Writing a scientific paper for journalism

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timer Asked: Dec 15th, 2018

Question description

Writing a piece of journalism from a scietific paper. The paper is already written in very easy manner where a non scientist can understand it. It just needs little change to make it a journalism writing.

1. Make the paragraphs short

2. Make it engaging to the audience

3. Collapsing and presenting the story upfront.

4. The first paragraph - The Lead - Used to catch the reader’s interest. May introduce drama, a human element, humor, or current event. Should contain the most interesting part of the story.


Running Head: SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTISTS Mushroom Poisoning: Transmission and Control in the U.S Student’s Name Institution Affiliation 1 SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 2 Mushroom Poisoning: Transmission and Control in the U.S Mushrooms and other organisms such as yeast, moulds, and mildews belong to a large group of classification called fungi. The fungal components are ideal sources of food and other relevant products such as pharmaceutical drugs, poisons, and industrial formulation components. Ideally, mushrooms are consumed majorly due to their provision of macronutrients and vitamins. Interestingly, mushrooms are widely accepted food both in America and the rest of the world. But, problems arise regarding the proper identification of the right mushrooms to consume since they are categorised into two groups; edible and poisonous. Many people have fallen victims of eating toxic mushrooms particularly the wild-type (naturally occurring). Devastatingly, there is no medication currently available for patients of mushroom poisoning. In this regard, the review compiles and characterizes potentially toxic mushroom susceptibility information in the U.S, reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) for the past 18 years. Materials and Methods The study involved obtaining all the NPDS reported mushroom exposures and dangers between 1999 and 2016. The data retrieved included age range, nature of disclosure (intentional or non-intentional), treatment under healthcare facility, and the symptoms of the poisoning. The mean age of those who died from the poisoning as well as the standard deviation was reported. Notably, NPDS categorises mushrooms depending on their primary toxin or effect. For instance, non-edible mushrooms produce hazardous products such as cyclopeptides, muscarine, and histamine. Regarding impact, NPDS reported hallucinogenic, digestive tract irritants, and diverse potentially toxic groups. The data obtained was then computed and statistically analyzed by use of ANOVA- one-way analysis of variance. Results SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 3 For the grace period of over 18 years, 133 700 cases of mushroom poisoning occurred in the NPDS. The number translates to 7428 patients per year. Ideally, most of the cases were recorded to have occurred through accidental consumption of mushrooms. The harm from this exposure was reported as either lacking or negligible (86% p<0.001). Regarding exposure to mushroom toxins, only 0.2% of the total cases were reported. The statistic is an indication of relative stability over the entire period of study. On the exposure by toxin group of people above 18, hallucinogenic mushrooms represented the highest number (95%). The group is also recorded to have done the ingestion intentionally rating them at 83%. The hallucinogenic mushrooms consumption has only recorded one fatal incident that involved a 19-year-old boy in 2002. Annually, fifty-two translating to 3 per year fatalities occurred particularly from the mushroom toxins called cyclopeptides, consumed by older adults. However, the consumption was unintentional (approximately 62%). Other toxins exuded by mushrooms such as opiates, bupropion, baclofen, and acetaminophen resulted in 8 fatalities. Arguably, there is a belief that these other toxins contributed more deaths when compared to ibotenic acid (one of the poisons in non-edible mushroom). Furthermore, the two other extreme dangers resulted from suicides. The exact category of mushrooms that led to the fatalities was only isolated in 12 cases. Discussion On approximation, three demise reports from mushroom poisoning are recorded in NPDS per year. The number is arguably low, per capita, when compared to the cases reported in different European countries including France and Italy. A good percentage of these deaths (68% to 89%) result from cyclopeptide- bearing mushrooms. Notably, the most common SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 4 population reported in fatal consumptions include older adults who mistake these types of mushrooms for edible varieties. With proper education, there is an attainable possibility to identify the toxic mushroom varieties, which at large extent would have prevented many of these deaths. Mushroom poisoning exhibits variable effects on individuals. Typically, the subjective effects depend on the amount eaten, preparation, uptake of drugs aiming to counter the toxin, regional and seasonal differences in the amounts of toxin. Moreover, the intangible conformation of people and how the components on consumed mushrooms are utilized in the body also play a role in the diversity of these effects. Notably, the varieties of results displayed in the NPDS clarify the disparity in the impact under reference. Agreeably, these mushrooms may tend to produce no effects to the individuals even after intentionally being eaten. The collections from Northwest Pacific of false morels justify this perception. However, the same false morels caused two deaths in the United States in the past 18 years. So, the U.S legislation recommends total avoidance of such category of mushrooms. More so, the effects resulting from the cyclopeptide-mushroom consumption vary too. For instance, in 2016, 16 patients in California who had consumed death cap mushrooms showed non-correlating urgencies towards liver transplant. Generally, the underage is more susceptible to death than the aged following the consumption of poisonous cyclopeptides. The hallucinogenic category of mushrooms is mostly consumed because of their ability to cause brain alterations regarding normal functioning. The United States categorizes these mushrooms under Schedule 1 controlled substances due to the possibility of its abuse. Despite the alarming number of cases reported by NPDS, where 47220 incidences resulted in the hospital visit especially in the emergency department, a vast majority of these SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 5 cases are harmless. Ideally, of those cases reported in NPDS, only 11 155 have been medically necessary. The data exudes consistency since even the NPDS reports between 1979 and 1998, show a similar trend. Essentially, mushroom identification calls for adequate time and practice, with direct mentorship in the field being considered vital. A vast number of field guides to the identification of ideal mushrooms are available. The guidelines combined with proper education can render mushroom hunting as a safe outdoor activity. The available data on already cited mushroom types enhance conscious harvesting within the environment. Vitally, focusing on the identification of toxin-producing mushrooms may be very helpful. Further, subsequent avoidance of their consumption may reduce and even prevent most of the deaths. Mushroom poisoning results from different varieties of the fungus, so, it is advisable to carry evidence of the ingested mushroom either through a picture or real sample, when seeking medication. Limitations The National Poisoning Data System is limited to the cases reported to the US poison centres by the concerned parties only. Several other reports are created from autopsies or other retrospective cases when called to action. However, there is a likelihood that many mushroom poisoning cases go unreported particularly the no or less harm category. The NPDS trends ranging from 2000 to 2015 show an increasing frequency for calls regarding patients treated in a hospital setting, whereas there is a decline in the outpatient unintentional exposure. Devastatingly, the chances are that deadly disclosures also go unreported. Therefore, the actual, incidental cases of mushroom poisoning cannot be accurately determined from this survey. The hallucinogen mushrooms are illicit substances in the United States due to their mindaltering capability. Therefore, the generalisation ability of conclusions drawn from this study is SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 6 limited since most of the exposures of this drug are not reported, a common trend for most illicit substances. The study is further defined by the discrepancies that occur between fatalities in NPDS and exposures. Typically, there is always an annual table that enlists total exposures and deaths and also a separate one listing deaths alone. The separate table usually contains more demographic information. The toxic groups exposed discordance in a kind despite both of them reporting 52 fatalities in three different instances. The paper is leaning towards a fatality-specific table in the NPDS yearly reports. Conclusion In sum, mushroom poisoning is a common trend not only in the United States of America but also but regions of the world. In the verge to utilize mushroom delicacies, individuals should always remember to go for the right variety to curb the intoxication effect that is closely connected to it on several occasions. Importantly, mushroom hunters should be considerate of the provisions regarding the identification and safety when handling mushrooms since the effects range from being less harmful to deadly. Moreover, the NPDS should revise their systems to accommodate more reporting of mushroom poisoning all over the country for accurate statistics regarding the survey to be available. Information is power. Through public education and awareness, the American society can achieve a generation that is safe from mushroom poisoning. SCIENCE WRITING FOR NON-SCIENTIST 7 References Austin, E., Tirona, R., Thompson, M., & Mackenzie, C. (2017, January). Cyclosporine as a novel treatment for amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning. In CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY(Vol. 55, No. 7, pp. 711-711). 2-4 PARK SQUARE, MILTON PARK, ABINGDON OR14 4RN, OXON, ENGLAND: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. Schmutz, M., Carron, P. N., Yersin, B., & Trueb, L. (2018). Mushroom poisoning: a retrospective study concerning 11-years of admissions in a Swiss Emergency Department. Internal and emergency medicine, 13(1), 59-67. Vişneci, E. F., Acar, D., Özdamar, E. N., Güven, M., & Patat, M. (2017). Mushroom Poisoning At An Emergency Department From Middle Anatolia: 168 Cases From 2 Years.
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