HYDROGEOLOGY notes

Jun 28th, 2015
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Hydrology: study of water - occurrence, distribution, movement and chemistry of all waters of the earth. Hydrogeology: study of the interrelationships of geologic materials, geologic processes with water.

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HYDROGEOLOGYHydrology: study of water - occurrence, distribution, movement and chemistry of all waters of the earth. Hydrogeology: study of the interrelationships of geologic materials, geologic processes with water.Estimate of the water balance of the worldParameterVolume by %Oceans97.2%Ice caps and glaciers2.14%groundwater0.61%soil moisture0.005%lakes0.017%rivers0.0001% Hydrologic cycleOnly a small % of the worlds total water is available to humans as fresh water. More than 98% of the available fresh water is groundwater, which far exceeds the volume of surface water.Precipitation that falls on the land surface enters various pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Some water may be temporarily stored on the land surface as ice and snow or water in puddles, which is known as depression storage. Some of the rain or melting snow will drain across the land to a stream channel. This is termed overland flow. If the soil surface is porous, some of the rain or melting snow will seep into the ground by a process called infiltration. The infiltrated water can flow laterally in the soil zone as interflow or percolate to beneath the water-table and become part of the groundwater. Water flowing in a stream can come from overland flow or from groundwater that has seeped into the streambed (baseflow). The total flow in a stream is referred to as runoff.Vadose zone/ zone of aerationThis is the zone below the land surface were soil pores contain both air and w

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