exclusive product that has not been imitated. Consequently, Nike has a constant competitive advantage in this respect. 8 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam The strategic goal for Nike entails being certain of the partnerships developed cherishing the prospect to work collectively with the shareholders in the apparel industry and to produce using the best practices. Nike has constructed a robust correlation with the United Kingdom and the European administrations by bearing in mind the regulations that will form the imminent apparel industry in capacities such as environmental labeling, recycling, sustainability and customer awareness. Nike maintains the goal of cooperation that brings clarifications to improve sustainability all over its supply chain and serving the whole globe. This has made them be accepted globally hence profitability everywhere. Entry timings can be categorized as either early or late entry. The advantages of the early market entry are an opportunity to acquire a good market segment, leadership in technology, brand loyalty creation and enhanced reputation in the market. The disadvantages are the possible failure is imminent in the case of the market is not favorable and loyalty is not strong among consumers (Larson, 2011). The late entrants also have numerous advantages; they can learn effectively from the early entrants in the market and have the capability to produce superior products to capture the consumers’ attention. The disadvantage of this timing is that they should work hard to rise to the top and beat the competition and early entrant. Nike uses both timings depending on the location they are venturing into (Larson, 2011). The corporation uses the intermediate entry mode, they share ownership of local firms in different locations and the risks are shared. They are involved in contract manufacturing through outsourcing, franchising, and joint ventures. The advantages involved in these modes include access to local market through a third party and monitoring of the market before they fully invest in the locations. They can also have fewer risks during investment. The disadvantage involved is that they do not get full profitability and management may be tough (Doorey, 2011). Product diversification is the most used in the Nike Corporation; all the businesses links involved share technological, distribution, and product connections. Nike has its foremost products that produce the highest revenue: these are shoes and Apparel. Conversely, many diverse products produce a revenue of around 35 % in the corporation. These include Tennis, Outdoor activities and Basketball products among others (Larson, 2011). Moreover, manufacturing and supply chain diversification is highly considered by the company. Global financial catastrophe and indecisions augmented the significance of such diversification. NIKE is reliant on tactical outsourcing from different countries. Supplier diversity is also a very significant fragment of a prosperous corporate and since NIKE’s consumers are on an international gauge, the corporation needs as comprehensive as the range 9 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam of suppliers as conceivable to enthusiastically and considerably reproduce the settings in which Nike operates (Larson, 2011). The company has benefited greatly from the collaborative strategies and international acquisition hence their performance improved. Through these strategies, they have managed to increase their product manufacture as well as the quality of their products leading to more consumers choosing their products. International acquisitions have also opened new markets for the corporation hence increasing their consumer base and guaranteeing a large marked and a competitive advantage. The corporation is well established and very much renowned hence they will have very little trouble venturing into any market in the future. They should focus on the timing of market entrance so that they will not be too late for a good market share. Early observation of global markets that have not been ventured into is a nice strategy to determine whether it will be productive or not. In areas where they see a huge possibility for possible profitability, they should not wait for their competitors to venture but rather set up stores in the places (Andreff, 2009). Internationalization: Strategy, Structure, and Learning Nike Corporation used the International Strategy: The Corporation adopts the international strategy to generate worth by selling their products assortment to the foreign markets where they are not available. They achieve this by opening different retail stores where the products are scarce and the individuals in those locations have a huge demand for the products. This helps them beat the competition as well as increase profitability in the foreign markets. The industry-based view is accountable for scrutinizing the setting in the industry. It focuses on the exterior situations in the marketplace and will see the likelihood of achieving a competitive advantage. The view is best explained using porter’s five forces that are as follows: bargaining power of buyers, Potential entrants, substitutes, Industry competitors and bargaining power of suppliers. All these forces have an undesirable effect on the market leadership of Nike Corporation, so it is significant for the corporation to maintain the threats low (Ramaswamy, 2008). The resource-based view focuses on the inner resources. Nike has a massive competitive advantage because they have a considerable quantity of valuable capabilities and resources that are exceptional to the general industry as presented in their exceptional product line. Institution-based view focuses on the cultural alterations and likelihood in the general view. Currently, supportable products are very significant. Different governments make the citizens 10 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam conscious of sustainability and consequently it becomes more significant for individuals in their selections for products daily. This is a chance for Nike Inc. They could manufacture footwear that is sustainable. Another informal institution is culture; individuals take celebrities they like from their culture as a model (Grant, 2016). The strategy has numerous advantages over the approaches implemented by the rivals. It strengthens the Nike brand reputation internationally; they can reach numerous people all over the world hence making their brand popular in all corners of the world. The strategy leads to a decreased risk, the fear of a certain specified market failing is not present in the corporation because they have been international; the turnover is also huge as compared to the rivals. They are also able to explore the unreached markets all over the globe and help them learn on how to produce more innovative products due to the diversification of geographical areas (Ramaswamy, 2008). Nike learns from the consumer needs and innovates their products accordingly; they continue the production of new design shoes and apparel to suit the intensifying consumer variations in the competitive sportswear industry (Ramaswamy, 2008). They have labs where they test the functionality of their products to ensure that only the best gets into the market. Demand has increased for products that have an environmental production footprints and the corporation has adapted to the change. They put emphasis on an experimental feedback in the creation of their products to suit all the needs. They use a three-step approach to the knowledge management that involve knowledge acquisition, sharing, and utilization. Strategizing Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Nike employs a geographic divisional governance methodology. This approach is founded on the corporation’s requirements in its regional markets and international organization. Characteristics that are notable include Global corporate leadership; the governance arrangement has international corporate management, which encompasses corporate managers. They have workplaces in the corporation’s head office in Oregon, USA. They make decisions for the worldwide organizational arrangement of the company. Semi-autonomous geographic partitions are a foremost administrative structure distinguishing Nike, Inc. The corporation’s processes are separated into sections based on local markets (Larson, 2011). Each local partition’s administrators enhance processes in the region. Worldwide partitions for brand licensing and Converse Nike’s structural arrangement also has two international divisions for each (Morgan et al., 2009). 11 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam Nike Inc. upholds the corporate social responsibility plans to cater for the welfares of its foremost stakeholder individuals. The corporation’s sales performance and the brand image of their products are considerably depended on the influence of the major stakeholders’ benefits and conforming engagements (Vogel, 2007). The corporation addresses their welfares through numerous corporate social responsibility plans. Nike’s customers are highly prioritized which reveals the significance the group to the company. The approval of consumers directly has an impact on the incomes. The corporation’s CSR strategy is also acceptable for awarding the subsequent significance to the communities, bearing in mind the assortment of programs and policies put in place to care for these stakeholders. The workers define administrative enactment hence Nike’s CSR upkeep of communities is corresponding to its sustenance for consumers as the most superior stakeholder group (Vogel, 2007). The communities also regulate customers’ procurement patterns. Generally, the corporation is keen in guaranteeing that its CSR programs upkeep the corporate objective of enhancing incomes internationally. 12 Final Project Report: Global Strategic Analysis (Nike Inc.) Haysam Reference: • Andreff, W. (2009). Outsourcing in the new strategy of multinational companies: Foreign investment, international subcontracting and production relocation. Papeles de Europa, 18, 5-34. • Doorey, D. J. (2011). The transparent supply chain: From resistance to implementation at Nike and Levi-Strauss. Journal of Business Ethics, 103(4), 587-603. • Grant, R. M. (2016). Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley & Sons. • Larson, D. (2011). Global Brand Management-Nike's Global Brand. The ISM Journal of International Business, 1(3), 1D. • Locke, R., Kochan, T., Romis, M., & Qin, F. (2007). Beyond corporate codes of conduct: Work organization and labor standards at Nike's suppliers. International Labor Review, 146(1‐2), 21-40. • Morgan, G., Ryu, K., & Mirvis, P. (2009). Leading corporate citizenship: governance, structure, systems. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 9(1), 39-49. • Nike. (2017). Sustainable Innovation. Retrieved May 28, 2017, from • NIKE, Inc. Reports Fiscal 2016 Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results. (2016, June 28). Retrieved May 28, 2017, from • Peng, M. (2016). Global Strategy Mind tap Management, 1-term Access (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. • Ramaswamy, V. (2008). Co-creating value through customers' experiences: the Nike case. Strategy & leadership, 36(5), 9-14. • Verbeke, A. (2013). International business strategy. Cambridge University Press. • Vogel, D. (2007). The market for virtue: The potential and limits of corporate social responsibility. Brookings Institution Press. • Young, S. (2016, January 05). 4 Business Factors That Will Impact Shoe Companies In 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2017, from 13

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