BASIC CONCEPTS IN SOCIOLOGY

Jun 28th, 2015
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Academy of Art University
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In this unit we introduce you to basic concepts in sociology. These concepts include that of society itself. The social group is discussed, as it is basic to society. We then discuss status and role, which are crucial concepts. This unit also introduces the conoepts of social institution and sociological method. Further, we explain various aspects of culture including folkways and norms. The unit rounds off with explanations of social change and social control. This is an important unit for grasping some ofthe basic concepts of sociology.

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93Chapter 5LINES AND ANGLESLines andAnglesdehsTilRbEuCpeN erbott5.1 INTRODUCTIONYou already know how to identify different lines, line segments and angles in a givenshape. Can you identify the different line segments and angles formed in the followingfigures? (Fig 5.1)(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)Fig 5.1Can you also identify whether the angles made are acute or obtuse or right?Recall that a line segment has two end points. If we extend the two end points in eitherdirection endlessly, we get a line. Thus, we can say that a line has no end points. On the otherhand, recall that a ray has one end point (namely its starting point). For example, look at thefigures given below:on(ii)(i)(iii)Fig 5.2Here, Fig 5.2 (i) shows a line segment, Fig 5.2 (ii) shows a line and Fig 5.2 (iii) is thatof a ray. A line segment PQ is generally denoted by the symbol PQ , a line AB is denoted byJJJGthe symbol AB and the ray OP is denoted by OP . Give some examples of line segments andrays from your daily life and discuss them with your friends.94MATHEMATICSAgain recall that an angle is formed when lines or line segments meet. In Fig 5.1,observe the corners. These corners are formed when two lines or line segments intersectat a point. For example, look at the figures given below:(i)deh(ii)Fig 5.3sTilRbEuCpeN erbottIn Fig 5.3 (i) line segments AB and BC intersect at B to form angle ABC, and againline segment

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