working of planning_and_control

Jun 28th, 2015
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Span of Control: Optimum number of subordinates whose performance can be effectively and conveniently managed and controlled by the manager. Control by Exception: Major exceptions from the established norms and standards should be reported to the management.

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CONTROLLINGIt is a comparisonverification process ofactual performance withplanned performanceandthethePrinciples of ControlSpan of Control:Optimum number of subordinates whoseperformancecanbeeffectivelyandconveniently managed and controlled by themanager.Control by Exception:Major exceptions from the established normsand standards should be reported to themanagement.Steps of the Controllingsystem1. Establishing standards:Standards should be predeterminedStandards should be attainableStandards should be concerned withresultsShould be measurable and verifiableShould be fixed in quantitative terms2. Measurement of performance:Measurement of actual performance Comparison of actual results with thedesired results Detecting control points Remedial measures:a) removing performance barriersb) preventing reoccurrence of barriers etc.ImportanceBasis for effective planningHelps in coordinationHelpful in decentralizationSource of motivationEvaluation of actual performanceUseful in large scale business unitsLimitationsGovernment policiesTechnological changesExpensive processEffective only when quick reporting isdone

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