Answers Summery

Anonymous
timer Asked: Oct 17th, 2017

Question Description

Hello,

I have 80 questions and all of them are answered. some of the answers are more than 6 sentences.

I want you to do 2 things with those answers.

--First, change the words (but keep the same meaning). For the all the answers.

-- second, make all the answers from 6 sentences minimum to 7 sentences maximum. no more, no less. BUT if you found answers less than 5 sentences Only change the words and keep the same meaning only.

Use simple words please.


Thank you

Chapter 1 1. How have technological advances changed the HR environment? What technological tools enable HR managers to perform their duties more efficiently? Answer: Technology is changing how businesses operate as well as the nature of work. In plants throughout the world, knowledge-intensive high-tech manufacturing jobs are replacing traditional factory jobs, which means that employees need new skills and training to excel at increasingly complex jobs. Intranet-based websites enable employees to selfadminister benefits plans, which allows HR managers to focus on other tasks. 2. What are the five basic functions of management? Explain some of the specific activities involved in each function. Is one function more important for human resource management? Answer: The five basic functions are planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Planning activities include establishing goals and standards, developing rules and procedures, and developing plans and forecasting. Organizing activities include giving specific task assignments to subordinates, establishing departments, delegating authority to subordinates, and establishing channels of authority and communication. Staffing activities include determining what type of people should be hired, recruiting prospective employees, and setting performance standards. Leading activities include maintaining morale and motivating subordinates. Controlling activities include setting standards such as sales quotas and quality standards, and taking corrective action as needed. Staffing is the function most readily related to human resource management. However, HR managers actually perform all five functions. 3. What is human resource management? Why is human resource management important to all managers? What is the role of line managers in human resource management? Answer: Human resource management is the process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns. HR management is important to all managers because managers can do everything else right—lay brilliant plans, draw clear organization charts, set up world-class assembly lines, and use sophisticated accounting controls—but still fail by hiring the wrong people or by not motivating subordinates. On the other hand, many managers—presidents, generals, governors, supervisors—have been successful even with inadequate plans, organizations, or controls because they had the knack of hiring the right people for the right jobs and motivating, appraising, and developing them. The direct handling of people is an integral part of every line manager's duties. More specifically, line managers must place the right person in the right job, orient and train new employees, improve the job performance of each person, gain cooperation and develop smooth working relationships, interpret the company's policies and procedures, control labor costs, and protect employees' health and physical condition. 4. List and explain five personnel mistakes you do not want to make as an HR manager. Answer: The answer should include any of the following: to have your employee not performing at peak, to hire the wrong person, to experience high turnover, to have employees not doing their best, to have the company taken to court because of discriminatory actions, to have your company cited for safety violations, to have undertrained employees, and to commit unfair labor practices. 5. What duties are required of most HR managers? How have the duties of HR managers changed from 30 years ago? Answer: Most HR managers conduct job analyses, recruit job candidates, train employees, compensate employees, and communicate with employees and other managers. Modern managers are expected to be involved in strategic issues rather than only in transactional duties as in the past. 6. In a brief essay, compare the role of human resource management in small businesses and in high-performance work systems. Answer: Small firms generally do not have the critical mass required for a full-time human resource manager. Their human resource management therefore tends to be informal. Small firms typically do little or no formal training and recruit employees with newspaper ads and through word-of-mouth. In contrast, a high-performance work system is a set of human resource management policies and practices that together produce superior employee performance. HPWSs typically pay well, train employees regularly, use sophisticated recruitment and hiring practices, and use self-managing work teams. 7. Explain the difference between line authority and staff authority. What type of authority do human resource managers have? Answer: Authority is the right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to give orders. Line managers are authorized to direct the work of subordinates and are directly in charge of accomplishing the organization's basic goals. Staff managers are authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. Human resource managers are usually staff managers because they are responsible for assisting and advising line managers in areas like recruiting, hiring, and compensation. However, human resource managers do have line authority within their own department. 8. Why are demographic trends important to HR managers? Answer: HR managers need to be cognizant of demographic trends because changes in the availability of workers directly affect recruiting and selection efforts. The changes in the workforce can impact the availability of technologically savvy employees or the availability of skilled labor. Additionally, the availability of employees affects the compensation that needs to be offered to attract and retain valued employees. 9. What changes in the business environment have led to HR managers playing more strategic roles in organizations? As a result of these changes, what competencies are now required of modern HR managers? Answer: Changes in the environment of HR management are requiring HR to play a more strategic role in organizations. These changes include growing workforce diversity, rapid technological change, globalization, and changes in the nature of work, such as the movement toward a service society and a growing emphasis on education and human capital. Human resource managers still need skills in areas such as employee selection and training. But now they also require broader business knowledge and competencies. For example, to assist top management in formulating strategies, the human resource manager needs to understand strategic planning, marketing, production, and finance. 10. What is globalization? How has globalization affected employers and HR management? Answer: Globalization refers to companies extending their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad. Globalization compels employers to be more efficient. More globalization means more competition, and more competition means more pressure to be "world class"—to lower costs, to make employees more productive, and to do things better and less expensively. The search for greater efficiencies prompts many employers to offshore (export jobs to lower-cost locations abroad), which requires HR managers to oversee recruiting and selection practices both domestically and abroad. Chapter 2 11. What were the three crucial guidelines affecting equal employment legislation that Chief Justice Burger identified in his written opinion on Griggs v. Duke Power Company? Answer: Discrimination by the employer need not be overt. The employer does not have to be shown to have intentionally discriminated against the employee or applicant. It need only show that discrimination did take place. An employment practice must be job related if it has an unequal impact on members of a protected class. The burden of proof is on the employer to show that the hiring practice is job related. 12. What equal employment opportunity laws address disabled workers? What defenses are available to an employer that is charged with discriminating against a disabled individual? Answer: The Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires employers with federal contracts over $2,500 to take affirmative action for the employment of disabled persons. The act does not require that an unqualified person be hired. It does require that an employer take steps to accommodate a disabled worker unless doing so imposes an undue hardship on the employer. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits employment discrimination against qualified disabled individuals, and it requires that employers make "reasonable accommodations" for physical or mental limitations, unless doing so imposes an "undue hardship" on the business. The employer can then use two defenses: the bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) defense and the business necessity defense. Either can be used to justify an employment practice that has been shown to have an adverse impact on the members of a minority group. 13. What is the American with Disabilities Act? How does the ADA affect selection standards for employers? Answer: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits employment discrimination against qualified disabled individuals and requires that employers make "reasonable accommodations" for physical or mental limitations, unless doing so imposes an "undue hardship" on the business. Under the ADA, "Employers are generally prohibited from asking questions about applicants' medical history or requiring preemployment physical examinations." However, such questions and exams can be used once the job offer has been extended to determine that the applicant can safely perform the job. 14. What is the EEOC? Briefly explain the EEOC enforcement process. Answer: Establishing the EEOC greatly enhanced the federal government's ability to enforce equal employment opportunity laws. The EEOC receives and investigates job discrimination complaints from aggrieved individuals. When it finds reasonable cause that the charges are justified, it attempts (through conciliation) to reach an agreement eliminating all aspects of the discrimination. The EEOC enforcement process begins with someone filing a discrimination claim. Next, the EEOC investigates the claim and either dismisses the charge or attempts to conciliate. Civil suits may occur if conciliation is unsuccessful. 15. In a brief essay, discuss Executive Orders 11246 and 11375 and their effect on affirmative action programs. Answer: Under executive orders that U.S. presidents issued years ago, most employers who do business with the U.S. government have an obligation beyond that imposed by Title VII to refrain from employment discrimination. Executive Orders 11246 and 11375 do not just ban discrimination; they require that contractors take affirmative action to ensure equal employment opportunity. Executive Order 11246 (issued in 1965) requires federal contractors to take affirmative action to improve employment opportunities for women and racial minorities. It covers about 26 million workers—about 22% of the U.S. workforce. 16. What are the three forms of sexual harassment? Name and describe each one. Answer: The three main ways an employee can prove sexual harassment are quid pro quo, hostile environment created by supervisors, or hostile environment created by coworkers or non-employees. Quid pro quo means that submission to sexual conduct is made a term or condition of employment or advancement. Even when no direct threats or promises are made in exchange for sexual advances, if an offensive work environment is created, sexual harassment has occurred. Further, advances do not have to be made by the person's supervisor in order to qualify as sexual harassment. An employee's co-worker or customers can cause the employer to be held responsible for sexual harassment. EEOC guidelines state that an employer is liable for the sexually harassing acts of its nonsupervisory employees if the employer knew or should have known of the harassing conduct. 17. How can an employer defend itself against sexual harassment liability? Name two methods. Answer: An employer must show that it exercised reasonable care to prevent and correct promptly any sexually harassing behavior. Reasonable care can be shown through strong sexual harassment policies, training managers and employees regarding their responsibilities for complying with these policies, instituting reporting processes, investigating charges promptly, and taking corrective action promptly. Second, the employer can demonstrate that the plaintiff "unreasonably failed to take advantage of any preventive or corrective opportunities provided by the employer." The employee's failing to use formal organizational reporting systems satisfies the second component. 18. Managers serve a significant role in establishing the environment of a workplace. How can managers discourage sexual harassment? How can managers encourage inclusion in a diverse workforce? Answer: Managers can actively discourage sexual harassment through a number of methods. First, managers should take all complaints about harassment seriously and issue a strong policy statement condemning such behavior. The policy should clearly describe the prohibited conduct, assure protection against retaliation, describe a complaint process that provides confidentiality, and provide accessible avenues of complaint and prompt, thorough, impartial investigation and corrective action. Managers should take steps to prevent sexual harassment from occurring, such as communicating to employees that the employer will not tolerate sexual harassment, and take immediate action when someone complains. In order to encourage an atmosphere of inclusion in a diverse workforce, managers should learn about other cultures and groups and facilitate interactions between employees from different backgrounds. Management diversity involves providing strong leadership, assessing the situation, providing diversity training and education, changing culture and management systems, and evaluating the diversity management program. 19. Compare and contrast disparate treatment and disparate impact. Answer: Disparate treatment means intentional discrimination. It exists where an employer treats an individual differently because that individual is a member of a particular race, religion, gender, or ethnic group. Disparate impact means that an employer engages in an employment practice or policy that has a greater impact on the members of a protected group under Title VII than on other employees, regardless of intent. Disparate treatment requires finding intent to discriminate while disparate impact claims do not require proof of discriminatory intent. 20. What is a BFOQ? How do BFOQs affect recruitment practices? Answer: Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications are requirements that an employee be of a certain religion, sex, or national origin where that is reasonably necessary to the organization's normal operation. When recruiting for a position, specifying gender typically violates federal laws unless sex is a BFOQ for the job advertised. Also, you cannot advertise in any way that suggests that applicants are being discriminated against because of their age. For example, you cannot advertise for a young man or woman. 21. In a brief essay, discuss the components necessary for an effective performance management process. Answer: The basic building blocks of performance management include the following: • Direction sharing means communicating the organization's higher-level goals throughout the organization and translating these into doable departmental goals. • Goal alignment means having a process in place that allows any manager to see the link between an employee's goals and those of the department and organization. • Ongoing performance monitoring means using computer-based systems to measure and report on employee progress toward meeting performance goals. • Ongoing feedback includes face-to-face and computer-based feedback regarding progress toward goals. • Coaching and developmental support should be an integral part of the feedback process. • Rewards, recognition, and compensation provide the consequences necessary to keep employee performance on target. 22. What are the six basic elements of a performance management program? Answer: We can summarize performance management's six basic elements as follows: • Direction sharing means communicating the company's goals throughout the company and then translating these into doable departmental, team, and individual goals. • Goal alignment means having a method that enables managers and employees to see the link between the employees' goals and those of their department and company. • Ongoing performance monitoring usually includes using computerized systems that measure and then e-mail progress and exception reports based on the person's progress toward meeting his or her performance goals. • Ongoing feedback includes both face-to-face and computerized feedback regarding progress toward goals. • Coaching and developmental support should be an integral part of the feedback process. • Recognition and rewards provide the consequences needed to keep the employee's goaldirected performance on track. Chapter 3 23. What is strategic management? Define the term. List and describe the seven steps in the strategic management process. Answer: Strategic management is the process of identifying and executing the organization's mission by matching the organization's capabilities with the demands of its environment. The steps are as follows: Step 1: Define the Business and Its Mission Step 2: Perform External and Internal Audits Step 3: Formulate New Business and Mission Statements Step 4: Translate the Mission into Strategic Goals Step 5: Formulate a Strategy to Achieve the Strategic Goals Step 6: Implement the Strategy Step 7: Evaluate Performance 24. Explain the difference between a vision and a mission. What role does a firm's vision statement play in corporate and competitive strategies? Answer: A company's vision is a general statement of the company's intended direction that shows in broad terms what a company wants to become. A vision statement is futureoriented while a mission statement is oriented in the present. Mission statements indicate what a company is doing right now while vision statements are what a company strives to become. A firm's corporate-level strategy indicates the portfolio of businesses that comprise a company, while its competitive strategy identifies how to build a firm's longterm competitive position in the marketplace. A firm's vision is where the firm wants to be in the future and the strategies are the tools used to get the firm to that place. For example, if a firm's vision is to provide affordable products to consumers, then its competitive strategy will be cost leadership. 25. Identify the three levels of strategic planning and describe the function of each level. What is the relationship between human resource strategy and a firm's strategic plans? Answer: The three levels are corporate-level, business-level, and functional-level strategies. Corporate-level strategy identifies the portfolio of businesses that comprise the company and the ways in which these businesses relate to each other. The business-level strategy identifies how to build and strengthen the business's long-term competitive position in the marketplace. The functional-level strategies identify the basic course of action that each department will pursue in order to help the business attain its competitive goals. Every company needs its human resource management policies and activities to make sense in terms of its broad strategic aims. Strategic human resource management means formulating and executing human resource policies and practices that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims. The basic idea behind strategic human resource management is simple: In formulating human resource management policies and activities, the manager's aim must be to produce the employee skills and behaviors that the company needs to achieve its strategic aims. Management formulates a strategic plan. That strategic plan implies certain workforce requirements. Given these workforce requirements, human resource management formulates HR strategies (policies and practices) to produce the desired workforce skills, competencies, and behaviors. Finally, the human resource manager identifies the measures he or she can use to gauge the extent to which its new policies and practices are actually producing the required employee skills and behaviors. 26. What is a competitive advantage? How does HR management affect a firm's competitive advantage? In your answer, provide examples of competitive advantages held by specific firms. Answer: We can define competitive advantage as any factors that allow a company to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share. Every successful company needs competitive advantages to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors. Apple has creative employees producing innovative products. Southwest Airlines achieves its low-cost leader goals with employment policies that produce the motivated workforce it needs to turn planes around quickly. 27. In a brief essay, explain how the strategy map, the HR scorecard, and the digital dashboard are used in strategic human resource management. Answer: Managers use the strategy map, the HR scorecard, and the digital dashboard to help them translate the company's broad strategic goals into specific human resource management policies and activities. The strategy map shows the "big picture" of how each department's performance contributes to achieving the company's overall strategic goals. It helps the manager understand the role his or her department plays in helping to execute the company's strategic plan. Many employers quantify and computerize the map's activities, and the HR scorecard helps them to do so. The HR scorecard is a process for assigning financial and nonfinancial goals or metrics to the human resource management-related chain of activities required for achieving the company's strategic aims and for monitoring results. A digital dashboard presents the manager with desktop graphs and charts, and so a computerized picture of where the company stands on all those metrics from the HR scorecard process. A top manager's dashboard might display on the PC screen real-time trends for strategy map activities, which gives the manager time to take corrective action. 28. In a brief essay, discuss the importance of strategic planning and setting hierarchical goals. Answer: Strategic planning is important to managers because in well-run companies the goals from the very top of the organization downward should form a hierarchy of goals. These goals, in turn, should be guiding what everyone does. Management creates a hierarchy or chain of departmental goals, from the top down to the lowest-ranked managers, and even employees. Then, if everyone does his or her job–if each salesperson sells his or her quota, and the sales manager hires enough good salespeople, and the HR manager creates the right incentive plan, and the purchasing head buys enough raw materials–the company and the CEO should also accomplish the overall, strategic goals. 29. What is a high performance work system? How can HR audits support a high performance work system? Answer: A high performance work system is a set of human resource practices that translate into organizational effectiveness. This system allows the organization to benchmark itself against others and allows for comparisons with others. Typical benefits associated with the high performance work system include better hiring decisions based in part on the use of validated selection tests. High performance work system companies also promote from within, and organize work around self-managing teams. They also extensively train employees. The organizations also help workers help themselves. HR audits benefit HPWSs by showing where the firm currently stands and determining what it has to accomplish to improve its HR function. The HR audit is a process of examining policies, procedures, documentation, systems, and practices with respect to an organization's HR functions. 30. What is evidence-based human resource management? Do you think it can improve the success of an HR department? Why or why not? Answer: In today's challenging environment, employers naturally expect that their HRM teams be able to measure the success of HR activities. Evidence-based human resource management involves the use of data, facts, analytics, scientific rigor, critical evaluation, and critically evaluated research/case studies to support human resource management proposals, decisions, practices, and conclusions. Put simply, evidence-based human resource management is the deliberate use of the best-available evidence in making decisions about the human resource management practices you are focusing on. 31. How do firms use workforce analytics and data mining to evaluate HR practices? Answer: Employers use workforce analytics software applications to analyze their human resources data and to draw conclusions from it. For example, a talent analytics team at Google analyzed data on employee backgrounds, capabilities, and performance. The team was able to identify the factors (such as an employee feeling underutilized) likely to lead to the employee leaving. In a similar project, Google analyzed data on things like employee survey feedback and performance management scores to identify the attributes of successful Google managers. Such efforts employ data mining techniques. Data mining sifts through huge amounts of employee data to identify correlations that employers then use to improve their employee selection and other practices. 32. In a brief essay, discuss the meaning of employee engagement, why it is important, and what can managers do to improve employee engagement. Support your answer with examples. Answer: Employee engagement refers to being psychologically involved in, connected to, and committed to getting one's job done. Employees that are considered engaged are those that view their work and tasks with a true sense of ownership as if they are running their own company. Additionally, engaged employees are described as "connected" to their work and tasks. Many studies have resulted in showing that engaged employees show above median performance results and thus, help drive firm performance and productivity. For example, in one Gallup study, employee engagement was correlated with employees' customer service productivity and was associated with significant increases in sales, product quality, productivity, safety incidents, retention, and revenue growth. Practical action steps that managers can take to improve employee engagement include 1) ensuring employees understand their contributions to company's success, 2) showing employees how their own efforts contribute, and 3) promote environments yielding a sense of accomplishment by getting employees involved. Chapter 4 33. What is talent management? What actions will most likely be taken by a manager with a talent management perspective? Answer: Talent management is the goal-oriented and integrated process of planning, recruiting, developing, managing, and compensating employees. When a manager takes a talent management perspective, he or she should keep in mind that the talent management tasks are parts of a single interrelated talent management process; make sure talent management decisions such as staffing and pay are goal-directed; consistently use the same "profile" for formulating recruitment plans for a job as you do for making selection, training, appraisal, and payment decisions for it; actively segment and manage employees; and integrate/coordinate all the talent management functions. 34. What is business process reengineering? What are the steps involved in business process reengineering? How can firms benefit from business process reengineering? Answer: Business process reengineering means redesigning business processes, usually by combining steps, so that small multifunction teams using information technology do the jobs formerly done by a sequence of departments. The basic approach is to: 1. Identify a business process to be redesigned (such as approving a mortgage application). 2. Measure the performance of the existing process. 3. Identify opportunities to improve this process. 4. Redesign and implement a new way of doing the work. 5. Assign ownership of sets of formerly separate tasks to an individual or a team that uses new computerized systems to support the new arrangement. Business process reengineering can improve productivity and quality. 35. How does job analysis support human resource management activities? Briefly describe one of the methods commonly used for gathering job analysis data. Answer: Job analysis provides information for recruitment and selection by laying out what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Job analysis information is also crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. Interviewing current job holders or their supervisors is a widely used method for gathering job analysis data. Interviews let workers report activities and behavior that might not otherwise surface, and they unearth important relationships that would not be obvious from the organization chart. 36. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews to collect job analysis data? Answer: Interviews are a relatively simple and quick way to collect data. Skilled interviewers can gather information that might otherwise go undiscovered. Some activities might occur only occasionally or be more informal in nature. Interviews can discover these types of activities. The interview also offers an opportunity to explain the need for a job analysis. The biggest drawback is the chance that interviewees fail to describe their jobs accurately because they view interviews as evaluations. 37. What are the basic methods for collecting job analysis information? Explain how this information is used to write job descriptions and job specifications. Answer: The primary function of a job analysis is to develop job specifications and job descriptions. Job analysis data is commonly gathered through interviews, questionnaires, diaries, or observations. A job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job's working conditions are. You use this information to write a job specification; this lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily. The job specification takes the job description and answers the question, "What human traits and experience are required to do this job effectively?" It shows what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities you should test that person. 38. How has the Internet changed job analysis methods? How has the Internet improved the ability of managers to write job descriptions? Answer: Methods such as questionnaires and interviews can be time-consuming. Collecting the information from internationally dispersed employees is particularly challenging. Conducting the job analysis via the Internet is a good solution. The human resource department can distribute standardized job analysis questionnaires to geographically disbursed employees via their company intranets, with instructions to complete the forms and return them by a particular date. Most employers probably still write their own job descriptions, but more are turning to the Internet. One site, www.jobdescription.com, illustrates why. The process is simple. Search by alphabetical title, keyword, category, or industry to find the desired job title. This leads you to a generic job description for that title—say, "Computers & EDP systems sales representative." You can then use the wizard to customize the generic description for this position. The U.S. Department of Labor's occupational information network, called O*NET, is an increasingly popular Web tool. It allows users to see the most important characteristics of various occupations, as well as the experience, education, and knowledge required to do each job well. 39. How can job descriptions help employers comply with the ADA? What factors should be considered when determining the essential functions of a job? Answer: The list of job duties is crucial to employers' efforts to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Under the ADA, the individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform the job's essential functions. The ADA requires that employers list a job's essential functions, to make it clear what tasks the employee must accomplish, and also what accommodations might be possible. The EEOC says, "Essential functions are the basic job duties that an employee must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation. Factors to consider in determining if a function is essential include: • Whether the position exists to perform that function. • The number of other employees available to perform the function. • The degree of expertise or skill required to perform the function. 40. What is a job specification? Why would it be easier to write job specifications when filling positions with trained rather than untrained people? Answer: The job specification takes the job description and answers the question, "What human traits and experience are required to do this job effectively?" It shows the hiring criteria for the job, in terms of what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities you should test that person. Writing job specifications for trained employees is straightforward. Here your job specifications might focus mostly on traits like length of previous service, quality of relevant training, and previous job performance. The problems are more complex when you're filling jobs with untrained people (with the intention of training them on the job). Here you must specify qualities such as physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing, or for being trained to do, the job. 41. What is a task statement? Why are task statements becoming increasingly popular? Answer: Each of a job's task statements shows what the worker does on one particular job task; how the worker does it; the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes required to do it; and the purpose of the task. The process of developing task statements results in a job requirements matrix. This matrix provides a more comprehensive picture of what the worker does and how and why he or she does it than does a conventional job description. For instance, it clarifies each task's purpose. Including the required knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics for each duty provides critical information for making selection, training, and appraisal decisions. 42. As an HR manager, what steps would you take to develop a competency statement? What resources would be beneficial in the process? Answer: Uncovering the job's required competencies and writing them up is similar in most respects to traditional job analysis. In other words, you might interview job incumbents and their supervisors, ask open ended questions regarding job responsibilities and activities, and perhaps identify critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job. However, instead of compiling lists of job duties, your aim is to finish the statement, "In order to perform this job competently, the employee should be able to..." Use your knowledge of the job to answer this, or the worker's or supervisor's insights, or use information from a source such as O*NET. There are also off-the-shelf competencies data banks. One example is that of the Department of Labor's Office of Personnel Management.

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