unit 4 topic

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  • [U04S2] UNIT 4 STUDY 2

    ASSIGNMENT – PREPARATION

    RESOURCES

    Your Research Overview assignment is due in Unit 5. Take some time in this unit to begin work on this assignment.To learn more about the requirements of the assignment, refer to the assignment description as well as the Research Overview Scoring Guide (given in the resources).
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    [U04A1] UNIT 4 ASSIGNMENT 1

    TOPIC ENDORSEMENT

    RESOURCES

    Note: You are required to complete the unit discussion before this assignment. After receiving feedback from your fellow learners in the discussion, complete Section 1 of the Qualitative Research Plan Template (given in the resources), which includes:
    • A description of the specific topic you propose to study.
    • An explanation regarding the significance of this topic to your program or field.
    • A brief statement regarding the need for the study that fully describes the problem or need being addressed, often referred to as the research problem.
    You will continue to fill out the Qualitative Research Plan Template as you progress through the course. Be sure to follow current APA guidelines while filling out the template.
  • Toggle Drawer

    [U04D1] UNIT 4 DISCUSSION 1

    TOPIC ENDORSEMENT – PEER REVIEW

    RESOURCES

    Note: You are required to complete this discussion before submitting the unit assignment.For this discussion, complete the following:
    • Choose a research topic that is appropriate for qualitative research.
    • Present the need for this research in relation to the field.
    • Support your conclusions with relevant sources from the academic literature.
    • Develop a research question.
    • Define the terms of the question citing the academic literature.
    Once you have received feedback from other learners, complete the unit's assignment based on your revised discussion post. Remember, the earlier in the week you post, the more time other learners have to give feedback.
    Response Guidelines
    Respond to the post of at least one other learner. Addressing the following questions in your response:
    • How appropriate is the research topic to qualitative research?
    • How appropriate is the research question for a qualitative methodology?
    • What thoughts do you have on the research topic's significance to the learner's specialization?
    • Has the learner used relevant references from the academic literature within his or her specialization to support the conclusions

ANSWER MY PEER DISSCUSSION

UNIT 4 - TOPIC ENDORSEMENT - PEER REVIEW

Research Topic

My research topic is School Personnel Perceptions, Attitudes and Awareness of Risk Factors in Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Victims in Chicago. The research literature on domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) indicates that an estimated 100,000 children are traded for sex in the United States each year (Polaris Project, 2014). There are multiple factors that place youth at risk of sex trafficking including a history of sexual abuse, runaway youth, homelessness and children involved in the foster care system. Protective factors may decrease the likelihood of at-risk youth becoming victims of domestic minor sex trafficking (Kotrla, 2010).

Research Problem

The research literature on domestic minor sex trafficking indicates that we know there are multiple factors that place youth at risk of sex trafficking, we know protective factors may decrease the likelihood of at risk youth becoming victims of domestic minor sex trafficking (Kotrla, 2010). U.S. schools are emerging as a potentially promising environment for a variety of trafficking prevention and intervention activities youth (IMNRC, 2013). Given the regular interaction between students and educators, school personnel are positioned uniquely to recognize changes in behavior and appearance that may be indicative of trafficking involvement (IMNRC, 2013). By playing a role in the prevention and interruption of the sex trafficking of minors, schools can help put an end to the physical, mental, and emotional trauma suffered by victimized students (IMNRC, 2013). School districts throughout the country have minimal awareness of human trafficking and resulting challenges and barriers in understanding the risk factors surrounding domestic minor sex trafficking (Kotrla, 2010).

Significance of Research Topic in Field of Public Service Leadership - Human Services/Social Work/Counseling

The issue of domestic minor sex trafficking is relevant to the core values of the major principles of the National Association of Social Workers and American Counseling Association Code of Ethics (NASW, 2009; ACA, 2015). These values are designed to enhance human well-being through the primary goal of addressing social problems, pursuing social change, and promoting a person’s dignity and worth. In response to DMST, social workers have a responsibility to uphold the NASW principles of social justice and service by generating educational awareness to the community in order to change the way victims of DMST are viewed by communal leaders, law enforcement officials, and the general population.

Research Problem Background

Sex trafficking is when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion OR when the person induced to perform the act is under 18 years old. A commercial sex act means any item of value is traded for any sexual service (prostitution, pornography, or sexual performance) (Shared Hope, 2010).

Domestic minor sex trafficking is the commercial sexual exploitation of American children within U.S. borders for monetary or other compensation (shelter, food, drugs, etc.). This is synonymous with child sex slavery, sex slavery, child sex trafficking, prostitution of children, and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) (Shared Hope, 2017).

Research show the following youth are most at risk for involvement in sex trafficking: runaways, homeless, sexual abuse, dating violence, low self-esteem, and minimal social support, chronic maltreatment and neglect, and otherwise unstable home environments (Orme & Ross-Sheriff, 2015). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender youth are five times more likely than heterosexual youth to be victims of sex trafficking (Reid, et al, 2017). Other risk factors include but are not limited to: lack of personal safety, isolation, emotional distress, poverty, family dysfunction, substance abuse, mental illness, learning disabilities, developmental delay, and promotion of sexual exploitation by family members or peers (Orme & Ross-Sheriff, 2015).

Research Question

What are the perceptions, attitudes and awareness levels of school personnel’s knowledge of the risk factors associated with domestic minor sex trafficking?

Definition of Terms

Sex trafficking (ST) is when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion OR when the person induced to perform the act is under 18 years old.(Shared Hope, 2017). A commercial sex act means any item of value is traded for any sexual service (prostitution, pornography, or sexual performance) (Shared Hope, 2017).

Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is the commercial sexual exploitation of American children within U.S. borders for monetary or other compensation (shelter, food, drugs, etc.). This is synonymous with child sex slavery, sex slavery, child sex trafficking, prostitution of children, and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) (Shared Hope, 2017).

Perceptions refers to the regarding, understand and interpreting of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST).

Attitudes refers to a way of thinking or feeling as it relates to domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST).

Awareness refers to the level of knowledge as it relates to domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST).

Risk Factors are the various factors that place youth at risk of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST).

School Personnel includes but is not limited to the following staff members:

  • School Administrators (Principal, Assistant Principal, etc)
  • School Counselors
  • School Social Workers
  • School Nurses
  • School Psychologist
  • School Teachers and Teacher Aides
  • School Deans
  • School Office Clerks
  • School Security Teams
  • School Cafeteria Workers
  • School Janitors
  • School Engineers

References

American School Counselor Association. (2015). The Code of Ethics (2nd). Alexandria, VA: Author.

Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013). Confronting commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Kotrla, K., & Wommack, B. (2011). Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S.: Implications for

Policy, Prevention and Research. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 2(1), 5.http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/childrenatri...

National Association of Social Workers. (2009). Code of ethics of the National Association of

Social Workers.Washington, DC. NASW Press.

Orme, J., & Ross-Sheriff, F. (2015). Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services. Social

Work, 60(4), 287-294. doi:10.1093/sw/swv031

Polaris Project (2014a). Human trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/ overview

Reid, J. A., Baglivio, M. T., Piquero, A. R., Greenwald, M. A., & Epps, N. (2017). Human

Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida. American Journal Of Public Health,107(2), 306-311. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303564

Shared Hope International, Polaris Project, and ECPAT. (2017). H.R. 5575 – ‘Domestic Minor

Sex Trafficking Deterrence and Victims Support Act of 2010.’ Retrieved from https://www.ecpatusa.org/EcpatUSA_PDF/HR5575Summar...


Qualitative Research Plan Research Plan: QUALITATIVE STUDIES ONLY Scientific Merit Criteria for the Research Plan 1. Advances the scientific knowledge base. 2. Makes a contribution to research theory. 3. Meets certain “hallmarks” of good research methodology. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION Learners, please insert your answers directly into the expandable boxes that have been provided! A. Learner and Specialization Information (to be completed by Learner) Learner Name Learner Email Specialization Methodology QUALITATIVE Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 2 Section 1. Topic Endorsement 1.1 Research Topic (2 paragraphs) FIRST PARAGRAPH: Describe the specific topic to be studied. Please single space using Times Roman 11 pt throughout the form – the boxes will expand as you input text. SECOND PARAGRAPH: describe the significance of this topic to your program/field (e.g., Psychology, Counseling, Business, Technology, Public Service Leadership, Education, etc.) AND your specialization within your program. The Research Topic should be correctly formed:      The Research Topic should be appropriate for the specialization. The Research Topic should use appropriate language for key concepts/phenomena. Relationships between/among the concepts should be clearly specified (e.g., correlation). The target population should be named The concepts should be appropriately focused. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 1.2 Research Problem (1 Paragraph) Write a brief statement regarding the need for the study that fully describes the problem or need being addressed. The “need for the study” is what we often refer to as the Research Problem. In simplified terms, the research problem should take this form: “The research literature on _________ indicates that we know ________, we know __________, but we do not know ______________.” The Research Problem should be correctly stated:    Existing literature and key findings should be summarized Gaps or problems in the existing literature should be clearly formulated The Research Problem should be explicitly stated, not implied. . • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 3 Qualitative Research Plan Section 2. Research Overview 2.1 Research Problem Background (3 paragraphs) Provide a brief SUMMARY of your review of the research literature on the topic. This should include citations from at least 10 articles.This should be demonstrated by providing a statement about the body of existing literature on the topic, then, summarizing recent research findings on the topic, highlighting the findings that are most relevant to your proposed study, demonstrating how your proposed research could add to the existing literature on the topic. Be sure to provide appropriate in text citations and include references in the reference section. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 4 Qualitative Research Plan 2.2 Research Question List the primary Research Question. Your Research Question (s) should be correctly formed:  The Research Question(s) should be aligned with your Research Problem, the Research Topic, and the title.  The Research Question(s) should be phrased in a way that it can be answered by the intended methodology and analyses. • Define the terms of the research question referencing the definitions with references from the literature. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 5 Qualitative Research Plan 2.3 Purpose of the Study State the purpose of the study. The purpose of the study will be to answer the research question in order to solve the research problem and to contribute information about the wider social or community problem to a specific audience or audiences. Note: Describe the purpose using the language of the specific study, topic, research problem, and research question. 2.4 Methodology and Basic Design Overview Provide an overview of the basic research methodology and the research model. Also state how this methodology is a good fit for the question being asked and the phenomena being studied. • Describe the qualitative methodology (for example phenomenology) and research model (for example Giorgi – empirical phenomenology or Moustakas – transcendental phenomenology) you propose to use. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 6 Qualitative Research Plan • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resource. 2.5 Title Your title should be correctly formed:     The title should be aligned with your Research Problem (1.2) and Research Question (2.2), (use the same terminology for all). The title should reflect the key variables or constructs to be studied. The title should reflect the method to be employed in the research. The title should be concise (12 words or less). Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 7 Qualitative Research Plan Section 3. Research Theory 3.1 Advancing Scientific Knowledge Demonstrate how the study (a) will advance the scientific knowledge base; (b) is grounded in your field; and (c) addresses something that is not known, something that is new or different from prior research, something that extends prior research, or something that fills a gap in the existing literature. Describe precisely how the study will add to the existing body of literature on your topic. It can be a small step forward in a line of current research but it must add to the body of scientific knowledge in your specialization area and on the topic. To respond to this question you will need to: 1. Provide a paragraph that describes the background for the study and how the research question relates to the background of the study. 2. Then, in a second paragraph discuss previous research and demonstrate exactly how the study (answering research question) will advance the scientific knowledge base on this topic. Include intext citations and place the references in the reference section. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 8 Qualitative Research Plan resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. 3.2 Theoretical Implications Describe any theoretical implications that the proposed study may have for understanding phenomena. For example, does the study generate new theory, provide a description of the lived experience of the participants or provide a description of a cultural phenomena? • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM 9 Qualitative Research Plan 10 3.3 Practical Implications Describe the practical implications that may result from the research. Specifically, describe any implications the research may have for understanding phenomena for practitioners, the population being studied, or a particular type of work, mental health, educational, community, stakeholders or other setting. Relate these back to the Research Problem. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Section 4. Research Methodology 4.1 Research Design Describe the qualitative design (for example grounded theory) and research model (for example Strauss and Corbin or Charmaz – constructivist grounded theory) to be used, supported and referenced by primary sources. Describe in detail the method(s) proposed to collect the data, such as: structured, unstructured, and semi-structured interviews, journaling, letters, pictures, observations, field notes, focus groups. Describe the philosophy underlying the methodology and model. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 11 Briefly describe how the study will be conducted. (Describe how the study will be carried out.)   The Research Design should be clearly identified. The Research Design should be appropriate to the Research Question. *Use primary sources as resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. 4.2 Population and Sample Describe the characteristics of the larger population from which the sample (study participants) will be drawn. Include sampling strategy such as purposeful. State the estimated sample size needed for the study. Justify the sample size with support from the literature. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 12 4.3 Ethical Considerations Describe any ethical considerations given the sample, population, and/or topic. Please explain as fully as possible (i.e., How will human participants be protected while identifying the sample, while collecting the data, while analyzing the data, after data is collected, and during data storage?) Is the proposed population or research topic greater than minimal risk? Yes No • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 13 Section 5. Research Data 5.1 Data Collection Sampling Procedures Describe in detail each step to be taken from the beginning of recruitment to consent from the participants to participate. You must provide specific details and present the details in the order in which they will occur. You must include all of the following (if applicable): • The recruitment site(s), acknowledgement of any permissions needed from the sites, and if there is an IRB at any of the sites. • All of the means by which recruitment will occur (i.e., flyers, e-mails, social media) • How potential participants may contact the researcher/s. • How the potential participants will be screened and how you will proceed if they do qualify and if they do not qualify for the study. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 14 PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. a 5.2 Data Collection Procedures Describe where and how data will be collected and describe the exact procedure(s) that will be used to collect the data. This is a step-by-step description of exactly how the research will be conducted. This should read like a recipe for the data collection procedures to be followed in the study. Be sure to include all the necessary details so that someone else will be able to clearly understand how data will be obtained. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. **Use APA style in citing all resources Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 15 5.3 Guiding Interview Questions Describe the interview method to be used and how interviews will be conducted. List guiding interview questions that can be used in the qualitative interviews with the participants. Provide a rationale for how and why you selected the interview technique to be used to address the primary research question. Be sure to discuss the results of any field test that was conducted as a part of the process of developing the final version of the guiding interview questions. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 16 5.4 Data Analyses Provide a step-by-step description of the procedures to be used to conduct the data analysis. Support this process by identification and reference to primary descriptive sources, such as Moustakas, Giorgi, Stake Yin, Charmaz, or Braun et al. Check that that the data analysis process is consistent with the accepted analytical steps for the specific qualitative methodology chosen to conduct this study • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources 5.5 Role of the Researcher Provide a description of any pre-understandings, preconceptions and biases about the topic and how you plan to set them aside. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. • Use APA style in citing all resources. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 17 5.6 Credibility, Dependability and Transferability Present a strategy to ensure credibility, dependability, and transferability in the proposed study. Because the researcher is the primary instrument of research in qualitative studies, describe how the researcher established credibility for the research. Describe any training and experience you have in regards to the methods used for collecting and for analyzing the data. Credibility refers to confidence in the accuracy of the data as reported as well as a systematic and thorough interpretation by the researcher. Credibility involves carrying out the study in a way that enhances the believability of the findings of the data over time and over conditions. Credibility is assessed by how well the researcher/s demonstrated understanding of the research methodology and how well the methodology was applied to data collection and data analysis. Describe how the you plan to demonstrate expertise in regards to the research design. Transferability is demonstrated by showing that the sample fairly represents the target population, as well as by showing that the sample participants have the knowledge, experience, or expertise necessary to provide information that the discipline or field and the target population would find meaningful in regard to the topic. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 18 Dependability is demonstrated by providing clear, detailed, and sequential descriptions of all procedures and methods, such that another researcher could repeat each of them faithfully. • Use current (within 5-7 years), scholarly, PRIMARY resources to support statements. Use APA style in citing all resources Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM Qualitative Research Plan 19 Section 6. References In the field below, provide your references for the research about your topic, and key theorists/researchers associated with the selected methodology. You will continue to build on this list of references throughout the project. *Use APA style for all references. Revised: Aug 4, 17, 1:54 AM

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