GROUNDWATER

Jun 28th, 2015
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Hydrogeology deals with occurrence, storage and movement of groundwater in the subsurface. All water below the earth surface is referred to as the groundwater or subsurface water.

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Notes on Engineering Geology for III year B.Tech ( Civil ) compiled by Dr G.SUBBARAO M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D., C.S.M.UNIT - VII: GROUNDWATERHydrogeology deals with occurrence, storage and movement of groundwater in the subsurface. All water below the earth surface is referred to as the groundwater or subsurface water. The surface water percolates or infilters into the ground through the fractures/cracks and its distribution and movement in the subsurface is controlled by the Porosity and Permeability of the geological rock materials such as soils, rocks etc.Porosity in the rock formations facilitates the storage while permeability contributes to movement of groundwater. Based on the porosity and permeability characteristics all geological formations are named as aquifers, aquiclude, aquitard and aquifuse.Aquifers: A geological formation that yield significant quantities of water has been defined as an aquifer. A few Sedimentary rocks are permeable considered as good aquifers ( eg: porous Sandstone, gravels, cavernous limestones ) while Igneous and Metamorphic rocks are relatively impermeable and hence serve as poor aquifers Aquiclude: A rock formation has porosity but no permeability, then it is called aquiclude. That means it can store water and the flow of water does not take place. Eg: clay.Aquitard: A saturated but poorly permeable strata that impedes groundwater movement and does not yield water fre

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