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The sedimentary rocks of the earth´s crust are arranged in layers or strata, which were originally deposited one upon the other so that they become younger from the base up. The succession of strata can be compared to the pages of a book, which are also arranged in a specific order. Closer examination of the strata reveals a number of features:

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UNIVERSITY OF CHILEDepartment of GeologyStratigraphyJ.P. le RouxWith acknowledgment to numerous sources, including: Stratigraphic Principles and Practice (J.M. Weller, 1960); Stratigraphy and Sedimentation (W.C. Krumbein & L.L. Sloss, 1963); A Guide to Stratigraphic Classification, Terminology and Procedure (H.D. Hedberg, ed., 1975); The Geology of Stratigraphic Sequences (A.D. Miall, 1997), Terrigenous Clastic Depositional Systems (W.E. Galloway & D.K. Hobday, 1983), Physical Geology (N.K. Coch & A. Ludman, 1991), Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (G.Nichols, 1999) and references quoted therein. IndexA. Stratigraphic Principles1. Introduction a. General concepts b. Definitions i) Strata ii) Stratigraphic units iii) Stratigraphy iv) Stratigraphic terminology v) Stratigraphic nomenclature vi) Stratotypes vii) Type locality viii) Type area2. The Origin of Stratification a. Physical controls b. Chemical controls c. Biological controls3. Working Hypotheses a. Superposition i) Shape of lithosomes ii) Sedimentary structures iii) Trace fossils iv) Tectonic structures b. Uniformitarianism c. Biologic succession e. Catastrophism f. Relative ages4. Geologic Time a. Measurements of time i) Radiometric dating methods ii) Other dating methods b. Geologic time scale i) Eons ii) Eras iii) Periods

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