anatomy and Physiology

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Bio 1210 Final Exam Name __________________________ Choose the best answer 1. The juncture of two nerve cells is called the ___________. A. dendrite B. perkaryon C. synapse D. functional zone 2. The receptor portion of the nerve is the ___________ , while the transmitting portion of the nerve is known as the __________________ A. axon, dendrite B. cell body, neuron C. dendrite, axon D. cell body, axon 3. A simple reflex is the connection of, at a minimum, ____________, ____________& _____________nerves. A. sympathetic, motor and parasympathetic B. cranial, spinal and sensory C. sensory, motor and interneuron D. all of these may be simple reflexes 4. Glial cells in the nervous system produce _________________ A. simple reflexes only B. connective tissue that supports and surrounds nerves C. the fight or flight response D. irregular brain waves 5. A nerve reaching its threshold and then firing is said to have reached a _____________ A. state of change B. spontaneous depolarization C. state of hyperpolarization D. action potential 6. Groups of dendrites, non-myelinated cells and cell bodies are associated with the formation of _____________ A. tumors C. gray matter B. white matter D. strokes 7. The chemical agents released by nerves are known collectively as ________________ A. hormones B. steroids C. prostaglandins D. neurotransmitters 8. Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT associated with the Parasympathetic nervous system? A. occulomotor or third B. vagus or tenth C. trigeminal or fifth D. facial or seventh 9. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes the heart rate to _______ A. varies with parasympathetic nervous system activity B. accelerate or increase C. stay the same D. decelerate or slow down 10. The longest cranial nerve is the ___________, it is the key nerve of the parasympathetic system to the internal organs. A. glossopharyngeal or ninth B. vagus or tenth C. accessory or eleventh D. hypoglossal or twelfth 11. The portion of the brain associated with short term memory deficits, particularly associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, is the ___________ A. B. C. D. E. parietal lobe hippocampus thalamus hypothalamus midbrain 12. A neurotransmitter that is consistently inhibitory is ___________ A. dopamine B. serotonin C. acetyl choline D. GABA E. nor-epinephrine 13. The sympathetic nervous system, when activated, has what action on the pupil? A. B. C. D. dilation constriction elongation no change is noted 14. Glial cells include all of the following except____________ A. B. C. D. E. Betz cells Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells Astrocytes All of these are glial cells 15. A good description of the blood brain barrier is _______________ a. the meninges that are thickened and enclose the brain and the spinal cord b. the absence of capillary beds as blood vessels enter the skull c. that capillaries are present and have fewer tight junctions than any other location in the body and are covered by glial tissue d. that capillaries are present and have more tight junctions than anywhere else and are also covered by glial tissue. 16. The cerebro spinal fluid is ___________________ a. a filtrate of the blood that surrounds the CNS b. blood without the red cell components that surround the CNS c. a liquid produced in the CNS that is separate from the bloodstream but has some similar components d. a fluid similar to that which lubricates linings and synovial joints 17. The ventricles of the brain are __________________ a. b. c. d. reservoirs for the cerebro spinal fluid found deep within the CNS layers of the meninges air filled cavities, like sinuses, except they are in the CNS there are no ventricles in the brain; ventricles are only found in the heart 18. The large, commissural fiber tract(white matter) found in the CNS and very visible on the hemisection of the brain is the _______________ a. pyramids B.. inferior olive C. corona D..corpus callosum 19. Clusters of cell bodies are called ____________ in the CNS, and called ____________ outside of the CNS a. b. c. d. golgi bodies, nodes nuclei, ganglia ganglia, nuclei nuclei, nodes 20. The conscious control of motor activity is found in which cerebral lobe A. B. C. D. frontal parietal occipital temporal 21. The pituitary gland is attached by a stalk to the ____________ a. b. c. d. hypothalamus cerebral cortex medulla oblongota midbrain 22. An important pathway that is often associated with Parkinson’s Disease is the __________ a. b. c. d. Found between the midbrain and the basal ganglia Found between the midbrain and the limbic system corpus callosum superior and inferior colliculi 23. Neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse via the _____________ mechanism(s). a. b. c. d. e. reuptake metabolism/breakdown of components diffusion A&B A, B & C 24. An example of a neurotransmitter that is associated with different actions in the brain, autonomic nervous system and motor end plate is ____________ a. b. c. d. Acetyl Choline Dopamine Nor-epinephrine GABA 25. The outermost layer of the meninges is known as the _______________a. b. c. d. pia mater dura mater arachnoid layer epineurium 26. The large ventricle that surrounds the area of the corpus callosum and is associated with the cerebral cortex is the _______________ a. b. c. d. third ventricle fourth ventricle lateral ventricle cerebral ventricle 27. The distinctive white matter fibers seen when the cerebellum is sectioned is known as the ________________ a. cerebellar tracts b. aqua vitae c. arbor vitae d. peduncles e. none of these are correct 28. The structure that separates the cerebral cortex into left and right halves is known as the ________________ a. b. c. d. longitudinal fissure central sulcus lateral sulcus Galen’s fissure 29. The spinal cord is attached to the sacrum by the _______________ a. b. c. d. cauda equina suspensory ligament ligamentum flavium filum terminale 30. The lumbo sacral spinal nerves that exit below the end of the spinal cord are collectively known as the ______________ a. b. c. d. cauda equina neurosum terminale tractus caudatus filum terminale 31. The motor gyrus, where movement is initiated, is located in the _______________ of the cerebrum a. Frontal lobe, anterior to the central sulcus b. Frontal lobe, posterior to the central sulcus c. Pre frontal cortex d. Temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex 32. A hyperpolarizing neurotransmitter has what effect on the post-synaptic nerve cell? a. b. c. d. e. The cell is likely to depolarize more rapidly The voltage gated channels will open more rapidly The cell microvoltage increases The cell is less likely to depolarize None of these events is likely to occur 33. The phenomena responsible for motor impulses from the right side of the brain dictating motion on the left side of the body is due to what action of the motor nerves? A. B. C. D. E. spinal synapses reciprocal inhibition lower motor neuron distal dissection decussation degaussation 34. Which glial cells play a role in Cerebrospinal fluid production? A. B. C. D. ependymal cells microglia olgodendrocytes Schwann cells 35. Which glial cells produce myelin covering of the brain white matter? A. B. C. D. E. Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells Schwann cells 36. What substances are able to cross the blood brain barrier most efficiently? A. B. C. D. E. alcohol ( as in beverages) non-polar covalent pharmaceuticals small proteins A&B A, B & C 37. An example of a neurotransmitter that is always excitatory is __________ A. glycine B. glutamate C. GABA D. Acetyl Choline E. endorphins 38. The catecholamines are known to include _______________ A. B. C. D. E. dopamine nor-epinephrine glutamate A&B A, B & C 39. On the spinal cord, motor cells(cell bodies) are generally located in the________________ A. B. C. D. gray matter, anterior white matter, anterior gray matter, posterior white matter, posterior 40. Lumbar punctures, the process of either removing cerebrospinal fluid or injecting into that fluid is possible since __________ A. B. C. D. E. The spinal cord is not as thick in that region The spinal cord is less sensitive to trauma The dura mater is thinnest in that region The spinal cord usually terminates above the level of the puncture A&C 41. In general, the intensity of a stimulus that is sensed by the nervous system is directly related to _______________ A. How many sensors are triggered B. How frequently the sensors are triggered C. To what extent the sensors are triggered(amplitude or size of depolarization) D. The speed of the signal E. A & C The following sequence of events is out of order. Place the sequence in order and for questions 49-53 your answers will be the order of the events. A. Voltage regulated gates open with inflow of Na+ and outflow of K+ B. Na+/K+ pumps become active to restore ionic balance C. Neurotransmitter agents are released from the terminus of the presynaptic nerve D. Receptors are triggered E. An action potential occurs if threshold is reached 42. ________ 43. ________ 44. _______ 45. _______ 46. _______ 47. The cerebrospinal fluid in contact with the spinal cord is located in the ______________ A. B. C. D. E. central canal epidural area sub arachnoid space A&B A&C 48. Medicines such as Prozac and Paxil act on which neurotransmitter__________ and by what process? A. B. C. D. E. dopamine, metabolism serotonin, metabolism serotonin, reuptake dopamine, reuptake both dopamine and serotonin, reuptake 49. The substantia nigra and red nucleus, both associated with neurotransmitter production, are found in the ___________ are of the CNS A. B. C. D. E. limbic system hypothalamus thalamus midbrain pons 50. The cerebrospinal fluid filled opening in the body of the pons, spinal cord and the medulla is known as the _______________ A. B. C. D. E. Central Canal Fourth Ventricle Cerebral Aqueduct Third Ventricle Sub-arachnoid space 51. The cerebellum is noted for __________________ A. B. C. D. E. ipsilateral muscular coordination(same sided) contralateral muscular coordination (opposite sided) coordination of head movement to sound coordination of head movement to visual stimuli C&D 52. The long pre-ganglionic fibers are part of the __________________, which causes your digestive tract to become more active. A. B. C. D. Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system cerebellum thalamus 53. In flight or fight, what changes are not observed. A. B. C. D. E. increased blood flow to skin decreased blood flow to the gastro-intestinal structures increased perspiration bronchial constriction All of these changes are observed 54. The release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla is associated with __________________. A. B. C. D. sympathetic nervous system activity parasympathetic nervous system activity somatic nervous system activity spinal cord reflexive activity 55. Which of these is not associated with increased speed of nerve impulses. A. B. C. D. E. Presence of myelin Thickness of nerve Proximity to the brain A and B A, B and C Match the following anatomical structure with the description, answers may be used once, twice or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. frontal lobe thalamus parietal lobe occipital lobe temporal lobe 56. relay of sensory information 57. somatic sensory reception 58. mathematical calculation 59. visual processing 60. motor signal generation
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