PAPER*****Motion Analysis of a bowler*****

Anonymous
timer Asked: Oct 19th, 2017

Question Description

I would like to have a paper written for me and wondering if you would be willing to work on the price and timing in which it is done. The paper has to do with motion analysis - in this case of a bowlers motion when swinging a bowling ball. I will attach an example of exactly what I'm looking for but instead of using the motion analysis of the football player in the example you would use the bowlers motion.

IMPORTANT*** I'm asking if you would be able to provide me with just the DISCRIPTION portion by tonight. I wouldn't need the rest of the paper for at a week so you'd have plenty of time to complete the rest.

If this sounds like something that you can do please contact me ASAP and we can talk prices.

Student Name HPED 315 001 Final Written Paper The Three-Point Stance Introduction Football is one of the country’s most popular sports to play and watch. It is a game of great speed, strength, and ferocity played by modern day gladiators. Players of certain positions are often glorified because of godly statistics racked up throughout the season, such as touchdowns, yards, tackles, and sacks. Ask any true student of the game and he or she will say that the most important players on the field are never glorified. This is because they really only have two recordable statistics: pancakes and sacks given up. These players are the offensive lineman. This position is often misunderstood and I am writing to describe the technique that an offensive lineman uses to control the field. Motion Analysis Just about all of the elements of the drive block occur in sagittal planes about transverse axes. When the legs move throughout this motion, the femurs rotate about the transverse axes of the hip joints along sagittal planes, the tibias rotate about the transverse axes of the knee joints along sagittal planes, and the talus rotate about the tranverse axes of the ankle joints. When the arms move throughout this motion, the humerus rotate about the transverse axes of the shoulder joints along sagittal planes; the ulnas and radii rotate about the transverse axes of the elbow joints along sagittal planes. The body’s limbs continuously move about these axes and along these planes through four phases: 3-point stance, cocked, contact, and follow through. 3-Point Stance phase: My offensive line coach in high school used the following cadence when he wanted the offensive line to get in a stance: “Feet, seat, reach.” On the command, “feet,” the linemen would set their feet under them, shoulder width apart or slightly wider, and with their weight evenly distributed. “Seat,” the linemen would squat down so that their hips and knees were flexed to about 90˚. “Reach,” the linemen would stay in the squatted position, lean forward, and reach out to plant their down hand, dominant hand in the ground for balance. They want their hands directly under the ipsilateral shoulders. The weight distribution between the two feet and down hand should be approximately 40% on each leg and 20% on the down hand. In a stance, linemen want to have flat or slightly bowed backs with their necks extended and eyes looking up at the target. The off hand, or non-dominant hand, is cupped around the ipsilateral knee. Cocked phase: At the snap of the ball, a lineman fires out his stance, maintaining that low, squatted body positioning. As he’s firing out, draws his hands backwards by extending his shoulders and flexing his elbows in such a way that the hands move in a straight line, not in a parabolic path. The hands are considered fully cocked backwards when the thumbs are flush with the chest. As the hands reach the cocked position, the ipsilateral foot of the down hand simultaneously replaces that hand. The cocked phase has been reached. At contact: From the cocked phase, the lineman progresses towards contact. This is achieved by forcefully flexing the shoulders and extending the elbows, with the thumbs pointed up, while taking a short, quick step with the foot that hasn’t moved yet. Often, the lineman will barely get that second foot planted back in the ground before contact. The lineman wants to initiate contact with his hands punching and grasping the defender’s chest plate while his facemask drives through the defender’s throat. At this point, the lineman wants to still be in that low, squatted position. Follow through: The follow through phase spans from the point of contact until the whistle blows. After contact, the lineman wants to continue to flex his shoulders and extend his elbows as he “runs his feet”; meaning repetitive, alternating, quick, short steps. The lineman then wants to extend his knees and hips to as he runs his feet in order to put the defender on his heels and push him backwards. Description All movements made by an offensive lineman are intended to be quick, short and powerful. Why? Because if the offensive lineman is quicker than the defender and beats him to a particular point, then the offensive lineman has an advantage. Power is the product of force over time. If an offensive lineman produces more force over a shorter period of time as compared to the defender, the offensive lineman will be considered more powerful and will have a better chance of driving the defender off of the ball. As a result, offensive linemen want to cut out unnecessary motion to keep the final product quick and concise. When an offensive lineman is in his stance, body positioning is key. The feet are shoulder width apart to provide adequate balance. The lineman’s weight is distributed evenly among both feet so that he can take a step aggressively in any direction without tipping off the defenders on what direction that might be. The down hand reaches out to cause a forward lean to fire off the ball. The offhand is behind the knee so that it’s already partially cocked back for a quick powerful blow. The back is flat or slightly bowed and the head and eyes are up to put the spine in proper alignment to prevent spinal cord and vertebral disk injuries. The knees and hips are bent approximately 90˚ to create power angles that put the muscles that cross this joint on an ideal stretch for maximum contraction. One phrase that you will always hear an offensive line coach yelling is, “keep your feet moving.” Keeping the feet moving helps to generate momentum and provides a constant, repetitive force to push the defensive lineman. For a drive block on a defender that is directly in front of the offensive lineman, the first step is a quick six inch step that practically replaces the down hand. An offensive lineman wants to contact the defender on the defense’s side of the line of scrimmage. This short first step helps the lineman gain ground before contact. The offensive lineman wants to stay low before and through contact to create leverage to root out the defender. As the first step is taken, both arms are cocked back to cause a plyometric stretch of the muscles that must contract to punch the hands forward into the defenders chest. The eyes are looking forward at all times through the movement to prevent axial loading of the cervical spine. Typically, by the completion of the second step, contact is made. The offensive lineman wants to simultaneously put his face mask in the defender’s throat and wants to shoot his hands from the cocked position to the chest plate of the defender to create a maximum jolt to the defender. The offensive lineman grabs a hold of the chest plate to latch on and control the defender. The offensive lineman simultaneously presses the defender away violently to lock out his arms while extending the hips in order to get the defender on his heels. The legs of the offensive lineman quickly churn like the pistons in an engine; he wants to get the feet up and put them back down as quickly as possible. The offensive lineman’s legs almost never fully extend, instead they fire in short range of motion in a squatted position to maintain the power angles. With the legs churning and the defender on his heels, the offensive lineman can run the defender back away from the line of scrimmage. Biomechanical Principles Newton’s first law of motion describes the law of inertia. It roughly states that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion; unless influenced by an external force. Inertia is the resistance to change; a moving object’s momentum affects its resistance. The faster an object moves, the more momentum it has, and the more resistant it is to change. The larger an object is, the more momentum it has, and the more resistant it is to change. An offensive lineman needs a unique physique to be as effective as possible. He wants to be as large as possible without limiting his mobility. The bigger and faster that a lineman is, the more momentum he will have. The more momentum that he has, the greater resistance to change he will harness along his path. In other words, the offensive lineman’s momentum at contact will resist the change that the defender is trying to impose. This means that the O-lineman will root out the D-lineman faster if he has more momentum. When I hit the sled, the sled was at rest. The force that I applied caused the sled to leave a state of rest and become a moving object. Stability is affected by the base of support and the height of the center of gravity. The wider the base of support that an object has along the line of force, the more stable the object is; but a lineman doesn’t want too wide of a stance because that will limit his mobility. Staying low is stressed as an offensive lineman as it pertains to center of gravity and leverage. An object’s center of gravity is where the object’s mass is most centrally concentrated. If a force is applied directly to an object’s center of gravity, the object will only move linearly in the direction of the force. If a force is applied elsewhere to an object, other than the center of gravity, then the object will not solely move in a linear path, but a rotational component will have been added. An offensive lineman wants to keep his center of gravity lower than the defender’s for leverage so that the offensive lineman can apply an upward rotational force to the defender. The upward rotational force is what will get the defender on his heels, off balanced, and unable to produce a significant opposing force. Evaluate Performance The three keys to being an offensive lineman are leverage, power, and technique. Leverage is created through technique and is maintained by staying lower than your opponent. Torque is generated by delivering an upward blow. Increasing the force and/or velocity of a movement optimizes the power and torque inflicted during a collision. Leverage begins with an offensive lineman’s stance. A lineman crouches so that his hips and knees flex to about 90˚ with his back flat and almost parallel to the ground. When viewing the stance from the side, the upper leg, lower leg, and foot should emulate the letter “Z”. The offensive lineman’s down hand is placed under the ipsilateral shoulder or slightly out in front of the shoulder. This is called a three-point stance. Minimal pressure is put on the down hand, approximately 20% of one’s body weight. The other 80% of one’s body weight should be evenly distributed among both feet; with the feet slightly wider than shoulder width and the toes of these feet in a straight line. The weight distribution of this basic offensive lineman stance allows the lineman to move equally well in any direction. The back is flat or slightly bowed, with the neck extended and the eyes looking forward in order to place the spine in proper alignment to help prevent injury. Some characteristics I noticed when evaluating my stance follow. While my feet are properly planted just beyond shoulder width, my toes are not in a straight line; the toes of my right foot are in line with the arch of my left foot. This stems from my playing days as a right tackle where a staggered stance is acceptable to create blocking angles. For the purposes of this evaluation, aligning my toes is a simple fix. There is no way that I can truly measure how my weight is distributed but it appears that I have minimal, but some pressure, on my down hand and I look balanced with regards to the weight distribution in my feet. While my crouch is functional, and my legs resemble the letter “Z”, it wouldn’t hurt for me to crouch down more to lower my center of gravity. In order to achieve a lower crouch, I would work to increase the flexibility of all leg and hip musculature to increase the range of motion of my joints. My eyes are looking forward and the majority of my back is flat, but my low back is still slightly rounded. To maintain the proper anterior curve of the lumbar spine when in that crouched position, I would begin a strengthening regimen that focuses on back extension. As an offensive lineman reaches the cocked phase of the drive block, the player wants to keep his back flat and maintain a substantial amount of knee and hip flexion in order to stay low while firing out of the stance. The first step should be quick and that foot should replace the down hand. The shoulders should extend and the elbows should flex to draw the hands back into a cocked position. During my movement, my first step properly replaced my down hand; but I came out of my stance too tall, losing leverage and exposing my chest to the defender. The arm motion to cock my hands was not efficient. Instead of extending my shoulders and flexing my elbows in a manner that would draw my hands back in a straight line, I lacked elbow flexion which caused a parabolic motion of my hands. The shortest distance from point A to B is a straight line. The inefficient parabolic motion sacrifices precious milliseconds; this motion also sets me up for failure when I go to deliver the blow which I will discuss later. An offensive lineman’s facemask and hands should make simultaneous contact with the defender. The point of contact should be the first time throughout the movement where vertical motion is seen. The lineman wants to drive is facemask through the neck of his opponent as he forcibly extends his elbows and flexes his shoulders; shooting his hands into the breast plate of the defender. When I reached the point of contact during my motion, my head was a little bit out in front and I was standing too tall. Against a true opponent, my poor execution of the cocking phase, with the inefficient, parabolic motion, would allow my opponent to beat me to the chest and theoretically control me. I need a more direct delivery of the hands and to use them to create torque on the opponent to root him out. During the follow through phase of a drive block, an offensive lineman wants to now extend his hips as he continues to extend his elbows and flex his shoulders to thrust the defender onto his heels. The lineman will then duck-walk the defender in any direction he desires. My follow through did not involve much hip action since I was already high at the point of contact. I do completely follow through with my arms, though. Overall, the motion is functional, but not efficient. Not bad for not playing for four years, but I couldn’t expect much success with my current form. Conclusion I hope that I have shined some light on the technique and biomechanical principles of a position that I hold dear to my heart. If you take away anything from what I wrote, let it be this: a good offensive lineman understands how to incorporate proper technique to manipulate biomechanical principles such as momentum, power, center of gravity, and torque in order to impose his will on a defender. I enjoyed this assignment for two reasons. One, it gave me a pleasant flashback of my hay day; and two, it forced me to analyze human movement from a more technical perspective that will allow me to better understand the mechanisms of injuries in sports and how to better incorporate preventive strategies against injury which is important as an athletic trainer.

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