Mar 30th, 2015
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Pennsylvania School of Business
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The notes include types of scales, sources of measurement differences,the characteristics of sound measurement, types of validity, reliability, and finally threats to reliability and validity

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Lecture 7MEASUREMENTBy the end of this lesson the student should be:-i. Describe the common rating scales used in research.ii. Discuss the scales used for measuring attitudes.iii. Discuss the sources of measurement errorsIntroductionIn everyday usage, measurement occurs and verifies all the variables. In a dictionary sense, to measure is to discover the extent, dimensions, quantity, or capacity of something, especially by comparison with a standard.In research, measurement involves assigning numbers to empirical entities or events in conformity with some defined rules. Specifically it involves a selection of some empirical events, designing a set of rules, and applying the set of rules to the events.Generally measurement is concerned with the assignment of numbers to observable empirical factors as used to capture the responses.Types of scalesA scale is a device for measuring magnitude or quantity of a variable. Scales may be a series of steps, degrees, a scheme of grade amounts from the highest to the lowest, an indicator of relative size. Scales may also designate appropriate categories such as age, sex etc.There are 4 types of scales commonly used as levels of measurement:-1. Nominal or categorical dataThese are the most commonly collected and used data types in business and social research. This data type involves collection of data on variable that can be grouped into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories. After this partition

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