Pierik, Jzerman, Gaakeer, Doggen.
“Painful discrimination in the emergency department: Risk factors for under-assessment of patients’ pain by nurses”
Compare pain assessment discrepancies between nurses & patients.
Secondary: identify patients at high risk for under-assessment by emergency nurses.
“Prospective follow-up study”
(part of the larger PROTACT study)
Non-experimental Comparative study without randomization
IRB approval from Medical Research Ethics Committee
Informed consent from each participant.
Patient’s pain rating
Nurses’ pain rating
-MSK extremity injury caused by blunt trauma
-life/limb threatened injury
-hallucinations/delusions or suicidal
-alcohol or drug intoxication
-patients not returning questionnaires
-Numerical Ranging Scale (NRS)
-Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)
-Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS)
-Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)
-Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK)
(all mention validity-reliability test results):
Sept. 2011 to July 2013
Patients rated pain higher than nurses 6.5/10 compared to 4/10 with27% in agreement. 63% nurses under-rated patient’s pain. 10% nurses overrated patient’s pain.
-Lower extremity injury
(If it doesn’t contribute to your PICOT question, find another article)