soft ground tunnelling

Jun 28th, 2015
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Tunnelling is soft, water saturated gound began with Marc Brunel when he invented the principle of shield tunnelling. His shield consisted of 12 independent cells on three levels in which workers hand excavated the ground behind a secure wall of ‘poling boards’. One board would be removed to provise access for digging, after which it would be replaced

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Bracing ans ShoringInvolves any method used to prevent the collapse of groundsurrounding an excavation, built top-down as excavation proceedsIt is divided into different types:-1. Shotcrete2. Sheet piling3. Lagging 4. Caisson wallTunnel Excavation in Soft Ground ConditionsTunnelling is soft, water saturated gound began with Marc Brunel when he invented the principle of shield tunnelling. His shield consisted of 12 independent cells on three levels in which workers hand excavated the ground behind a secure wall of poling boards. One board would be removed to provise access for digging, after which it would be replaced and pushed forward by hydraulic jacks to re-engage the face support.The shield was 22 high and 38 wide, and enabled 36 miners to work the face at one time.Problems faced during tunnel excavation:-Floading was a constant problem which resulted in men to drown.Advantages of shield tunnelling:-1. Tunel construction can be performed as one step at its full dimension.2. Constant support is provided to the advancing tunnel even though it takes the form of a moving system.3. Omission of temporary support is compensated for by virtue of the immed

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