geology : PETROLOGY

Jun 28th, 2015
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The study of rocks in all their aspects including their mineralogies, structures / textures ( systematic description of rocks in hand specimen and thin sections ); their origin and their relationships to other rocks.

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Notes on Engineering Geology for B.Tech (civil ) - III year students?..compiled by Dr G. SUBBARAO M.Sc. ,M.Phil. ,Ph.D., C.S.MUNIT: 3 PETROLOGYThe study of rocks in all their aspects including their mineralogies, structures / textures ( systematic description of rocks in hand specimen and thin sections ); their origin and their relationships to other rocks. A Rock is a mineral aggregate consist of one mineral or many. Role of Magma: If the molten material is below the Earth's surface, it is called magma or else it comes out about the surface , it is known as lava. Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid, and gas. The main elements in magma are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg). However, two major molecules found in magma that controls the properties of the magma. These two molecules are silica (SiO2) and water (H2O). Silica comprises as much as 75 percent of the magma.When rock melts deep underground, the magma rises through the earth's crust because the molten rock is less dense than solid rock. In many cases, the magma is unable to reach the surface, and it will cool in place many miles under the ground. This underground cooling produces the largest crystal sizes, because it cools more slowly. Sometimes the magma extrudes onto the surface, either on land or underwater. The heat generated by processes such as radioactive miner

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