Lab report: Electromagnetism, Electromagnetic (EM) Waves, and Optics

timer Asked: May 8th, 2018

Question description

Lab Report and Discussion

The Lab Report and Discussion activities have two components, both of which must be satisfactorily met to be awarded full credit.

  1. The Lab Report must be submitted in the discussion forum utilizing the format below, based on the results of the respective experiment(s).
  2. Responses to and comments on your classmates’ Lab Reports must be made within the module period. Comments/responses will be made on at least two different Lab Reports, utilizing the directions provided.

Please do it like the format I provide Thanks.

Physics Lab Report Example The following pages contain a sample lab report for an experiment where the water level in a 2-liter soda bottle changes as more and more water is added. It is slightly more brief and less well-developed than your lab reports are expected to be (except in the area of Uncertainty, which is more robust than you may be able to produce), however, it provides a sense of what type of information is expected in each section. Note: This Lab Report example has been edited to follow the Lab Report requirements of the PHYS 102 class. Certain headings and sections were removed (including Method, Materials List, Raw Data table, and Data Analysis) due to the virtual nature of the experiment simulations, and the desire to focus on the experiment results and student conclusions. This experiment example below is designed to correlate the volume of the water contained within the bottle to the height of the water in that bottle. Name: Stuart (Stu) Dent Title: Soda Bottle Experiment Hypothesis: Given that a soda bottle roughly resembles a cylinder, we expect a linear relationship between the height of the water and the amount of water (volume) poured into it. Overview: We measure the height of the water after filling in equal amounts of water. To test for the linear relationship, we will make a best line fit in a Volume-height (V-h) diagram. Procedure: See Lab Instructions Raw Data: See Lab data sheet(s) Uncertainty & Error: Uncertainty: We were able to measure the volume with a precision of ±25mL and the water level with a precision of ±0.5cm. Major Sources of Error: Systematic: • In particular at the lower and upper end of the bottle we have indentions that make the shape of the bottle deviate from a cylindrical shape. This should overall shift the curve upwards. (Can be avoided by only measuring the height gain for the middle part of the bottle.) • Ruler held at an angle. This will result in an over-estimate of h. (Can be avoided by holding ruler perpendicular.) • Residual water in the bottle. This will again shift the entire curve upwards. (Can be avoided by having the bottle carefully dried.) • Bubbles in the water. This will result in an overestimation of the volume. (Effect can be reduced by letting water sit before measurements). Random: • Change in temperature in water (thermal expansion). • Misreading the ruler. Summary: Our expectation of a linear relationship between volume and height seems correct. The measured heights of the water in the bottle as the volume of water increased fell along a straight line in the V-h graph, very well supporting this notion. The fact that the intercept is non-zero (as we would expect) can be accounted for by the indentations at the lower end of the bottle. This error is based on the fact that the bottle is not a true cylinder. Additional errors may have been introduced by incorrect measurement readings or other aspects relating to the temperature of the water or fluctuations in volume. The slope has little physical meaning, except that it is proportional to the average area of the bottle. Future iterations of this experiment might benefit from ensuring the experiment is conducted in a constant temperature environment, the water is room temperature, and the bottle has a flat bottom and is closer to the shape of a true cylinder. I loved this lab and think I have the best physics teacher ever! Application: This experiment shows the connection between volume and height, providing some insight for manufacturers to estimate how much liquid could be held in cylindrical containers, whether they be water bottles or giant beer vats. An alternate view could be that the set height of fluid in a cylindrical container would tell the manufacturer how much liquid is in the container. The use of height sensors could be used as quality control for bottling plants.
Physics Lab Report Format Name: Title: Hypothesis: Overview: Procedure: See Lab Instructions Data Table: See Lab data sheet(s) Uncertainty & Error: Conclusion/Summary: Application: ______________________________________________________________________ Notes for each heading: Name: Do not expect credit if not included. Title: The experiment name. Do not include the Module number. Again, without this, do not expect credit. Hypothesis: Statement that the experiment is going to test, prove, or disprove. What is the point of the experiment? (Make a statement that the experiment will either prove or disprove.) Overview: Brief summary of what occurred in the experiment or what was tested and how. Procedures: See Experiment Instructions Data Table: See Experiment Data Table Uncertainty & Error: Can you trust your data? Considerations: 1) What factors may have affected or biased the data and introduced uncertainty in the lab measurements? Or, what conditions created uncertainty in your measurements? Which measurements were most affected?” 2) If you were conducting the lab in a physical environment, what other factors would have to be taken into account while accomplishing the procedures? How might they affect the data and/or experiment outcome? Conclusion/Summary: This section must contain each of the items listed below. You are now the one speaking, of your personal results. Although this is merely an example, it does contain all the requisite components. You may write this section how you see fit, as long as the items annotated are included. However, a checklist or bullet list is not acceptable. The clarity and flow of your conclusion/summary should make clear to any ready what you did in the experiment and how it turned out. “In this lab, I (what you did). I did this by (how you did it—brief description of procedures). I found out/learned that (what you learned). Some errors that may have occurred with this lab include (possible errors/flaws—must include at least one). In the future, I would (change, add, delete) (suggest an improvement) to enhance the lab. I loved this lab and think I have the best physics teacher ever!” (Okay, that last line isn’t truly necessary, but it never hurts. ☺) Application: How does this topic—and science in general—impact our understanding of the complex, technological society of which we are a part? How does this explain something in the real world around you?
Module 8 – Optical Bench – Instructions INTRODUCTION Lenses can vary dramatically in size and shape. These, and a variety of additional factors, impact the lens’ image properties, including focal length and image distance. LEARNING OUTCOMES (FROM SYLLABUS) • Define and analyze the concepts such as the following: velocity, acceleration, force, inertia, mass, work, energy (kinetic, potential, etc.) momentum (linear and angular), gravity, tides, power, pressure, density, temperature, thermal expansion, heat, specific heat capacity, waves, sound, electric charge, current, magnetism, electromagnetic waves (including light), photons, and radioactivity. • Discuss the various types of motion, Newton’s Laws (including his Universal Law of Gravitation), the conservation laws of physics, the laws of electricity (e.g. Coulomb’s and Ohm’s Laws) and magnetism. The properties of waves (viz. sound and electromagnetic, including light) and the basic principles of atomic and nuclear physics and quantum theory. • Interpret the results of simple experiments and demonstrations of physical principles. EXPERIMENT SIMULATION Use this Experiment Simulation to conduct the second part of the experiment according to the instructions in Part II. Follow all instructions explicitly. WORKSHEET Please print the worksheet for this experiment. You will need this sheet to record your data. PART I: LIGHT BEAMS Step 1 Look at the image below: Notice that the confluence of blue-colored light is at a different point than that of the red-colored c 2012-2013 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Q 2 light. Step 2 Answer the questions in Part I. PART II: RAY DIAGRAM Open the Optical Bench simulation. Step 1: Set-up Ensure Light, Concave and Convex Lenses is selected in the top row of options. The default values are: Focal length (f) = 4 distance of object (do) = 10 distance to image (di) = 6.67 Height of object (ho) = 3 height of image (hi) = -2 Magnification (M) = -0.67 To change settings: • To move or resize the object: move the tip of the "Object" arrow. • To change focal length: move the point named "Focus' " (on the left). The focal length (on the right will reflect the change). • To change to a concave lens: move the point named "Focus' " to the right side of the lens. Despite the fact that all the pertinent values are provided in the simulation, it is important that you accomplish the calculations yourself to ensure your ability to properly utilize the lens equation. This ability will be assessed on the exam. General Notes: The magnitudes of s, p, and f are always measured from the center of the lens. The object distance (s) is ALWAYS positive. The image distance (p) is positive if the image and object are on opposite sides of the lens. The image distance (p) is negative if the image and object are on the same side of the lens. The focal length (f) is positive for a convex lens. The focal length (f) is negative for a concave lens. In the equations for Magnification (M): M can be positive or negative depending on the sign of p or the image height. s is always positive, and p can be positive or negative per the above. Object height is always positive (object always upright). Image height is positive if upright. Image height is negative if inverted. Step 2 a Set Focus’ to -4 (focal length to f=4), object height to 2, and object distance to -10. b Calculate the image distance. c Calculate the image height. Step 3 a Move the Focus’ to -3 (focal length to f=3), object height to 3, and object distance to -6. c 2012-2013 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Q 3 b Calculate the image distance. c Calculate the image height. d Answer the questions on your worksheet. c 2012-2013 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Q 4 Step 4 a Move the Focus’ from -3 to -8 (focal length from f=3 to f=8) on the optical axis. b Answer the questions on your worksheet. Step 5 a Move the Focus’ point through the lens to 3 (focal length to f = -3), object height to 3, and object distance to -9. b Calculate the image distance. c Calculate the image height. d Answer the questions on your worksheet. c 2012-2013 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Q 5
Module 8 – Optical Bench INTRODUCTION Light rays passing through a lens will be refracted as the light passes through the lens. Each lens has an optical axis (in your experiment, the horizontal axis will be the optical axis) and a focal point. The experiment you are about to do will use a converging lens, which can also be referred to as a convex lens. Figure 1 shows a representation of image formation with a converging, or convex, lens. Figure 1: Light rays passing through a converging (convex) lens. Figure 1: Light rays passing through a converging (convex) lens. Your textbook gives the directions for drawing ray diagrams as follows. 1 The ray that is initially parallel to the optical axis passes through the focal point (F) on the other side of the lens. 2 The ray that passes through the focal point (F' ) on the same side of the lens as the object emerges parallel to the optical axis. 3 The ray that goes exactly through the center of the lens is undeviated because the two interfaces it encounters are parallel. (Ostdiek and Bord 2018, 353) Make sure you have read all of the information associated with lenses and image formation before attempting this experiment. You will need to be familiar with object distance, image distance, and focal length. In addition, you will need to understand the difference between real and virtual images. When you have completely reviewed the information in the textbook, you can proceed to open the instructions for the experiment. PROCEDURE This experiment consists of three parts. 1 Open the experiment instructions and worksheet. • • Optical Bench Instructions (HTML or PDF) Optical Bench Experiment Worksheet 2 After you have thoroughly read the instructions and worksheet, open the experiment simulation in which you will conduct the experiment and collect your data. 4 Record your data in the worksheet. (You will need it for the lab report assignment in WebAssign.) Copyright © 2012-2013 Advanced Instructional Systems, Inc. and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University | Credits

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