Data analysis project- research paper

timer Asked: May 5th, 2018

Question Description

Abstract:150 words

Literature review/ introduction: 3 pages. (Part of the paper not individual)

Method: 1- participants- describe the sample 2- materials- decribe the questionnaires used 3- procedure- describe how subjects participated in the study.

Results- it should be about thegression analyses.

Discussion- briefly tie in the results to the literature review.

Over all pages should be 8 pages

The study and the results is uploaded.

The IV 1 is bise02 IV 2 is popse02 DV- se02

Also there is an example about the instructions of the paper

Please use three sources for the literature review

This is the study, also it will be uploaded as spss to see the numbers and the results

N = 195

This dataset was collected from a sample of 195 4th


th grade children at a university school in a metropolitan area in the US. It is a

longitudinal data set with two time measurements. It looks at various aspects of children’s well-being including the following


Categorical Variables Continuous Variables

Grade Self-esteem (6 item scale)

Sex Depression (10 item scale)

Gender typicality (5 item scale)

Prosocial behavior

Sports self-efficacy (5 item scale)

Body image self-efficacy (4 item scale)

Popularity self-efficacy (5 item scale)

Aggression (% of peers who rate participant as aggressive)

Victimized (% of peers who say participant is victimized)

Avoidant attachment (15 item scale)

Preoccupied attachment (15 item scale)


N = 118

This data set was collected from a sample of 118 college-level students taking a statistic

Running head: SELF-ESTEEM 1 Self Esteem in Children and College Students Mariah Penascino Lynn University SELF ESTEEM 2 Abstract Two studies examined self-esteem, one examined 4th through 7th graders, while the other took college level students. Approximately, 195 fourth through seventh grade students were subjected to take a questionnaire that assessed global self-worth, gender contentedness, and within-gender typicality. Next, 338 college level students were directed to take an online test of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The first study hypothesized that the children in 7th grade would show a higher self-esteem than 4th, 5th, or 6th graders showed. It was also hypothesized, in the second study, that seniors would show a significantly higher self-esteem than freshman, sophomores, or juniors. The findings did not support previous research or the hypotheses, suggesting that selfesteem increased through adolescence into adulthood, but instead showed the self-esteem levels staying constant throughout the 4th to 7th grade as well as freshman year to senior year. SELF ESTEEM 3 Self Esteem in Children and College Students Recent studies and research has looked at three separate functions of the self: personal, relational, and collection (Brewer & Chen, 2007; Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). The personal self refers to the self-concept that highlights one’s personalized characteristics, while the relational self is more focuses on the connection with signification others, such as family, peers, etc. (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). Lastly, the collective self is built purely between social groups, such as nationality and ethnicity (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). Marcus and Kitayana (1991) found a difference between people in individualistic cultures define themselves through abilities and values being more likely to have independent self-construal, whereas people in more collectivistic cultures define themselves based off their relationships with significant others being more likely to have an interdependent self-construal (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). Next, Brewer and Gardner (1996) declared independent self-construal is related with the personal self and those people believe the personal self is the most important aspect of the self (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). Interdependent self-construal would be more associated with the relational self and show attachment to the significance of others (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). Thus, based on this research, the development of the dimensions to the self was created. Self-esteem can be seen as one of the basic psychological constructs connected with the self that provides an evaluation of approval of disapproval where judgements about their selfworth are regarded (Rosenberg et al., 1995; Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). Self-esteem also refers to the individuals’ criticisms about the way other people perceive them (Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P., 2012). It is one’s self image in their own mind that can be defined as an opinion one holds, acceptance, satisfaction or dissatisfaction with oneself (Guillon, Crocq, & Bailey, SELF ESTEEM 4 2007; Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). Rosenberg (1965) and Coopersmith (1967) created a measurement tool that assessed self-esteem and this tool was divided into position and negative self-concepts according to one’s own appraisal (Smith & Mackie, 2007; Bum & Jeon, 2016). A person with a strong, positive self-esteem are more than likely to be in a good place compared to those without it (Baumeister et al., 2003; Bum & Jeon, 2016). One’s self-esteem plays a vital role in the shaping of behavior and influences to a person’s growth and development (Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). Previous research has shown in the university years, there is a developmental challenge transitional person to adulthood, in which university students face a lot of stress and pressures both intellectually and emotionally (Delaney, 2003; Duchscher, 2008; Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). Research backs up the claim that a healthy self-esteem can increase and benefit the difficult period of time during these transitions in college (Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). These transitions can include financial independence, taking more responsibility for the self and possibly others, building close relationships, entering the work life, and other activities (Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). A young adult struggles with identifying his or her worth and self-respect which makes students more vulnerable to creating a lower self-esteem (Adlaf et al., 2001;(Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, 2012). Moreover, positive self-esteem is associated with academic achievement and perceived as a desirable outcome in educational and psychological situations (Liu, Wu, & Ming, 2015). The lower self-esteem in young adolescents reported to show more health compromising behaviors, such as depression, anxiety, problem in eating, and suicidal ideation (Liu, Wu, & Ming, 2015). Global self-esteem is rooted in social interaction and develops in accordance to interpersonal relations (Kiviruusu et al., 2016). Self-esteem begins in early childhood where attachment to the SELF ESTEEM 5 parents forms as a basis for a health self-esteem, but then continues through adolescence which includes peer relations of self-image (Kiviruusu et al., 2016). This is followed by self-esteem being molded in adulthood involving different social contexts and roles (Kiviruusu et al., 2016). The two present studies looked to assess self-esteem in each grade level amongst children and in each class level among college students. The first study had a research question: (1) Does self-esteem vary as a function of grade level among 4th through 7th grade students? The second study had a research question: (2) Does self-esteem vary as a function of class level among freshman through senior college students? For the first study, it is hypothesize that children in 7th grade will have a greater or higher self-esteem than those in younger grade levels. In accordance to the second study, it is hypothesized that students who are a senior will exhibit a higher selfesteem than those in their freshman, sophomore, or junior year in college. Method Study 1 Participants The aim of this study was to explore if grade level among children predicts self-esteem. To start, the dataset looked at a sample of 195 4th through 7th grade children in a metropolitan area in the U.S. The dataset conducted a longitudinal study with two time measurements and looked at various aspects of children’s well-being. Self-esteem was assessed on a 6-item scale. Materials & Procedure The children were directed to take a ‘What I am Like: Part 3’ questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed global self-worth, gender contentedness, and within-gender typicality as well as the reversed-scored item of each of those terms. The questionnaire was composed of 16 questions in total that directed the students to circle the answer to best fit how they felt. An SELF ESTEEM 6 example of this could be ‘Some kids are often unhappy with themselves (children would either circle, very true for me or sort of true for me) but other kids are pretty pleased with themselves (children would either circle, sort of true for me or very true for me)’. For the best results, researchers took the children into a private setting where they could answer the questions on their own. Results A one-way ANOVA was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that self-esteem varied as a function of grade level in children. The test was not significant, F(3, 191) = .174, p < .914. The descriptive statistics revealed that 4th graders (M = 3.6186, SD .4613), 5th graders (M = 3.6071, SD = .4938), 6th graders (M = 3.6512, SD = .4207), and 7th graders (M = 3.5758, SD = .5889) showed little to no difference in the mean scores in assessing self-esteem. Thus, the Tukey HSD post how test was insignificant due to there being no significance between grade levels detected. Study 2 Participants The aim of this study was to assess self-esteem as a function of class level in college students. The dataset took a sample of 338 college-level students in a large state university and a small private university. The self-esteem was assessed through a 10-item scale. Materials & Procedures The college students were assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. This scale identified a specific questionnaire layout to measure self-esteem through 10 items rated on a 4point scale ranging from 1 = Strongly Agree to 4 = Strongly Disagree. An example of this could be ‘On the whole, I am satisfied with myself’ in which the student would answer, 1 = Strongly Agree, 2 = Agree, 3 = Disagree, or 4 = Strongly Disagree. After the questionnaire is complete, SELF ESTEEM 7 the self-esteem score is estimated and calculated. For the best results, most convenient for college students, the test were given through an online survey. Results A one-way ANOVA was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that self-esteem varied as a function of different class levels among college students. The test was not significant, F(3,334) = .071, p < .975. The descriptive statistics showed that freshman (M = 3.69, SD = .61), sophomores ( M = 3.65, SD = .64), juniors (M = 3.65, SD = .66), and seniors (M= 3.69, SD = .64) did not vary as a function of self-esteem. The Tukey HSD post how test was not assessed because of the original test being insignificant. Discussion The focus was on self-esteem varying as a function of grade level in children and college students. Self-esteem plays a crucial role in resilience and mental health of individuals and can help or reduce the performance of an individual in any aspect of life (Zafar, Saleem, & Mahmood, (2012). The analysis of the data revealed in both 4th through 7th grade and college levels, that self-esteem did not increase or decrease as the years went on. Previous research has indicated self-esteem increased from adolescence into adulthood but staying consistent within adulthood (Kiviruusu et al., 2016). Self-esteem has been assessed in relation to fitness, relationships, and physical activity, but not enough research has been conducted on longitudinal data throughout class levels. The results for both grade level students and college level students went against the hypothesis that self-esteem increases as the grade or class level goes up. It is interesting to see such results because a person’s self-esteem is seen to develop through adolescence into adulthood and not stay the same throughout time. Some limitations to the current two studies are the sample size and measurement tactics. The online questionnaire used SELF ESTEEM in the second study assessing self-esteem in college students could have been taken lightly and filled out in the same way. Also, the first study used a test given by a researcher that may not have been described thoroughly enough for the child to comprehend. Lastly, in order to obtain a more lifelike result, more students in more universities and schools must be assessed for selfesteem. 8 SELF ESTEEM 9 References Bum, C.H., & Jeon, I.K. (2016). Relationships among fun, self-esteem, and happiness of tennis players. Social Behavior & Personality: An international Journal, 44(10, 1619-1635. Du, H., King, R.B., & Chi, P. (2012). The development and validation of the Relational SelfEsteem Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(3), 258-264.doi:10.1111/j.14679450.2012.00946.x Kiviruusu, O., Berg, N., Huurre, T., Aro, H., Marttunen, M., & Haukkala, A. (2016). Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to MidAdulthood. A 26-Year Follow Up. Plos ONE, 11(10), 117.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164942 Liu, M., Wu, L., & Ming, Q. (2015). How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve SelfEsteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis. Plos ONE, 10(8), 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134804 Zafar, M., Saleem, S., & Mahmood, Z. (2012). The Development of a Self-Esteem Scalre for University Studetns. FWU Journal Of Social Sciences, 6(1), 26-37.
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