Restate your PICOT question from Part I in the template below

timer Asked: Apr 24th, 2018

Question Description


Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project

Part II: Primary Source Fact Table (20 points)

A. PICO(T) Question:

Restate your PICOT question from Part I in the template below.

Question Type

Question Format


In ______________ (P), how does _____________(I) compared to ____________ (C) affect ______________(O) within_____________(T)?



In __________ (P), how does ___________ (I) compared to _____________ (C) influence/predict _____________ (O) over __________ (T)?


Are ____________ (P), who have _____________ (I) compared with those without ______________ (C) at risk for/of _____________ (O) over ______________ (T)?

B. Primary Source Fact Table:

Use the table below to identify and evaluate your three primary source articles.


Evaluation Fact Table-Primary Source Articles

PICO(T) Question:



Study Design &

Level of Evidence on Pyramid



Dependent Variable(s)

Independent Variable(s)

# Subjects

Subject Characteristics

Instruments Used

Time Period

Study Results

(Are results believable & generalizable to other populations?

How does it contribute to the PICO question?


Pierik, Jzerman, Gaakeer, Doggen.

“Painful discrimination in the emergency department: Risk factors for under-assessment of patients’ pain by nurses”

Compare pain assessment discrepancies between nurses & patients.

Secondary: identify patients at high risk for under-assessment by emergency nurses.


“Prospective follow-up study”

(part of the larger PROTACT study)

Non-experimental Comparative study without randomization

Cohort Study:

IRB approval from Medical Research Ethics Committee

Informed consent from each participant.

(response measured)

Pain level

(compared groups)

Patient’s pain rating

Nurses’ pain rating

539 PTS

(N= 539)

-Ages 18-69

Inclusion criteria:

-MSK extremity injury caused by blunt trauma

-Dutch language

Exclusion criteria:

-life/limb threatened injury

-cognitive disability

-hallucinations/delusions or suicidal

-alcohol or drug intoxication

-patients not returning questionnaires

Questionnaires used

-Numerical Ranging Scale (NRS)

-Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)

-Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS)

-Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)

-Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK)

(all mention validity-reliability test results):

22 months

Sept. 2011 to July 2013

Patients rated pain higher than nurses 6.5/10 compared to 4/10 with27% in agreement. 63% nurses under-rated patient’s pain. 10% nurses overrated patient’s pain.

Vulnerable populations:


-Lower SES

-Prehospital analgesics


-Lower extremity injury


-Lower urgency

(If it doesn’t contribute to your PICOT question, find another article)




PICCOT Question

For overweight children in the US, does the utilization of community recreation activities compared to educational curricula on lifestyle changes decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus?

Those are the articles to be restated, please fix them up here following the example in a table that professor has provided.

LibGuides: Evidence-Based Practice: PICO. (2018). Retrieved 20 April 2018, from

Atlantis, E., Barnes, E., & Singh, M. (2016). Efficacy of exercise for treating overweight in children and adolescents: a systematic review. International Journal Of Obesity, 30(7), 1027-1040.

George, G., Schneider, C., & Kaiser, L. (2016). Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp : A Summer Approach to Prevent Obesity in Low-Income Youth. Journal Of Nutrition Education And Behavior, 48(3), 208-212.e1.

Hingle, M., Turner, T., Kutob, R., Merchant, N., Roe, D., Stump, C., & Going, S. (2015). The EPIC Kids Study: a randomized family-focused YMCA-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk youth. BMC Public Health, 15(1).

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