Glossary of Volcanic and Geologic Terms

Jun 28th, 2015
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'A'a: Hawaiian word used to describe a lava flow whose surface is broken into rough angular fragments. Click here to view a photo of 'a'a. Accessory: A mineral whose presence in a rock is not essential to the proper classification of the rock. Accidental: Pyroclastic rocks that are formed from fragments of non-volcanic rocks or from volcanic rocks

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Glossary of Volcanic and Geologic Terms'A'a: Hawaiian word used to describe a lava flow whose surface is broken into rough angular fragments. Click here to view a photo of 'a'a.Accessory: A mineral whose presence in a rock is not essential to the proper classification of the rock.Accidental: Pyroclastic rocks that are formed from fragments of non-volcanic rocks or from volcanic rocks not related to the erupting volcano.Accretionary Lava Ball: A rounded mass, ranging in diameter from a few centimeters to several meters, [carried] on the surface of a lava flow (e.g., 'a'a) or on cinder-cone slopes [and formed] by the molding of viscous lava around a core of already solidified lava.Acid: A descriptive term applied to igneous rocks with more than 60% silica (SiO2).Active Volcano: A volcano that is erupting. Also, a volcano that is not presently erupting, but that has erupted within historical time and is considered likely to do so in the future.Agglutinate: A pyroclastic deposit consisting of an accumulation of originally plastic ejecta and formed by the coherence of the fragments upon solidification. Alkalic: Rocks which contain above average amounts of sodium and/or potassium for the group of rocks for which it belongs. For example, the basalts of the capping stage of Hawaiian volcanoes are alkalic. They contain more sodium and/or potassium than the shield-building basalts that make the bulk of the volcano.Andesite: Volcanic rock (or lava) characteristically medium da

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